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upper classes, who are thereby inclined to culty to be distinguished from absolute pass over to Episcopacy; on the other submission, in the first paragraph of his hand it deprives the fine arts of their discussion of the principle of association, highest aims, which they can attain only cuts off the ground from this theory as a by consecration to the service of God. foundation on which any really scientific In this view, it is pleasant to observe how account of our æsthetic sentiments can the resumption of the realm of the beau- be raised: “It is," says he,“ the province tiful into the domain of a reasonable the. of association to impart to one thing the ology has recently come, as was to have agreeable or disagreeable effects of anbeen expected, from the bosom of the other; but association can never account Anglican Church; the well-known sermon for the origin of a class of pleasures dif
Nature,” by Dr. Mozley,* and the ferent in kind from all the others we excellent little volume on the “ Natural know. If there was nothing originally Theology of Beauty," by Tyrwhitt, being and intrinsically beautiful, the associating authoritative voices on this text that will principle would have no materials on not fail to find an echo in the public which it could operate. mind.t
This is sense, a peculiarly Scottish virOne observation we feel bound to make tue, over which in that climate metaphysi. in concluding, that, so far as the history cal subtleties and twinkling sophistries of æsthetical philosophy in this country never obtain anything but a very partial is concerned, it would be altogether a and fleeting triumph. To Hamilton we mistake to confound the negative ideas have already referred; and Dr. Reid, the on the philosophy of taste which we have most authoritative spokesman of the Calenoted in the English, and more particu- donian philosophy, in his “Essay on larly in the Scottish people, with the doc- Beauty;" stands stoutly up against the trine taught by the few writers that we tendency then beginning to manifest itself can boast of on æsthetical science. The as an outgrowth of some of Locke's loose wide reception which the shallow associa. propositions - viz., the tendency to de. tion theory obtained for a season among prive a large class of our noblest sentithe wits of the modern Athens was no ments and most elevating ideas of all doubt a striking proof of how little the objective value, by fixing the attention atinosphere which Jeffrey and Alison exclusively on one of the two factors embreathed partook of that element which ployed in their production. He also disgave elevation to the work of Phidias tinctly emphasizes an essential excellence and the philosophy of Plato. Greek, as or perfection possessed by all objects
. Sydney Smith said, never marched in admired as beautiful, and along with this great force to the north of the Tweed, admiration he willingly pays homage to certainly never leaped over the outer the divine source from which all excellence cincture of the soul of any thorough-bred proceeds. And before Reid, Hutche. Scotch Calvinist; but the special form of son, professor of mental philosophy in æsthetical scepticism preached by the Glasgow, had given prominence in his association sophists, so far from being an " Essay on Beauty" to the great principle expression of the general character of of uniformity in variety, which, as the Scottish æsthetical science, runs directly dominant principle in the framework, so in the teeth of the best utterances on the to speak, of all æsthetical science, we subject, both before the bewilderment have in this paper stated as a necessary produced by the sophistical glory and expression of the unity which belongs to after it. Even Dugald Stewart, who takes mind. No less decided is this early off bis hat to Alison in a style with diffi. writer in his assertion of the divine source
to which the cunningly marshalled array • Sermons preached before the University of Oxford, of lovely objects in nature is ultimately to by J. B. Mozley, D.D. 2nd edition, London. 1876.
# The Natural Theology of Natural Beauty, by the be referred. Coming to more recent Rev. St. John Tyrwhitt. London. 1882. Mr. Tyr- times, Fergusson, whose name is a symwhitt sums up the conclusion of his book shortly thus: 1. “That visible Nature represents the design, or a
bol for catholicity and comprehensiveness small part of it, of a living soul; and that that design in architectural art, complains how "not includes our welfare." And
only architecture but all the arts have 2. “That Nature does this by enabling man to observe in the world exterior to himself and in himself (a) structure, through scientific analysis, and (3) beauty as • Works of Dugald Stewart. Edinburgh, 1855. in immediate form or color, through Art" - words Vol. v., p. 243. On the Beautiful, ch. vi. than which I could not desire any more succinctly and + Reid's Essays on the Intellectual Powers, essay more effectively to summarize the doctrine of which I | VIII. have endeavored to sketch the outline in the present I An Inquiry into the Original of Beauty and Virtuc.
