chance of peeping at the strange Franjis I have only camels, and in autumn are often that the dispute arose. Soon after a spoilt obliged to send these more than a day's baby of eighteen months appeared in a journey into the 'Adwan lands to driok. dirty shirt and a gorgeous green jacket. Sometimes the camels will remain a day It was affectionately kissed by all the at the spring, and return on the third to men present, and then carried off with a camp, when they are obliged almost imlump of sugar by two handsome boys of mediately to travel back again to the nine or ten, each with his sling of hair in water. The number of these camels aphis hand, with which the young Bedawi is peared to be countless, and they were able to perform wonders.

driven like goats or sheep in herds, withThe Arab women enjoy far more free out either bridle or saddle. To see perdom and consideration than do the wives haps five hundred cames in a company, and daughters of the peasantry. They followed by other flocks of equal numbers salute the traveller with the Moslem for- descending to the spring, was an intereste mula, “ Peace be upon you, O my broth. ing sight. The grave elders stalked along er ;” and they rarely hide their faces at with the sulky dignity which their owners all, though some will hold a sleeve or seem to copy; the little colts, and somehead-veil between their teeth. Goblan times the younger of the full-grown, exewould sometimes send his compliments to cuted the most extraordinary gambols the mother as well as the father of any with sprawling legs which seemed joint. group of children we met. The women less and wooden. The man or boy in ride camels to the spring when the men charge rode in front guiding his beast are employed, and spin as they go, the with a switch, and shouting - Ya-ho! Yadark wool with an ordinary spindle, but ho!” all day long. The chorus of grunts without a distaff, the hank being passed and grumbles from the flocks of these over the hand. They wear bracelets, a beasts at the water was ceaseless by day. signet-ring, and even in some cases a jewel We once saw a negro woman driving a in the nose.

young dromedary without any bridle. She The Arabs are not totally devoid of as- dropped her spindle, and was obliged 10 tronomical knowledge, as was found by stop: as the beast knelt she jumped off Lieutenant Mantell in the course of con. and ran back like lightning, but before she versations with his guides. The Milky could get back, the dromedary with many Way they call Derb et Tibn, “the track grunts was on its legs again, and she had of the chaff;" and the morning star and only time to seize it by the neck. Here Pleiades (Tereiyeh) they also pointed out. she hung, her toes touching the ground, N'ash, or the Great Bear, and el Mizân, her wool in her teeth, and was thus car“the Balance," or Orion, seem also to be ried for some hundred yards, until by conknown; and Aldebaran is called Nejm el stantly striking with her switch on the Gharârah," the deceitful star,” because dromedary's neck, she stopped it, obliged it is sometimes mistaken for the morning it to kneel, and mounting with great dexstar. It is, of course, well known that terity, cantered off in triumph. our astronomical nomenclature is mainly The Arabs only leave two of the mother Arabic, but this belongs to the civilization camel's udders for the colt to suck, tying of Baghdad in the ninth century. The up the others with slips of wood. The early Arabs of Yemen used to worship colt is weaned at eight months of age, and certain fixed stars, in addition to a few of the rest of the milk is drunk by the tribe. the planets, including Keis or Sirius, Tay This is the only use ever made apparently or Canopus, and Tasm or Aldebaran. of the camel, save in moving camp, or The rising and setting of these and others when one is killed for the feast. There was then supposed to be connected with | are many thousand camels belonging to the rain.

each tribe, and, like sheep or goats, they It is not proposed here to repeat what are in fact a clumsy substitute for money, has been written of the Bedawin in Tent which is almost unknown in these disWork in Palestine,” but something may tricts. The Bedawi carries about his be said of the riches and possessions of capital in the shape of camels, but his the Belka Arabs, which far surpass those wealth is mainly useful for the influence of the small western tribes. The 'Adwân, and consideration which it gains him, who own lands tilled for them by the rather than on account of intrinsic value. Ghawârneh and other inferior tribes, pos. The ordinary price of a baggage-camel sess also sheep, goats, and cows in num- varies from £ 12 to £20, and a hajin or bers; but the Beni Sakhr and ’Anazeh, blood animal for riding from £30 to £200. living in the less well-watered districts, / Calculated on this proportion, the money


