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being estimated at five millions of human | the most affable manner to the polite beings, it was judged an easy matter to attentions which they had experienced.” raise an army of one hundred and fifty Toasts, indeed, were considered an in. thousand men " well suited, both by their dispensable appendage to English enter: valor and discipline, to the purposes of tainment.” On one occasion at a splendid war, both on foot and on horseback.” The banquet given by the Duke of Bucking, mavy consisted of about one hundred ves- ham, at which the king and the Duke of sels of war, belonging to the king, or the York were present, together with the illdifferent trading companies of England. fated Duke of Monmouth and other notaAn income of two thousand pounds a year ble personages, the Italian prince set the derived from land was judged a handsome ball rolling by proposing the health of his fortune, but there were occasional in- Majesty and the royal family, “which was stances of country gentlemen who were three times followed up with loud cheers worth double that sum. The Dean of by all present. His Highness, to do honor Westminster, who was also Bishop of to the toast, would have given it standing, Rochester, received in the latter capacity but this his Majesty would not allow, ab only four hundred pounds per annum. solutely compelling him to keep his seat."

English gardens were not remarkable By way of acknowledgment, "the King for their floral attractions in the reign of pledged his Highness and the Serene Charles the Second. They are described House of Tuscany in an equal number of as being “usually walks of sand, made rounds, and at the same time accompanied perfectly level by rolling them with a this act of kindness by taking hold of his stone cylinder, through the axis of which Highness's band, which he would have a lever of iron is passed, whose ends being kissed, but the Prince, anticipating him, brought forward and united together in with the greatest promptitude and address form of a triangle, serve to move it back. kissed that of his Majesty. The King, rewards or forwards; and between the walks peating his toast, wished to show the same are smooth grass-plats covered with the courtesy to his Highness, but he, withgreenest turf, without any other orna. drawing his hand with the most delicate ment.” Most country houses were pro- respect, would not permit it, which his vided with a bowling-green, a rubber at Majesty perceiving, immediately kissed bowls being the fashionable pastime of the him on the face.” day. Nearly in the middle of the race. His Highness, before his departure from course at Newmarket there was a spot set London, had the honor of entertaining the apart for this now disused amusement, king, his brother, his illegitimate son, and and mention is made of the king stopping several of the nobility at supper, at which and diverting himself with "seeing my the most exquisite dishes and the rarest Lord Blandford and my Lord Germain Italian wines taught English courtiers the play at bowls.” Lord John Paulet's gar- difference between feeding like animals den, by the way, at Hinton St. George, and supping like human beings. Not only differed from the common type in being so, but a knife and a fork were set before “a meadow divided into several compart. every guest, "arranged in a fanciful and ments of brick-work, which are filled with elegant manner." "The supper was served flowers."

up in eighty magpificent dishes; many of The almost universal hour for dinner which were decorated with other smaller

Stools were commonly used, ones, filled with various delicious meats. though an armchair might be assigned to To the service of fruit succeeded a most a distinguished guest. At Wilton, Lord excellent course of confectionery, both Pembroke's country seat, an armchair was those of Portugal and other countries placed at the head of the table for his famous for the choiceness of their sweetHighness, but he insisted upon resigning meats, which was in all respects on a par it in favor of his host's unmarried daugh, with the supper that preceded it. But ter, “ upon which the earl instantly drew scarcely was it set upon the table, when forward another similar one, in which the the whole was carried off and plundered serene prince sat, in the highest place.” by the people who came to see the spectaHospitality was largely practised by the cle of the entertainment; nor was the English nobles, and their banquets are presence of the king sufficient to restrain acknowledged to have been superb, though them from the pillage of these very delideficient in elegance. They would last a cate viands; much less his Majesty's solcouple of hours, or longer, and a good deal diers, armed with carbines, who guarded of wine was drunk, especially in toasting the entrance of the saloon, to prevent all the ladies, who “in their turn replied in ingress into the inside, lest the confine. ment and too great heat should prove demeanor did not betray a military pro annoying; so that his Majesty, to avoid fession was free to enter the king's antethe crowd, was obliged to rise from table, chamber, on the floor of which stood a and retire to his Highness's apartment.” clock which indicated the direction of the

was noon.