London, 1759. 3rd edition.
been cursed by that lowest and most un. erly speaking, labor under a natural incareasoning source of beauty, association pacity of comprehending. When prosaic a principle which teaches men to throw a and matter-of-fact persons meddle with veil of beauty over some objects in the the ideal, they either write nonsense, or mind of particular persons, which to others very inadequate, very frigid, and alto. appear commonplace or even ugly."* In gether soulless sense. In contrast with the year 1835 Dr. MacVicar, of Moffat, MacVicar and Shairp, in whose pages gave to the world his extremely ingenious the Three Graces, the true,, the good, and and finely discriminating book on the the beautiful, in native sisterhood twine
Philosophy of the Beautiful,” † in which their sacred dance together before the he announced the very principle for which divine source of all good, 'tis sad to see we have made stout contention in this the Scottish philosophy in one of its latest paper – viz., “that the elements of beauty phases reverting to the mere tabulation of by which the eye is flattered or the ear uninspired groups, without any reference regaled are as determinate as any propo- to the one great source, which alone is sitions in mathematics." And with re- able to impart to these groups the unity gard to the right which ästhetical science and the significance which they undoubt. has to take place with the sublimest veri. edly possess. When such a writer as ties of a reasonable theology, he says: Professor Bain in his work “On the “If there be, as it appears there is, a Emotions and the Will,” discourses on responsiveness and agreement between ideal beauty, admirable as is the talent of nature and the soul, this only proves the various kinds which the book displays, upity or sameness of the Creator of both. one always feels as in a church where the But if we refuse to grant a Creator, then walls are curiously decorated with sacred all remains an incomprehensible mystery; paintings, but where, in turning round, and, indeed, there is an end of all philoso. the spectator finds the pedestal in the phy. The idea of beauty, the beautiful in centre of the shrine without the goddess. essence, must be in the creative mind.” | Always and everywhere, and in all matAod in perfect harmony with this, we ters, as Aratus says in the prefatory lines find Principal Shairp, in his work on the to his book on astronomy, we mortals are “Poetic Interpretation of Nature,” I writ- in need of Jove — Trávra dè Alòs kexpņueda ing as follows: “Poetry has three objects Tuvres — but specially in the contemplation
man, nature, and God. The presence of the beauty and grandeur of the uniof this last pervades all great poetry, verse, which, if it is not felt indeed to be whether it lists an eye of reverence di- a temple to worship in, must dwindle rectly towards himself, or the presence be down into a toy-shop to amuse children, only indirectly felt, as the centre to which or a farce for fools to laugh at. all deep thoughts about man and nature
JOHN STUART BLACKIE. ultimately tend. Regarded in this view, the field over which poetry ranges becomes co-extensive with the domain of philosophy, indeed of theology.” In these
From Longman's Magazine. words we find the better nature of the Scottish mind blossoming out, unhampered by the sharp fence of scholastic dogma in which it has so long been im. It was an awful night by sea and land; prisoned; and in Principal Shairp's book all the day long a fierce north-wester had altogether there is an aroma of fine æs. swept across the Atlantic driving the tbetic interest, which can be found in a waves before it with angry fury, till at treatise on poetry only when the writer last, checked in their wild course, they is himself a poet.' No man can write well roared and broke in columns of foam on on any subject of which he has not had a the bare and savage cliffs of north Corn. living experience; and it must always be wall. Trevenna, which, unlike many of regarded as a misfortune when persons of the villages on that coast, does not nestle a prosaic and utilitarian habit of mind feel down in a valley between the rocks, but themselves called upon to put forth judi- lies exposed on a bleak headland, felt the cial utterances on a matter which they can full sweep of the storm. only know at second hand, or, more prop. Some ten ininutes' walk from the village
lay the Port, a singular baven; for, beAn Historical Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty sides a buge rock in its very midst, it was in Art. London, 1849. t Edinburgh : Edmonston & Douglas. 1855.