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value of the herds we saw in Moab was hin, to the depredations of thieves, even very considerable.

when no raid from a distance need be We were much disappointed with the feared. We found that the valleys near horses of the 'Adwân, and I only saw two the Dead Sea swarmed with these banor three colts of pure blood. The Belka dits, outlaws of every tribe, who are tribes seem to have hardly any horses, obliged to migrate to the mountains in but it is possible that the Ruala or the winter when the camps are in the valley. 'Anazeh


possess fine mares. As Sometimes they are found dead of hunger a rule, however, the breeding of horses in the snow; and on one occasion two of among the eastern Arabs seems to have them were seen by our party enjoying a declined, and donkeys are extensively feast off a fox which they had shot. Go. used - a sure indication of decay in war- blan used nightly to perambulate the great like character.

Hadânieh circle at W. Jideid within which The camels and other property are we were encamped, addressing in stern marked or branded on the neck and flank tones imaginary or unseen robbers with with the wusm or “sign” of the tribe. these words: “Come out, you cowards.! We collected a great many of these signs, may Allah destroy you! there are no goats and found that each had a distinctive or cows here, but only men and bullets."

The original 'Adwân mark is a He erected a pillar of stones six feet high, vertical stroke, but the younger or Nimr as a dummy-guard or bogy at night; and, branch bear two, and the 'Abbâd - a yet generally speaking, he and his younger offshoot - have three, thus ap. seemed to live in great fear of these proaching the system of heraldic differ. thieves.

This mark is called the mutluk. This apprehension was not by any The original Beni Sakhr mark is the means groundless, for during the moonmihmasah, or “spoon” for roasting cof- less nights we were constantly attacked fee, a circle with a vertical stroke below. by thieves who endeavored to steal our The Fâîz family bear this with two short animals. More than once we pursued strokes on the right, extending horizon them and fired small shot at them, but tally from the vertical stroke, and this our immunity from loss was due chiefly to variation is called tuweikeh, the "little the vigilance of our dogs and to the defenbracelet.” The Kurshân have a circl sive arrangements of the camp. The with a dot, and one family of this subdivi. straying donkeys of our careless muleteer sion of the Beni Sakhr has also two strokes were snapped up before we had been a by the circle. The Khâdir have a mark week in the country. not unlike the Cheth in square Hebrew Near the Jordan valley Goblan showed called el bâb, “the door.” They are a us a cairn erected over the body of a thief subdivision of the 'Anazeh, whose general who was shot at night near the camp some mark is a sort of narrow C laid sidewise. quarter of a mile or more below, and found The Jibbûr (a division of the Beni Sakhr) in the morning lying dead. Such cairns seem to use a cross, though this is not are common in Moab, as well as the quite certain, and also the “raven's foot," larger ones which cover the dead slain in à rounded trident like the lodian trisul some foray on the spot. Women also caste-mark. All these marks are simple seemed to be buried in a common grave, enough, but it should be noted that the by laying them together on the ground mihmasah is exactly like the Himyaritic and heaping stones over them. Corpses, Koph; the mutluk is the Aleph; the bones, and fragments of clothing could “raven's foot” is very near the Cheth of often be seen beneath the cairn, so that the same alphabet. The connection may in some cases, at least, it was clear that be a real one, but the traveller is liable to no excavation had been attempted. make the mistake into which at least three Goblan also showed us a sort of depres. careful observers are known to have fall. sion in the ground, which he said was en, of diligently copying what he sup- used in the punishment of thieves who poses to be a Himyaritic inscription, but had stolen corn. They were laid there, which is really a collection of various and sacks of barley placed over them. It tribe-marks scrawled either by shepherds was not clear whether they were induced when idle, or deliberately placed on stones thus to confess where the corn was hidden, in buildings and elsewhere where treas. or whether the punishment was merely a ure is believed to lie bid, and is thus revenge. On asking, however, how long claimed by the tribe in whose territory | they were kept, the answer was, “Some. the spot may be included.


