chooses to exercise his imitative func- circumstance attaching to the realized tion. If, therefore, the child or the savage scheme, which did not enter into the cal. chooses to imitate order rather than disculation of the theorist. For a practical order, it is a distinct evidence that the art like architecture, the influences that mind of the imitator delights in order; disturb the calculations of the pure theo. and in this order we have, in fact, the rist are many and various; besides, we most necessary, the most simple, and the must consider that in some countries, as most universal element in the framework in Great Britain, the border-line that dis. of all beautiful structures.* If you ask tinguishes the architect from the mere whence this love of order proceeds, the builder has not been distinctly traced. plain answer is that it lies in the mind, The so-called architect, in many cases, is just as the belief that two and two make like an empirical mathematician, who has four lies in the mind. The mind can no never been trained scientifically to prove more choose to delight in confusion than by severe deduction the truth of his init can choose to believe that two and two ductions, but who merely makes empirical make five. And this leads us to make a plunges into them, and has no security, single remark on the excellence generally even with the finest instincts, against the believed to inhere in mathematics that grossest blunders; while the general pubit is the only science which deals in neces- lic either looks on the grossest violations sary and incontrovertible truth. Mathe. of the eternal laws of the beautiful with matics is of two kinds, pure and applied. perfect indifference, or flings out hastily a That absolute certainty should be predi- mere I like or I dislike, as a sufficient sub. cable of the former lies on the surface; stitute for a reasonable verdict. Were the for, as pure mathematics is a science that elements of pure ästhetics as thoroughly consists of mere abstract suppositions and as systematically taught in the schools clearly defined, to the exclusion of all as the elements of arithmetic and matbepossible causes of disturbance, it is plain matics, no man could doubt of the abso. that the category of necessity must belong lute certainty of the one class of primary to any chain of propositions which lies intellectual intuitions any more than of shut up in the definition. Each part of the other. But the fine arts are a luxury Euclid is merely a detached evolution of which only a few can enjoy, and only a what lie in the definite figure with which very few scientifically appreciate. Let us it starts, say, a triangle, a circle, a sphere, now revert to the consideration of order. a cone, or what you please. But in ap- Order, which is, as we have said, the plied mathematics which is the only fundamental element in all beautiful strucreal science - as pure mathematics are tures, implies unity; and unity implies mere thinkable limitations of a reality mind. In the formation of a circle or a disturbances and variations of various square, or any regular figure, there is a kinds constantly interfere, for which al- definite relation of every individual part lowance requires to be made. The infal. of the figure, to a definite point or points, libility of ibe science, therefore, ceases say the centre in a circle, or the two foci the moment it is applied to the measure in an ellipse; the parts are many, but the of a real thing; as we see every day that plan is one; and it in the drawing of such two and two eggs, for example, consider a figure the hand of the draughtsman shall ably smaller than the normal standard will at any time waver that is, cease to act not make four, but something notably in continuous consistency with the unity less, perhaps, only three. Now, this is of the idea from which it started, there is exactly the case with the theory of the a flaw in the figure. Now, it is an opera. fine arts.

It happens any day that an tion performed every day in the arts and architect shall draw out the scheme of a in the conduct of life, to create order by building, to which no objection can be the subjection of various naturally inde. made so long as it remains on paper, but pendent materials to a unity of plan and which, the moment it is transmuted into purpose, dictated by an intelligent unity stone and lime, becomes full of offence which we call mind. In unity, therefore, an offence arising, it may be, from the and order as the result of unity, and both material, from the situation, or it may be as the necessary manifestation of mental from mere deficiency of cash, or any other action, we recognize the first fundamental

principle of all æsthetical science, as in. • Tò kałóv Ľv peyÉDel kaì táčel is the well-known the first book of Euclid. Of order in the

fallibly as in the axioms and postulates of dictum of Aristotle, where, of course, the Méyedos is only the quantitative element, order the essential and fine arts, symmetry and proportion are

familiar names; of unity in objects of diverse nature, congruity or keeping isceptibilities. The demand for the useful, the expression most familiar to the popu. which is primary in the practical mind, is lar ear. Nine in ten of the common ob- satisfied when the structure produced by jections that we daily hear made to a the plastic intellect attains its object as building, or to a lady's dress, or to the completely as possible; the utilitarian decoration and furnishing of a house, are demand in a bridge is satisfied when the examples of incongruity – that is, of the bridge is firm and solid, and affords an qualities in the parts which imply the ab- easy passage across the gap which it oversence of a presiding unity of conception spans. The faculty appealed to here is in the carrying out of the original scheme. simply the constructive intellect, desiring It is at bottom a want of thought and a practical means for a practical purpose. want of mind; just as if, in a critical mo- But a beautiful bridge or any beautiful ment of a game, the player, not having his object appeals to the imagination and the eyes open, should fail to play the stroke emotions connected with the imagination ; on which the success of the game de. there must be, therefore, in nature and in pended; or, as if at a decisive moment the constitution of things certain qualiin a great battle the commander-in-chief ties which, being superinduced upon the should become nervous and get into a useful, or mere fitness to achieve a pracflutter, and allow his line to be broken at tical end, create in the mind the pleasant a fatal point.


