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hundred and seventy-three feet was was placed in an elongated perforated reached, when some twenty thousand tubular case, attached to about fourteen pounds having been spent on the experi-pounds of metal, with a conical terminament, the towns-people's patience became tion downwards. This being attached to exhausted. Despite the advice of the sa- one of Sir William Thomson's patent seavants who visited the town with the Brit- sounding registers, carrying three hun. ish Association in 1846, to " go on," Sir dred fathoms of steel wire and registers, Roderick Murchison being among those was placed in the mouth of the borewho inspected the works and a carefully shaft; and for upwards of fourteen minkept diagram of the geological formation utes, with but several slight obstructions passed through, and who, speaking on the in the upper chalk, passed steadily dowo spot, said, from his special experience of to twelve hundred and ten feet, where, the Hampshire, “that there was a subterra. chalk ooze being met with, it was thought Dean river flowing beneath them, there advisable to take the thermometrical ob could be no sort of doubt," in 1851 the servations. The temperature of the air well was closed.
being forty-nine degrees Fahrenheit, and The town not being content with its of the surface-water in the well fifty-five water-supply, which practically comes degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature at from the Itchen River, after passing Win-the bottom, after thirty-five minutes' stay, chester and several villages on its course when the hauling-up began, was registered to the Southampton Water, and the ques- as seventy-two degrees Fahrenheit, or tion coming before the corporation again twenty-three degrees above that of the coincident with the recent visit of the outer air. The eventual result, with the British Association, advantage was taken interesting facts dependent on it, cannot of its presence once more to ventilate the now be long delayed, though the subject. As the result, the corporation tractor for continuing the work, having have resolved to spend a sum of one cleared the bore apparently to its bottom, thcasand pounds or more experimentally has come upon an obstruction which, for in continuing the boring, it being believed the moment, he seems unable to pene. that it will be necessary to go no deeper trate, and special professional advice is than from two hundred and twenty to being sought in the matter. three hundred and twenty feet more in order to reach the lower greensand; the upper greensand, the geologists aver, being only from twenty to fifty feet below the boring, and the upper greensand and
From The Spectator. the gault but from one hundred to one
A SUMMER DAY'S JOURNEY. hundred and fifty feet each in thickness. A Few days ago, a party of English
The preliminary preparations for con- folks, three of whom were ladies, went (by tinuing the experiments have proved more Visp and St. Nicklaus) from Geneva to favorable than even the most sanguine Zermatt, with the intention, after making had hoped. When the well was opened, a short sojourn there, of returning by the everything was found as it was left thirty- road they had come. They had no idea one years ago, the difference being that of doing anothing more adventurous in the water had risen somewhat higher, and the way of climbing than going up the had reached the staging where the boring. Gorner Grat, a feat that men sometimes tools were fixed, forty feet from the sur perform on mule-back, and women in a face. At the request of the underground chaise d porteur. But it is hardly possi. temperature committee of the British ble to do so much, - to behold, near at Association, two local gentlemen, on the hand, the “dark, frowning beauties of well being opened, descended to this the Matterhorn, the glittering peaks of stage, and, to their great delight, found the Dent Blanche, the Cima di Jazi, Cas. the bore practically unchoked to within a tor and Pollux, and the Dufourspitze; tlie hundred feet of the bottom, which in their imposing masses of the Monte Rosa, the opinion consists of a deposit of ooze. Breithorn, the Rothhorn, the Weissthor, The association had forwarded for the and the Matterjoch, — without wanting to experiment a Negretti and Zambra's min- go further and see more; and it did not ing thermometer, inclosed in a copper require much solicitation on the part of a case, and specially tested and corrected. guide, who bore the picturesque and pe
To protect this instrument, and also as a culiarly Swiss name of Aufdenblattern, to sinking-weight to carry it through any persuade the men of the party to attempt possible obstructions in the bore-shaft, it i the ascent of the Breithoro. Then some.