It is not surprising, after such an ex- wind as well as the time of day. To the hibition of English manners, that Count gallery formerly enriched by Cardinal Magalotti should consider his own nation | Wolsey with choice paintings, were hung as superior in refinement. He also disap up some vile daubs of battle-pieces by sea proved the pastry, as being" grossly made, and land in the reign of Henry the Eighth. with a great quantity of spices, and badly The other gallery, in front of the king's baked." He remarked, too, the absence ante-chamber, was devoid of ornament, of forks, and of “vessels to supply water but looked out upon “ a beautiful meadow, for the hands, which are washed in a laid out like a garden, planted with trees basin full of water, that serves for all the and beautiful hedges of roses, and haviog company; or, perhaps, at the conclusion four rows of statues in the middle, part of of dinner, they dip the end of the napkin which are of bronze and standing, part of into the beaker which is set before each wbite marble and, for the most part, in a of the guests, filled with water, and with sitting posture.” In the centre stood a this they clean their teeth and wash their structure encircled by iron rails consisting hands." Whence we gather that finger. of several dials of different shapes, so that glasses were unknown in Florence. the sun's shadow, when there was any,

The consumption of butchers' meat was fell upon more than one. That event, much greater in London than in Paris, however, was of more frequent occurrence either because fast-days were not much than it would now be, because the air was observed, or because of the voracity of the then“ almost always clear." True, a thick English, who eat meat in preference to cloud seemed sometimes to hang over aught else. Every day three thousand London, but it was not "caused by coroxen were slaughtered in London, and rupt vapors,” being, in fact, produced by large joints were served up on every table. “the smoke from the mineral coal of In the northern counties the people were Scotland, which issues from the chim more saturnine and somewhat less lively neys, and which the coal, being an oleagi. than in the southern. The lower and mid. nous substance, produces in great quanti. dle classes were much addicted to souff ties." Within the precincts of the White. and tobacco, and the artisans were prone hall Palace were several small courtyards to neglect their work in order to waste or squares, in one of which was the king's their time in discussing political questions bowling-green. Near at hand were the in public-houses. The common people, it apartments of the Duchess of Richmond, is stated, lacked reverence and affection the beautiful Frances Stuart, looking upon towards their sovereign, which is not in the river and the garden of statues, and explicable when it is remembered that close by those of the Countess of Castle that sovereign was a Charles the Second. maine. They ventured, wbile smoking their pipes, Upon the whole the Italian tourists to censure the king's conduct, and to re- were pleased with the English drama gret the masterful rule of Cromwell, whose The King's Theatre was nearly circular, head, by the way, the count affirms was with tiers of boxes furnished with rows of then to be seen upon a pike over West. seats for the accommodation of ladies and minster Hall. He also professes to have gentlemen, who sat together promiscuseen on the threshold or sill of a particuously. A large space was left on the lar window at Whitehall drops of Charles ground-floor for the less fashionable authe First's blood, “so deeply imprinted dience. The scenery was light, frequently that they have not been able to obliterate changed, and embellished with beautiful them from the spot, though they have landscapes. Before the curtain rose upon frequently washed it in the hope of doing the comedy some delightful symphonies

were played. The defect of the English Whitehall had not then suffered from comedy was the confusion in the plots, fire, but is described as a mean habitation and the absence of unity and regularity. for a king, being divided into two thousand The actors, however, were excellent, and halls, lodges, galleries, and chambers, so did their best to illustrate the playwright's that Cromwell had no trouble in changing delineation of the passions by appropriate his bedchamber every night without the action and clear enunciation. knowledge of his servants. None of the Horse-racing was coming into vogue apartments had a door. Any one whose with the nobility, the king and court going