sensations which arise spontaneously on But some one here will perhaps say, the perception of a beautiful object. Now, and say justly, are not this unity and con- the first fact we have to deal with here is gruity as necessary in the useful arts as that the imagination is a faculty which in the fine arts, in an ugly bridge as much receives the forms of its action and occaas in a beautiful bridge? and how can sions of its operation primarily through that be called a primary principle of the the senses; the senses are, as it were, the beautiful which is equally a primary prin- vestibule of the temple, in the inner ciple of the plain and the ugly? The shrine of which the æsthetical goddess answer to this is twofold. Order and dwells; and the primary form of the matsymmetry may no doubt be present in an ter which she deals with, or her secret ugly body as well as in a beautiful one, workshop of select construction, are picbut hey ar not present as constituent tures. What kind of pictures ? Pictures, elements of ugliness; on the contrary, of course; of the various forms and states when contrasted with the same body in a of external nature and human life, which state of perfect disorder, the bare ele. are perpetually working their way up to ments of order which they possess would the sensitive tentacles of the human creajustly appear beautiful. It is not the or. ture in its course of expansion from babyder in a well-ordered, ugly object that hood into manhood; limited, no doubt, by made it ugly, but the ugliness of the the capacity of the recipient, but not materials to which the order is applied; therefore false : the limitation affecting as when we call a necklace, for instance, the degree and the adequacy, not the cerugly of which the beads are of a dull

, tainty of the perception. Like the view dirty, unkindly aspect, while the pattern of a landscape or a building from a par. according to which they are strung to- ticular point, it is the truth of the thing gether may even be graceful. And when or of that part of the thing which the certain objects, whether necklaces or point of view renders possible. What we bridges, are generally presented to the call vision, to speak with the metaphysieyes with an amount of tasteful decora- cian, is neither subjective truth wholly, tion superadded to that constituent order nor objective truth wholly, but a harmony and symmetry without which they could resulting from the concord of the two not exist at all, they will be called ugly, truths, as in music. Well, then, the picor at least plain, simply from the want. of tures which the sense admits into the the embellishments with which they are inner shrine of the imaginative sanctuary normally accompanied. Mind there mustare, under this necessary limitation, all be everywhere, in all intellectual products, real, but not therefore natural in the artiswhether beautiful or ugly; therefore, in tic sense of the word, much less beautiful. some wise, wherever mind acts, unity and By natural in art we mean the normal congruity cannot be absent; but the mind type of things which nature always strives has various sides, various faculties, and to achieve, but from various causes does various susceptibilities, and has to be ad. not always attain ; by the beautiful we dressed in various ways in order to appeal mean the perfection of the normal type, to those faculties and to stir those sus. Now, if there be anything essentially and