times we leave them there." The Arabs are subject, as are the fella- The old custom of the ordeal is also

still in use among the Arabs. The man | discovered that after many protestations who swears innocence of any accusation of the most lofty sentiments of courtesy is made to drink boiling water with flour and gentlemanly feeling, one great chief in it. If this does not appear to hurt him had placed our pewter teapot in his saddlehe is judged to have sworn truly, and the bag. The Arab is an unimprovable savnatural deduction appears therefore to be age, with all the craft, the cruelty, the that the Bedawin inside must be con. deceit, and the cowardice which are usual structed of iron or his forehead of brass."

among savages, and with all the affectaThe Arab cannot afford generally to ex- tion of courage, nobility, and honesty pend shot in hunting, although he makes which is equally common to the wilder his own gunpowder, as we discovered by races. When civilization is at a low ebb, finding the little mills in the rocks. The and government is weak, the Bedawi chief sling is much used, and partridges are flourishes and spreads terror; before a knocked down with sticks. I once saw an strong, settled population he retreats to Arab hunting with a shield, composed of the howling wilderness, which he does a white skin painted with circles and not love, or sinks to the level of a poor spots, so as to resemble a stone-beap, and cultivator or despised “cousin of gipsies.” stretched on two cross sticks in x shape. Yet it must not be forgotten that he has It folded up like an umbrella, and was five his rights also. The lands in the Jordan feet high. From behind this he shot, but valley have distinct owners, and are rudely missed his aim. The hunting of gazelles tilled. . The 'Adwâo are acknowledged by with the sluki or greyhound, and the fal- the Turk to be proprietors of the country con, which flies at the head, and, settling in which they dwell, and the colonist must between the horns, flaps its wings in the buy them out if he wishes for their lands. victim's face, thus impeding its fight till The 'Adwân are on a downhill path, and the dog drags it down, is also said to be with the death of Goblan and his generastill practised.

tion their future seems to be that they will The Arabs on a raid generally take a either become tillers of their own lands, woman with them as cook. The old prac. or else sink to the ignoble position of tice of placing one of the beauties of the tourist-guides, abused and perhaps ill-paid tribe in a kind of palanquin made of os. by the dragoman who as yet hardly ven. trich-feathers, on a gaily caparisoned tures over Jordan. The 'Anazeh and camel, and putting her in front of the Beni Sakhr are wilder and more capable party, is said still to survive among the of living in the desert; they must either Ruala and the 'Anazeh. One of the black fall back as the settled population spreads slaves of the 'Adwân was considered a from Salt and the 'Ajlûn villages, and congreat hero in the last generation, because fine themselves to the eastern hills, or he succeeded single-handed in cutting off they must be ground between the pasha a camel with this utfı or ostrich-feather on the west and other fiercer 'Abazeh palanquin, and brought the captured clans on the east, and, like the 'Adwân, beauty to his master's camp. The slaves finally disappear. Much as one may re. still are found in numbers among the gret all that is romaotic and picturesque 'Adwân, but their valor is not what it was in decaying Bedawin life, it is the fate of of old.

wild races so to yield to the more enerThe palanquin called mahmal, which getic and civilized, and the material for a conveys to Mecca the so-called

“holy future conquering and progressive race is carpet,” or new covering for the Kaaba, not to be discovered among the Semitic is akin to the utfa or“ hoop.” It appears nomads of Syria or Arabia. to be an institution older than Islan, and answers probably to the arks of Egyptians and of Indians. A camel with a mabmal not only accompanies the Hâj from Damascus and Cairo, but also forms part of

AN ITALIAN PRINCE ON HIS TRAVELS. the procession on such occasions as a circumcision of the richer Moslems. In In the second half of the seventeenth Egypt it is traditionally connected with century his serene Highness Ferdinand the somewhat mythical princess called the Second was grand duke of Tuscany, “ Moon of the Age."

a generous, liberal-minded man, with a And now at length we must bid fare. cultivated taste for music and poetry. He well to the Arabs of the Belka — not, let was unfortunate, however, in his wife, Vitus hope, with the feelings which the toria delle Rovere, Duchess of Urbino, a 'Adwân aroused in my mind, when it was proud, suspicious bigot, wbolly influenced