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to Newmarket to witness the pastime. At visited, however, a construction of a difa certain point his Majesty and the Duke ferent kind, the proportions of which apof York, accompanied by sundry lords and peared to him to be truly stupendous. gentlemen, set off after the racers with The “Sovereign "man-of-war, then lying the utmost speed, and were very nearly in the waters of the Medway, was the up to them. Newmarket owed whatever largest and most powerful ship in the celebrity it possessed to Charles the Sec. navy, but was seldom sent to sea, because ond, having been previously known only its bulk and weight impaired its swiftness. as a market for provisions. The land was It was built in 1637 by Charles the First, owned by Baron Arlington, who let it on " at an incredible expense,” for not only a twenty-one years lease, at six shillings was it one hundred and twenty paces in an acre, the rent paid half-yearly, the ten- length, but the cabins had carved-work ants being free to use the land for pasture, ceilings, richly ornamented with gold, the or to plough it up, or to sublet it.

outside of the stern being similarly decoAnother and more barbarous amuse. rated. “ The height of the stern,” it is ment, dear to all classes from courtier to written, “is quite extraordinary, and it is costermonger, was-cock-fighting, concern- hung with seven magnificent" lanthorns, ing which no opinion is expressed in the the principal one, which is more elevated diary. Count Magalotti, however, does than the rest, being capable of containing not hesitate to condemn what he calls six people.” The “ Sovereign carried exhibitions of gladiators. In reality, the one hundred and six pieces of brass ordaffair was not so very atrocious. A fenc. nance, and a crew of one thousand sailors. ing-master, by way of advertising himself, In those days salmon were caught at low would offer, for twenty or thirty jacobuses, water above Rochester Bridge, but it is to fight any one with sword and shield. more important to note the number of The weapon was blunt, and point was heretical sects which scandalized the connever given, so that no great harm was science of his otherwise tolerably serene done beyond drawing a few drops of Highness. In addition to the Ecclesiastiblood. The dancing-masters, or at least cal Establishment, there were Puritans, their pupils, were more to the taste of his Presbyterians, Atheists, Brownists, who Highness, who went to see one of the believed in “ Tom Brown," Adamites, principal dancing-schools, where married Familists, Acabaptists, Libertines or Free and unmarried ladies practised, “with Thinkers, Independents, Anti-Scripturmuch gracefulness and agility, various ists, Millenarians, Arians, Antinomians, dances after the English fashion.” La- Arminians, Seekers or Expecters, Sabbadies, especially citizens' wives, were much tarians, Fanatics, Fotinians, Anti-Triniaddicted to this entertainment, and “his tarians, Deists, Tremblers or Quakers, Highness had an opportunity of seeing Fifth-Monarchy Men, Socinians, Latituseveral dances in the English style, ex- dinarians, Origenists, Ranters or disciples ceedingly well regulated, and executed in of Alexander Ranta, who professed free the smartest and genteelest manner by love and nothing else, Levellers, Quintinvery young ladies, whose beauty and ists, who averred that the Deity takes as gracefulness were shown off to perfection much pleasure in a variety of religions as by this exercise.”

a man does in a variety of dishes, MemPrisoners had the choice of two evils. nonists, and many others. All these sects They could claim to be tried by God and and only one sauce ! was Voltaire's sartheir country, or they could appeal to the casm. judgment of Heaven. In the latter case death was certain, but disgrace was averted from their family, and their property was not coofiscated. The appellant was laid on his back with his limbs

From The Spectator. stretched out, and a stone placed under. THE CLOSING OF THE SCOTTISH HIGHneath him to raise his loins.