lined with boulders, whilst the few fisher. Edinburgh: Douglas. 1877.
men's boats that belonged to the place
were hauled on to a sort of shelf half-way in a corner of the fireplace, every now and up the cliff. There was no such thing as then looking out of the window from pushing off a boat at Trevenna, it could which Tamzin had drawn back the curonly be let down by a windlass from the tain, shaking her head at the weather in a rocky ledge at high tide.
kind of deprecating manner as much as Leaving the Port behind us, a very to intimate a gentle remonstrance with steep, stony road leads to the village, and the elements. The talk of the three in the first cottage on the edge of the might have been a little difficult to catch tableland lived the prettiest girl in Tre for any one unaccustomed to the accent, venna, gifted with that beauty which can and for the sake of lucidity we will spare at times be found in Cornwall, reminding the reader the real dialect, which ran one that the coast population has had somewhat like this, many a foreign intermixture of blood, “Ay, it's a fearfu' night, Tamzin. I've which has left a still unobliterated trace a fancy Jahn Kernick won't be a-comin' on the inhabitants.
to-night, az time be taaken oop elsewhere,” Tamzin Richards was an only child, said Mrs. Richards. and her parents, po wiser than parents “ You might have said, mother, he'd usually are, doted on the girl and spoilt been afraaid to have com'en out at night, her unsparingly. Now the evil was done, it laik'd but thicky to the tale. Shall i Tamzin always took her own way and go and axen him az reason ?" answered heeded nothing that was said to her. A Tamzin scornfully; strony self-will bad this Cornish maiden ; “I never'n. said as he laiked courage, born within sound of those wind-tossed Tamzin ; but it's an awfu' night. Looken waves, the very freedom of the elements at the keendle-teening, child.” had found a resting place in the nature Tamzin and her father both cast their that could be but seldom led and never eyes towards the guttering candle, the driven. Quick of wit she was, and of former with half a smile of scorn, but the temper, perfect in health, in figure, and in latter with a graver look on his face. feature, brown and tanned it is true, but “ Keendle-teening is a bad sign, child,” that suited the dark, shining eyes, and he said solemnly; "it's a sign of folks in the crisp, curly hair that clustered round trouble and spirits a-knocking about a her small head.
place; when they once begin theirn games Old Richards had once been a sailor, they won't laive mun alone at all.” but having met with an accident he had " Jahn Kernick is not a man to be set up a small shop — that is, he had filled affrighted at nothing," said Tamzin, but bis cottage window with various bottles her voice was not so assured as before, and articles of value in a fishing village, and she got up and went into the dark and had turned tradesman.
shop whose window looked into the vil. Tamzin scorned the shop and allowed lage street. her father to do the counter-work. There Nothing was to be seen but one or two was that in the girl's nature that despised twinkling lights down the village; and anything so safe and free from danger as the roar of the wind as it howled up from shopkeeping. Still she was glad enough the Port was almost terrible to hear, even to spend the profits on her person, and though the girl felt safe enough in her many a gay knot of ribbon that went to own home. adorn the little brown neck was cut by “ John Kernick will come," she said to Tamzin's fingers from the store in the one herself slowly; "he said he would. He box which contained the vanities of old won't think much of walking from Port Richards's shelves.
Gavorne ; even if it were worse than this At the back of the shop was the real he wouldn't.” At this moment there was sitting-room of the family - a low cham- a knock at the door, a knock which most ber looking out towards the cliffs, with its likely would not have been so easily heard small, latticed windows deeply set in the if Tamzin had not happened to be in the thick masonry, otherwise they could not front room. The warm blood rushed to have long withstood the winter storms. the girl's cheek, but suddenly forsook it
Old Richards's face was bright and again, as she murmured, handsome — evidently Tamzin took after " That's not John Kernick's knock; he her father; whilst ber mother, who was makes a noise one can hear when he almost a nonentity, except as far as she comes.” was bound up in her daughter, was cer- With agile fingers Tamzin unfastened tainly not distinguished by any personal the door and opened it carefully, asking beauty, and this evening she sat kuitting in her quick and not very musical voice,