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From All The Year Round.

by the priests. He was not less unfor. scattered over the surrounding territory, tunate in his son Cosmo, in the fulness should be living miserably “in mud cabof time his successor, a weak, sensual lins, badly thatched with straw, sleeping on prince, a puppet in the hands of the Jesu- short mats, and subsisting chiefly on fish its. Like his father, Cosmo made an un- and cockles.” Bread to them was an alhappy match. He married, very much most unknown luxury. They were treated against her own wishes, Margaret Louisa, as a conquered people, even as serfs, beeldest daughter of Gaston, Duke of Or. ing compelled to surrender to their landJeans, a vivacious and accomplished prin- lord three-fourths of the produce of their cess, but equally averse from Spanish tiny farms, besides paying a guinea and a haughtiness and Italian gravity. She half a year for the rent of a cabin and a was, moreover, passionately in love with few square yards of land. They paid six Prince Charles of Lorraine, who after- shillings each towards the maintenance of wards won great renown by defeating, in a priest, who ministered to their spiritual conjunction with John Sobieski, an Otto- wants clandestinely. Throughout the man army under the very walls of Vienna. province of Munster provisions of all

Cosmo, it seems, was as deeply enam. kinds, and particularly fish and game, ored of his young and beautiful bride as were abundant and cheap, with the excepany one could be who demanded much tion of French wines. Money was so and yielded nothing, and whose cold, un- scarce that the currency mainly consisted sympathetic temperament was calculated of Spanish coin. The viceroy drew an. to repel rather than to attract the sprightly, nually forty thousand pounds from the clever French woman, who was untroubled government, bis appointment being the with a conscience, and madly in love with most valuable “in the gist of the kings of another man. In the hope of curing his Europe." The revenue derived by the son of his infatuation for his unworthy crown from Ireland did not exceed three wife, and of averting violent scenes of do- hundred thousand pounds a year. The mestic discord, the grand duke Ferdi. antipathy entertained by the English nand sent him off on a tour through Tyrol towards the Irish was so bitter and unand down the Rhine to Amsterdam. The reasonable that intermarriages were proexperiment having utterly failed, Cosmo hibited, as likewise the use of the native was despatched on a longer journey language. It is undeniable, we learn, through Spain, Portugal, England, and that in Ireland "the waters stagnate on Holland. A detailed narrative of the the very highest mountains, so that even illustrious traveller's journeyings, illus. on the tops of the hills is found land trated with numerous bad drawings, was soaked in water, producing in greater prepared by Count Lorenzo Magalotti, abundance than any other grass and wild afterwards secretary to the Academy del sorrel. In descending the bills on bis Cimento, and a much respected corre- return to the ship, his Highness passed spondent of Lord Somers and Sir Isaac near some cabins which served to shelter Newton, by the latter of whom he was poor people, the native rustics of Ireland, designated'" il magazino del buon gusto" who have no place to rest upon but the -the magazine of good taste.

bare earth; and, having caused them to It is only with Cosmo's wanderings in be reconnoitred for curiosity, he discov. England during the year 1669, and with ered that within they lived like wild the narrator's comments on English so- beasts." dety at that period, that we need trouble Although travelling in the strictest inourselves. It may, however, be remarked cognito, the unfortunate prince was never that if absence did not make his heart suffered to pass through the smallest town grow fonder, it failed to render him cal. that boasted of a municipality without lous to the misconduct and perversity of being worried with speeches of congratuhis abominable wife.

lation, and all manner of civic pomposity. In consequence of bad seamanship on On landing at Plymouth be was not only the part of the captain and pilot, his High- encountered by the mayor and aldermen dess found himself one day in St. George's in their habits of cereinony," but had Channel, and took advantage of the op- besides to walk between a double line of portunity to land in Kinsale Harbor. He soldiers “under arms, with colors flying, does not appear to have been favorably trumpets sounding, and drums beating," impressed with the architectural beauties while the sailors on the numerous ships of 'that town, and was evidently shocked in the harbor manned the yards, and the that the Roinan Catholics, who, to the people filled the streets and mounted to number of two hundred families, were the very roofs of the houses. Such a rare


sight in those days was a foreign prince | out conspicuous. 1o 1669, although these on his travels !