He was then covered with a board loaded with THE stress and strain of modern life heavy stones, the weight being gradually have grown to a great intensity. Men increased until death terminated his suf- live in restless anxiety, under constant ferings.

pressure, with quickened brains and feHis Highness was disappointed in see. vered pulses, until life has become a buring St. Paul's Cathedral only in ruins, as den almost beyond endurance. Thus nothing had yet been done to restore the modern society has felt, as people of a sacred edifice after the great fire. He more leisurely time never felt, the neces


sity of change and of relaxation. The doubt, that the number of those who seek need of change is not confined to any one the hillsides in summer and in autumn class of society. It is general. Our has multiplied to an extraordinary degee. wearied legislators are scattered wide Hundreds are now to be found where a over sea and land, are pursuing grouse or short while ago no human foot strayed. deer in the Scottish Highlands, or are fur. It is also true that the number of “shootther afield after other sorts of game. ing tenants" has vastly increased. The Clergsmen, doctors, lawyers, men of lit-increase in both cases is due to the preserature and of science, 'seek to breathe sure of city and of business life. The the keen air of the mountains, and causes which induce those who have the strengthen themselves for a new cam- power, to pay some hundreds or thou. paign. Working-men, too, seek to get a sands of pounds for the right of shooting day among the hills, or at the seaside. over some few miles of moor and mounFor all sorts and conditions of men, an tain, are identical with those which urge a opportunity of a holiday is highly desira- poorer man to explore our Highland glens ble, and it is for the good of all that the or climb the Highland mountains. And opportunity should be easily found. As the question becomes urgent, more urgent the years pass on, the difficulties in the every year, whether the few can continue way of relaxation constantly increase. to exclude the many from those vast, unWe do not here speak of the growing enclosed, and uncultivated regions of the pressure of business, and the increased country. It is one aspect of a great and value of time. We refer specially to the manifold problem, the solution of which sad fact that the great bulk of the popu- will tax the wisdom of our statesmen to lation are being more and inore shut out the uttermost. In speaking of national from visiting those places of our land parks, we lately suggested that no addi. which, from their very nature, are pecul- tional right should be allowed to accrue to jarly fitted to strengthen and reinvigorate the present owners and occupiers of the man's decaying energies.

Lake country. We are afraid that the No doubt, the competition is keen with suggestion comes too late with regard to regard to such places. We should be the the Highlands of Scotland. The public last to deny to our wearied men of wealth are already shut out from the greater part the needful quiet and seclusion. They of the Highlands. In the uplands of also need the quiet of the hills, and the Perthshire, scientific botanists are steroly keenness of the mountain air. But they shut out from the mountains, — "A most certainly do not require, what they wooden hut bas been erected, on the track at present demand and take, many square to Speyside, to contain a watcher, to see miles of country for this purpose. In the that no one leaves the track to trespass Highlands of Scotland, a few moneyed on Cairntoul or Ben Macdhui." Visitors families have possession of vast districts at Braemar - one of the most celebrated of country, from the use of which all of the health resorts of Scotland their fellow-men are rigorously excluded. not obtain leave to cross the Dee during Tracts of heath and mountain, health. the shooting season, and only grudgingly giving and bracing to wearied mortals, at any time. These are only samples of are visible in the distance; but the health the kind of thing which is being done all seeking traveller has to keep the beaten over the Highlands of Scotland, at the track, lest his rash foot should disturb present hour. the repose of grouse or deer. No fence The disgust and anger of many people or boundary meets the eye, and the un- at this state of things are very manifest. accustomed tourist, thinking no wrong, They are finding vent in speech and in joyfully starts to climb a hill and enjoy a print, and they will grow from more to larger prospect, when suddenly, like the more. Already the growl has become followers of Rhoderick Dhu, a game. terrible in its intensity. If the holders of keeper starts up, with the unwelcome privilege do not make timely concessions, information, “ No road this way: this hill the result will be far from agreeable. At is preserved.” Formerly, the uneoclosed present, they may buy the Sybilline leaves hillsides were open to every comer, and at a low price. Liberty to stroll through no damage was done; in fact, it was the forests, to climb the mountains, freenot possible to do any damage to mere dom to roam over barren moors, without stone or heather. But of late years, the being checked and bullied by the undermania for the preservation of grouse and lings of the shooting tenant, will give condeer has increased, is increasing, and tentment. But let the encroachment go ought to be diminished. It is true, no on for a little more, and the right of ex.