6 Who's there?"
performed with that quiet, meek look on “ Don't you koow, Tamzin ?" answered his face. a man's voice, as, not waiting for a further “He's brave, and no mistake,” Tamzin invitation, he stepped in and shut the had once said, “but I wish he looked it door; and so doing he came in contact more. He's not like John Kernick – with Tamzin's fingers as if quite by chance, he's brave and looks it, every inch of and suddenly grasped them and held him.” them tight.
" What were you
aying about signs, “ Have done, Pascho Fuge," said Tammy son ?" asked Richards, rubbing his zio quickly, and this time she spoke in knees and looking at the quarryman with a low voice. “ Can't a girl shut the door interest: the mysterious and the terrible without having ber fingers squeezed to had a strange fascination for the old seadeath?”
Even Tamzin now deigned to come "I meant no harm, Tamzin," said the forward, so that the light fell on her face, voice, in a far softer accent than Tamzin's. and her dark, lustrous eyes looked up into There was almost a pleading tone in the Pascho's face with real interest. few words, which any woman would have “Is it a sign you've seen, Pascho poticed; and which Tamzin, not being Fuge?" she asked. less clever than the usual run of her sex, "Yes,” he said slowly, “it's I that certainly heard though she would not have seen it — the dead hand.” He beed it.
paused, and the effect on his hearers was “Who is it?” called out old Richards as thrilling as he could expect. Tamzin's from the inner room; and Pascho was eyes dilated visibly, whilst Mrs. Richards forced to go forwards, thus losing all shuddered. chance of any more private conversation “Are you sure of that, Pascho? It's with Tamzin.
an evil sign,” said the old woman. "You bring a mighty rush of air with “ Just as I was coming down the quarry you, Pascho,” said Mrs. Richards, greet. this afternoon I looked up a minute and í ing him in the way we speak to people we saw in front of me a hand — a right hand see very often that is, without troubling - it was nothing more, grasping the rungs them with much inquiry about themselves. of the ladder I had let go; it followed "I was saying to Tamzin what a bad night me all the way down, holding our miner's it was; and there's sigas about that there light between its thumb and finger, and, is.”
as sure as my name is Pascho Fuge, that “Ay, that there is,” answered Pascho, light was bright enough to guide me down sitting down in a chair Tamzin carelessly to the very bottom.” brought forward for him.
" It's a rough-
it means?" ish night, but I've seen worse ones, asked Tamzin, almost softly. Pascho though, Mrs. Richards."
noted the tone, and would willingly, had All the time Pascho was speaking he he dared, have grasped her band again kept turning round slowly in his chair so and covered it with kisses, because she as to catch a better view of Tamzin, for had spoken gently to him. that young woman had perversely placed “I'm not great at meanings, Tamzin," herself just behind him. Pascho was a he said laughing; “some folks say it big, fair' man, with a red beard, and soft, brings harm to the man who sees it, but mild, blue eyes, with a far-away look in my father saw it twice, and died in his bed them. Though his size was formidable, as quiet as any one. It's my belief it de. the expression of his face was as gentle pends on people's eyes; some have a as a child's. Some might have called power of sight in their eyes, whilst othbim“ a bit sheepish," when they saw him, ers have most none, except just enough to as at this moment, sitting in the same lead 'em to put the victuals in their room as Tamzin and breathing the same mouths." air. But Pascho was not at all sheepish “I expect it is,” said Tamzin, looking in reality, not one of the quarrymen could for the first time straight into Pascho's excel him in pluck when there was need blue orbs. “ Your eyes have a look as if for it, nor could any keep a cooler head or they saw a heap more por most people's, steadier hand when being let down the Pascho." face of those terrible slate quarries al. “ And so they do,” said Pascho; and most overhanging the sea, in which he then softly, so that in the din of the wind was now at work. Many a time had Pas. only Tamzin heard, he continued, “they cho received a cheer from his fellow.work. always see you, Tamzin, afore them day men for some feat of extra boldoess, I and night; in the quarry and out of it,
they see your loving face and your eyes. “It comes of living two doors off," There isn't another as has your eyes in were his words, as he let himself into his Trevenna, Tamzin."