body suggested that we might cross over mules. As we went on, the sky, which at tbe Théodule Pass, into the Val Tour. two o-clock was clear and lighted up by a panche, and return to Geneva by Aosta brilliant moon, became overcast, the and the Great St. Bernard. The guide- moon disappeared, and the sun remained books said that the journey presented no invisible. Only once was his position serious difficulty, and that it was often un. marked in the eastern horizon, by a purdertaken by ladies, who generally rode to ple haze; then all was gloomy again, dark the foot of the great Théodule glacier, clouds stretched from peak to peak withwhence the walk to the inn at Le Breuil out a single break, and the Matterhorn, is under five hours. This proposition Rothhorn, Breithorn, and Lyskamm were finding general acceptance, it was re. hidden in a sombre haze. Shortly after solved accordingly; but Aufdenblattern crossing the brawling Furggenbach, we being of opinion that the ascent of the entered a wild and wind-swept ravine, and Breithorn and the Matterjoch (Théodule) from the mist that rolled down its sides on consecutive days might be too much, there came a few flakes of snow, an omi. we arranged to substitute for the former nous bode of which, however, the guides excursion a visit to the Schwarz-See and made light; they still thought that the the Hörnli. “If we felt equal to it," said day, if not brilliant, would be sufficiently the guide, we could ascend the Breithorn fine to admit of the Matterjoch being from the Matterjoch, and still reach Le crossed in com rt. After riding and Breuil the same evening." Going down walking some three hours, we reached a the Riffelberg, we met a German student point — about thirty minutes from the foot and an American tourist (whose acquain. of the great Théodule glacier — where, tance we had made at the Mont Cervin as the snow lay rather deep in the holHôtel), accompanied by a guide, and lows, it became necessary to dismiss the equipped for an Alpine excursion. They mules. They had scarcely gone when it were on their way to the Riffel Hôtel, began to snow in real earnest, and we where they were to stay the night, and found it desirable to take refuge under an start the following morning for the Breit. overhanging rock, and there discuss what horn. They expected to be back at Zer- was best to be done, - whether we should matt the next afternoon.
retreat. Aufdenblattern All this time the weather, if not bril. thought we had better retreat. If the liant, was passable, but Thursday, July party were composed exclusively of 19th, began gloomily, and ended with guides and experienced mountaineers, he rain. At the Schwarz-See a few flakes of said, he would advise going on; seeing, snow fell; the Matterhorn was barely however, that we had ladies with us, the visible, and the Hörnli so shrouded in more prudent course was to return to mist, that we did not think it worth while Zermait. So we left the shelter of the to go to the top. In the evening we held friendly rock and set our faces towards a consultation with the guides as to the the valley; but we had not gone far when feasibility of our projected journey. the wind fell somewhat, the snow abated, Both thought the morrow would be fine; and the signs became so much more fa. the barometer, though low, was steady, vorable that the two guides, after a long and it was finally decided that if it did discussion, came to the conclusion that not rain, we should rise at two, and start we might safely resuine our journey. at three. Everything was ordered ac. The Théodule hut was only two-and-acordingly, and, the skies being propitious, half hours distant, it would surely be fine the night-porter roused us a few minutes for that time, and once there, we should before two. Half an hour later, we were have food, fire, and shelter. On this we breakfasting by candle-light, and at three retraced our steps a second time, and sharp all was ready for a start. Our party were soon climbing a steep snow.slope; consisted of three ladies on mules, three and after toiling up a boulder-strewn men on foot, two guides, and a porter. In moraine, we reached the foot of the gla. ordinary circumstances, one guide would cier. Then the weather became bad have been enough; but as one or two of again, and the further we went the worse the ladies might possibly require help in it grew. But we were now four hours crossing the glaciers, Aufdenblattern had from Zermatt, only two from the hut, and suggested that it would be well to take a it was easier to go on than to go back; second guide, and the sequel proved the and we went on, on through the blind wisdom of the precaution.