two cities covered a considerably larger Not that the lower orders of English- area than Paris, their united population men were at all partial to foreigners. In- fell short of half a million, or some teos deed, they entertained a great prejudice of thousands less than the French cap and cherished a profound hatred towards ital. It was said that six hundred thouall other nationalities, especially the sand Englishmen slept every night in French — Count Magalotti is our author- ships and boats, and this report seemed ity — " treating such as come among them to the Italians not incredible. with contempt and insult." The nobility, Although Dorchester is described as "a on the other hand, particularly those who simple town," the district was so much had visited foreign parts, had picked up a infested with robbers that his Highness few lessons in good breeding in their was escorted by a detachment of mounted travels, and displayed “a certain degree militia until he was out of all danger. of politeness and courtesy towards stran. Near Basingstoke he was met by a troop gers." Nearly all of them spoke French of the royal regiment of the Earl of Os. and Italian, the latter language in prefer- ford, the officers of which wore a red sash eace; but, do what they would, they failed with gold tassels. It was “composed of altogether to shake off their characteristic eight companies of seventy men each; stiffness and uncouthness, and were never they receive from the king half a ducat a able to “get the better of a certain nat. day. This is paid them every two months, ural melancholy, which had the appear- which being of twenty-eight days each, ance of eternally clouding their minds they have seven payments annually: la with unpleasant thoughts." In truth, each of these companies the colonel has thoughtful men had only too much reason the privilege of keeping two places vato be grave and even melancholy. Not cant, and of appropriating the einolument only had they and their fathers passed to himself, which amounts to more than through fearful trials, but there was the fourteen pounds sterling every week.” constant dread that the levity of Charles Compared with the salaries and allow. and the bigotry of his brother might again ances which were then drawn by officers involve the nation in the horrors of a civil of the royal household, this rate of pay

As for the people at large, they must be thought considerable. The lord hated the French for being Roman Cath- steward, for instance, at that time the olics, but still more for the sufferings they Duke of Ormond, had only one hundred had themselves undergone, as they be- pounds a year“ and a table.” The lord lieved, through the sinister influence of chamberlain, the Earl of Manchester, was the queen-mother, Henrietta Maria. similarly requited for his services; but

Within the space of a hundred years the Duke of Buckingham, as master of Plymouth had grown out of a poor fish- the horse, had six hundred and filty per ing village into one of “the best cities annum, “and a table.” It is written of of England, having between twelve and him, " He has the management of all the fifteen thousand inhabitants," as against king's stables and studs, and of the posts seventy-five thousand at the present day. throughout the kingdom. The persons Dorchester, "a simple town," seems to who serve in the stables, in whatever situhave been better peopled then than now. ation, are dependent on him; in public The Italian diarist puts down the popula. processions he goes immediately behiod tion as between ten thousand and twelve the king with a led horse in his hand.” thousand, whereas now it barely exceeds The gentlemen of the bedchamber were seven thousand five hundred. Salisbury, chosen by his Majesty from among bis also, has declined from over sixteen thou- peers, and deemed themselves fortunate sand inhabitants to fourteen thousand five in drawing salaries of one thousand hundred. Cambridge, however, has risen pounds per annum each. “They attend from twelve thousand souls, including two in the chamber in rotation, a week at a thousand five hundred collegians, to thirty- time, sleeping all night upon a mattress.” five thousand; Ipswich from two thou. Although the viceroy of Ireland was the sand to fifty thousand seven hundred; highest paid officer of State, the Duke of Northampton from sixteen thousand to i York, as postmaster general, held a more nearly fifty-two thousand; while Roches-enviable office, for he did nothing what. ter has increased from between sixteen ever in return for his twenty thousand thousand and eighteen thousand to only pounds a year, but left "the management twenty-one thousand five hundred. Lons of the business to the king's secretaries.” don and Westminster, of course, stand | The population of the entire kingdom



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