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clusive solitude on the part of the few celebrated artesian well in Paris is conwill be ruthlessly taken away. No one structed. A good deal of the watergrudges them a reasonable amount of se- supply of the town being at the time clusion. Let them, however, be reasona- obtained from surface-drains and springs ble, and only take what they need. on the Common, an outlying piece of

In this connection we cannot but think park-like land, of four hundred acres, of the effects of the present system on forming the root of the tongue on which the underlings themselves. The perma- the town - situated between the rivers nent gamekeeper or forester may be a Itchen and Test - stands, an experi. decent member of society. But the de. mental boring was made by a London velopment of the demand for shooting engineer, who predicted that at a depth of moors has led to the evolution of a kind four hundred and eighty feet, an unfailing of character which is fatal and disastrous, and almost unlimited supply of water was A good many men and lads find employ to be obtained from the chalk - to reach ment for a few months during the shoot- which, at this depth, eighty feet of alluvial ing season. They are over-worked, over. strata, overlying three hundred feet of fed, and over-paid for about two months London clay and a hundred feet of the of the year. They idle and loaf about for plastic clay formation, were passed the rest of the year, and become utterly through. useless-for any honorable industry. It is Thus encouraged, the water-works comcurious to reflect on the degenerating missioners selected what was thought a effect of work and toil which ends only in more convenient site for securing the the pleasure of others. A lad hired to discharge of the water, and, at an esticarry the clubs of a golfer seldom learns mated cost of seven thousand pounds, a trade, or gives himself to steady work commenced the construction of a well to of any kind. And a young man who is supply forty thousand cubic feet of water hired to carry a game-bag scarcely ever per day. Á shaft fourteen feet in diame. - turns out well. Billiard-markers are usu. ter was commenced, and sunk one hunally among the offscourings of society. dred and sixty feet, at which depth it was In all cases in which the pursuit of pleas- originally proposed to commence boring; ure is turned to a business, and in which but this plan was altered, and the shaft, men are hired for no profitable work, but reduced to eleven feet six inches, was only for the promoting of the pleasure of carried down to two hundred and fourteen others, with rare exceptions the men so feet, when it was further reduced to eight hired are utterly ruined. In them there feet six inches, to a depth of three hun. is no serious aim in life, no weighty re- dred and twelve feet. Here it was found sponsibility, nor any hope of progress. necessary to substitute iron cylinders for li is with grief, therefore, that we witness the brickwork to three hundred and the development of a system which is twenty-two feet, where the brickwork was largely based on selfishness and disregard resumed, the diameter being reduced to of the interest of other people, and which seven feet. The plastic clay being reached issues in the demoralization and ruin of a at three hundred and eighty feet, the large number of human beings.

brickwork was continued down to three feet below the chalk stratum, found at five hundred and twenty feet. Here the water was found flowing into the well at

the rate of about three gallons a minute; From Chambers' Journal.

and its temperature being taken, it was THE SOUTHAMPTON ARTESIAN WELL.

found to range from to sixty-two SOME forty-five years ago, the town of degrees Fahrenheit, its temperature at Southampton, being in want of a regular the surface being forty-four degrees; and supply of potable water, resolved upon the atmosphere of the well at fifty feet, the experiment of an artesian well, en- fifty-four degrees; at one hundred and couraged thereto by certain local circum. sixty feet, sixty degrees; and at five hunstances which appeared to favor such an dred and forty-three feet, sixty-five de. undertaking. Ai Winchester, Hursley, grees. Five hundred and sixty-two feet Portsmouth, and on Portsdown Hill, the having been reached, and nothing like the tapping of the chalk had produced abun- supply expected having been obtained dant supplies of excellent water, not to from the fourteen water-bearing depos. say that the geological basin at South- its tapped (and stopped out), boring was ampton was believed to be in many re- commenced with a seven-and-a-hall-inch spects identical with that in which the auger, and was continued until thirteen

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