own cottage, where he lived with an old My cousin Sabrina has my eyes, folks mother and a sister. Ay, sure enough, say, just the same pair over again," and it all comes o' that." Tamzin laughed merrily so that every feature was lighted up by her radiant smile, and seemed to intimate by their ex. IF Pascho thought sadly, not to say pression that folks might say so, but Sa. jealously, of his rival that night, he would brina could not really he compared with have been comforted bad he seen that her. Pascho thought just the same ; poor that self-willed beauty Tamzin did not fellow! if he had but been the only one to allow the sailor to be more familiar with · think so.
her than he had been. If a woman has “ Sabrina is not fit to hold a rushlight two lovers, it is by no means always easy to you, Tamzin."
to tell which she prefers ; on the other The rushlight brought back the idea of hand, if an outsider had been asked to the candle, and the candle the thought of settle the question after looking at the the light held by the dead hand. Tam- two men, on first thoughts, or without zin looked grave a little ; she was even thought, no doubt he would have given going to say something pleasant, or so it the preference to the one who now setseemed from the look on her face, when a tled himself down comfortably by the loud knock was heard. This time there Richards's fireside, but in such a way as to was no mistaking the sound, and Tamzin see Tamzin's face. jumped up quickly.
John Kernick was tall, strong, and man"It's John Kernick !" she exclaimed, ly, with the jollity belonging to his calling, regardless of Pascho's presence; "didn't and with a certain daring, devil-may-care I say he would come, mother?” In a courage which always has a charm for moment she was in the front room with women. He owned a small vessel which out waiting for an answer, and without was usually employed in carrying slate seeing the look of pain which passed over from Port Gavorné to various destinaPascho's face. What business, be tions, but he had other business as well, thought, had John Kernick to come court- and did a little honest trading on his own ing all the way from Port Gavorne account, and now and then a little trading weren't there any girls there and at Port that would not bear the adjective honest Isaac for him?
before it. Poor Pascho rose and muttered a kind Coming one summer day into Trevenna of good-night, even though the old folk Port, he had caught sight of Tamzin both bade him bide a bit, but all the time Richards, and from that minute John Kerhe was saying to himself, “ No, John Ker- nick determined to make her his wife. nick is right; there isn't another like But he soon found that there are two Tamzin, and I would walk a heap of miles people in this bargain, and Tamzin was more than he does to see her, but I just not the girl to be won in an hour; be. happen to live two doors off, so she sides, Pascho Fuge was first in the field doesn't take no heed of my love."
- he had loved her from childhood, and By this time Tamzin had opened the every one in the village knew he was door, and a loud, hearty voice pealed out " sweet on Tamzin.” What did this mat. above th:9 noise of the elements.
ter, however, to the bold sailor? He felt “Her'. I am, Tamzin; I wager you sure of success, and knew that Tamzin didn't expect me this rough night. Tre was by no means insensible to his charms geagle is bowling himself hoarse over the - what girl could be? But this girl was moor, every demon must be after him."
superior to any he had ever seen. “I knew you would come," said Tamzin; He had walked over this very evening and by the tone of her voice one could to show her that for her sake he could make sure that she tossed her head, even brave the elements with ease, nay pleasthough it was dark. Then by a certain ure. little scuffle on John's part, one could “ Tamzin said you would come, Cap'en guess that he also tried to come into close Kernick, and she was right enough." proximity with Tamzin.
“ I'm sure I didn't care, mother,” reIt was just at that moment that Pascho torted Tamzin hotly. slipped by them and went out with a ter. It isn't many as would have come this rible feeling at his heart and a low mur- night,” said John conteotedly, "and that's mur on his lips.