ing snow, which the fierce foehn drove We walked fast, occasionally taking a right in our faces, down our necks, and near cut, and always keeping up with the up our coat-sleeves. Every hundred yards
or so we turned to draw breath and rest a hurrying away in order to take advantage few minutes on our alpenstocks. Six of of the track we had made, before it bethe party were roped together, one of the came obliterated by the snow. The hut, guides leading; the other guide brought in reality a small auberge, is about sixteen up the rear with a lady who required all feet by ten; at either end of it there is a his help. The view before and behind did small bedroom, each containing three not extend more than fifty yards; nothing beds; and after thawing, our beards, could be seen but snow, and as the mist which were frozen solid, and getting some settled down more and more, the guides thing to eat, most of us went to bed, seemed to grow uncertain as to their while our clothes were dried. whereabouts. They stopped, looked anx- Until four o'clock in the afternoon the iously round, and tried the echo. It was storm continued with undiminished via an anxious moment; for to more than one lence, and there seemed every probability of the party a few hours' exposure to that of our having to pass the night in the biting blast and blinding snow might have auberge; but at length the snow ceased, been fatal. But a few minutes later an the wind went down, the sun came out, upright stick which served as a guide-post and the guides urged us to profit by the was perceived, then the dark rocks of the lucid interval to get down to Le Breuil Little Matterhorn loomed dimly through The crossing of the Lower Théodule
and cloud, and Aufdenblattern glacier was not unpleasant, for though the cheered us with the hope that in half
an snow lay deep, the descent was easy and hour more we should reach the hut. But the view superb. But we had not left the the pull up to the hut was the hardest of glacier-foot many minutes when the heav. all. The path was steep, the snow lay in ens were again darkened, mists clothed wreaths, at every step we sank up to the the mountain-tops and rose up from the knees, the wind felt like a wall, and if the ravines, the rain came down in torrents, hut had been an hour further off, some of and we reached the Hôtel du Mont Cervin, us might never have reached it at all. At at Le Breuil, wet to the skin, yet safe and the door we met the German student and sound. In the salon of the little inn, we the American traveller. They had utterly found, sitting before a blazing fire, three failed in their attempt to ascend the Englishmen, who had been beaten in an Breithorn, been nearly lost in a snow. attempt to reach Zermatt by the Cime storm, and, unable to get down to Zer. Blanche, — and so ended our summer matt, had passed the night in the hut. day's journey. They had seen us coming, and were now
JACK KETCH'S KITCHEN, NEWGATE. — Ins and the Press Yard. The last-named division its two large caldrons the hangman boiled, in - which must not be confounded with the a compound of tar, pitch, and oil, the limbs of press-room - was situated behind Phænis those who were executed and quartered for Court. It was devoted to State offenders, and treason, before fixing them upon the spikes to criminals who could be mulcted for their at London Bridge and the city gates. The accommodation. So lucrative proved the “kitchen ” was situated between the female profits derived from this source that Pitt, the debtors' ward above and a wretched cell, governor, who was tried for high treason, but “Tangier,” beneath. In a lower depth still, acquitted, on the charge of aiding Forster's underground and unlighted, was the Stone escape after the "'15," had paid £5,000 for Hold. “Built and paved with stone, without the privilege of farming the Press Yard. One beds or any other sort of protection from the of the Jacobites who was incarcerated at that cold, this dreadful hole, accounted the most period avers that a greater sum was charged dark and dismal in the prison, was made the for one room there than would have paid the receptacle of such miserable wretches as could rent of the best house in St. James's Square not pay the customary fees." The Lower or Piccadilly for several years. Some dark Ward adjoined the Stone Hold, “though in and ill-ventilated wards below the ground-level what degree of latitude it was situated,” says composed the common side - the ordinary Ned Ward, with a happy neglect of geometri- quarters for both malefactors and poor debtors cal precision, “I cannot positively demon-Two rooms, the Waterman's Hall and Ms strate, unless it lay ninety degrees beyond the Lady's Hold, were allotted to the female pris. north pole ; for instead of being dark there oners. From the former, being near the but half the year, it is dark all the year round.” poster in the gate, they were permitted to The main building, facing the Old Bailey, in-beg, like the male felons, and in the same cluded the master's side, the common side, manner, of the passers-by.
Fifth Series, Volume XLIIL
No. 2049. – September 29, 1883.
771 777 790 798
CONTENTS. I. RALPH WALDO EMERSON : AN ETHICAL STUDY,.
Fortnightly Review, II. THE WIZARD's Son. Part XV.,
Macmillan's Magazine, III. LETTERS FROM GALILEE,
Blackwood's Magazine, IV. ALONG THE SILVER STREAK. Part VI., All The Year Round, V. ON A NEGLECTED BOOK,
Macmillan's Magazine, VI. MEMORIES OF ISCHIA,
803 811 823
POETRY. “ ACROSS THE ESTUARY, SOUTH DE- A DRIVE
7701 fHE WOOD-Nymph,
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"ACROSS THE ESTUARY, SOUTH DEVON.” | Out and beyond the steady light is shining, Vague sounds are stirring in the outer world, which from the steady heart no mist can veil, Which wake an echo in the world within me;
Bright beyond man's divinest of divining, The frowning mists across the valley hurled
Where all his mists of thought must melt and
fail, To saddened musings by the casement win me: And on my rushing thoughts are borne along
And, as e'en now the clouds roll off the shore, The waves of sudden and unpurposed song.
Obscure the homes of promise nevermore.
Portlemouth, August 18th. But now, the sun painted in artist-splendor
Spectator. The varied outlines of the sea and shore ; The sloping woods were bathed in hues so ten
der, That master's canvas ne'er such glories wore; Yet where enrobed in purple gold shone they,
A DRIVE. Now spreads a monotone of lifeless gray..
THROUGH the thick air the tall majestic trees
Loomed like gaunt ghosts; the leafless The great enchanter's momentary wand
hedges showed Darkens the landscape and the mind as one ; A faint dim line; there was no breath of The headlands face me o'er the bay beyond
breeze, Robbed both of us together of our sun;
No fleck of sunshine on the long straight And out of unguessed caverns creeps the rain, road; To touch the spirit with a nameless pain. While with a steady, muffled, rhythmic beat,
Fell the dull echo of the horses' feet. Yon white and flickering sail, which flashed but now
And all the while through the long leagues. I Across the bright waves blue as Brenda's eyes,
- know Droops wet and wearied o'er the vessell's rise. I thought I heard his voice in accents low,
One whom I love seemed sitting at my side ; On hueless wastes caught by a swift surprise, Which clouds engendered of the vaporous sea
I thought he watched my lips as I replied; Bring o'er the startled scene to master me.
Nor feared nor marvelled as we swept along,
Till with a start and clash of wheels we Seemed whispering of untired love's quiet
The red light glimmered from the open door ; A silver girdle linking ours to these ;
Over Paradise the dark veil dropped, And for home's message to that shore from
And all the world was as it was before, this,
Ere through the hush of the November weather, The lapping waters bore a greeting kiss.
We two had that sweet mystic drive together,
AU The Year Round. But now — and so but now - life seemed to
High purpose for a marriage-robe of power,
THE lime-trees shed their blossoms, and the
Filled the light air that dallied round the Is this, then, life? its pledges sharply broken,
grove; Even at their fairest and most golden link;
The honeysuckle tendrils deftly wove Do they the fate of rosy dreams betoken,
A net to catch them sweets on sweets intent. Those emerald ripples turned to sullen ink?
The thyme, scarce crushed (for she a-tiptoe And were it wiser anchorless to roam,
went), Than nail high hopes to the frail walls of Breathed a faint tribute of its dying love, home?
Clinging about her footsteps as they move,
And all the wood in smiling homage bent. Off with such burrs of thought! the very spell Fair as young birds in early spring, one hand Which bids me throw these fancies on the Led in rose-fetters a new-captured fawn, page
The other held a palm leaf, from the stream Awakes new chords and brighter songs to That trickled through the thicket, - like the swell
wand The happy burden of on-coming age,
Of some enchantress, gracious as the Dawn And cloudland's fretful shapes to soar above She passed, this Oread of a poet's dream. To the fixed firmament of God and love,