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by the divine constitution of things beau- | internal agency are proportionate to the tiful in nature which we shall for the extraordinary forth-putting of divinely present assume – then, it is manifest that inspired creative energy from which they the divinely implanted instinct for the proceed. Such overwhelming manifestabeautiful, which we have shown to exist tions of divine force from within show at in the love of symmetry, lying in wait, as a stroke the vanity of attempting to ex. it were, to extend its sphere of enjoyment, plain the forces that shape the moral will, when stimulated into full action by world by any results derived from the the impressions of cognate forms from slow process of fingering induction. Inwithout, eagerly seize upon and select, duction can never prove anything con. and with complacency dwell on, the ob- trary to the dictates of a well-regulated jects which produce these impressions, moral enthusiasm; on the contrary, the and in due season, by its own plastic en external servant when wisely questioned ergy, begin to act creatively upon them. will always confirm the dictaies of the Of course, we can imagine, and there may internal master; but induction can no exist, souls capable of perceiving only the more create morals than registered talent real that is carried to them through the of any kind can create genius. There is senses, without distinction between the a magazine of moral thunder and lightbeautiful and the ugly; but those who are ning in men of high moral genius, such utterly incapable of receiving delight from as Martin Luther and John Knox, which beauty as distinguished from reality, in can no more be born of the cold process some shape or other, are so few that they of induction, than out of the cawing of must be classed with the born blind, and rooks, the cooing of doves, the purling of with the deaf and dumb, as incomplete brooks, and the roar of tempests could be creatures. But normally the intellectual manufactured the artistic creativeness of appetite for beauty is as universal and as a Mozart or a Beethoven. uniform as the appetite for healthy food; The question comes now to be asked, and as in the case of food the digestive what are those elements in detail which, functions must be in constant and vigor- when superadded to unity and congruity, ous action, in order to utilize the food; so and appealing to the imaginative faculty, in art the finely selecting and plastically elevate a mere useful product of mechanmoulding function of artistic genius must ical art into the region of the beautiful ? ever be present, in order to make the cre. The answer to this question involves no ation of a work of art possible. It is in mystery. Let us take our original examteresting to remark here how differently ple, the bridge — the plain, solid bridge, in different arts the parts played by the the ugly bridge, the bridge of the railway internal and external factors are appor. contractors, how shall we make it beauti. tioned. In landscape painting, the beauty ful? First, we shall make it of a fair presented to the artist in real nature is material, not dark and funereal, like the often so striking, so subtle, and so mag. lava of which the German towns in the nificent, that he has little to do in the way volcanic district behind Coblentz are conof selection or rejection; his art becomes structed; for darkness is naturally hatepurely imitative; and the more close the ful both to gods and men, and light is not imitation, the more perfect the produc. only a joy in itself, but a divine necessity, tion. lo music, how otherwise ! - how absolutely requisite to make all things little the stimulus of a few sweet sounds, enjoyable. Then, you conceive a type of which a holy Mozart may have received bridge, whether light or weighty, whether from without through the expectant ave- with plain or rich decoration, which may nue of the ear, compared with the Titanic best form a natural congruity with the force, ocean roll, and fairy-like subtlety of landscape, or the urban situation with significant harmonies, which his awak which it comes into comparison; then, by ened soul poured forth from within! The what the architects call mouldings, you part which the internal factor, the mould. satisfy a demand of nature by distinctly ing mind, here plays in the case of a great marking off one part of the erection from musical genius, is precisely similar to the another, so that the special existence and part played by some special apostleship significance of each falls with more marked in the moral world. Such an apostleship, emphasis on the eyes. As to further decas history shows, appears on the stage of orations they will be pleasing in proporsocial progress, once, it may be, only in a tion as they are in perfect congruity with hundred or a thousand years; but, when the general type ; in so far as they are it does appear, the changes wrought on not overdone and do not overwhelm the the outward face of society by its mighty | principal in the accessory; in so far as

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they are delicately and nicely executed, go a step further in my conclusions with. for all sorts of fineness and dexterity in out bringing in new and altogether differexecution afford pleasure to the mind in- ent elements from the existing world out. spired by the God-given instinct of delight side of my original point of view. ing in excellence; and in so far specially man may justly say that there may be a as the ornamental grows out of the struc- unity and congruity of ugly things, as in a ture and is not, as it were, stuck upon it; dunghill

, or in a woman whose wryness of for all adventitious ornament is not only features perfectly harmonizes with the an untrue thing, in not being able to show baseness of her character. Well, then, as any natural reason for its presence, but it we have just been showing, to the law of destroys the feeling of unity, which we unity and congruity must be added the have already stated as primordial in all complete complement of things naturally artistic creations; for a genuine work of and essentially, and, by divine right, exart must always imitate the wisdom of cellent and noble; and it is precisely the the Creator in the compagination of that richness and variety of these additions miraculous structure, the human body, from without that confounds the untrained from which no member can be taken and judgment, and causes the lasty thinker to to which no member can be added, with despair of certainty in a science where the out destroying both the beauty and the principles that can be laid down are conserviceability of the whole. As a topping stantly interfered with by contrary claims. ornamentation of bridges, statues deserve But a very slight consideration will show particular mention; for, as the sphere of that the contraries in æsthetics are not expression in pure architecture is much contradictions. There is no contradice more confined than in the other fine arts, tion between the beauty of a rose and the that ornament is particularly fitting which beauty of a lily, between the gentle wimpadds the interest of heroic achievement ling of an English brook and the impetuto the charm of æsthetic delight. On the ous sweep of a Highland cascade, between bridge of the Main at Frankfort the statue the soft roseate glow of a cloudless Egypof Charlemagne is in its proper place. tian sunset and the variously flecked

Considerations of this kind make it beauty of a sunset in the vapor-laden sky amply evident how cheaply the pure math of the west Highlands. But however ematician purchases the boasted certainty great the variety be of existing objects of his conclusions. He owes his superi- that are all beautiful, and are adapted by ority to the meagreness, or say rather, the natural kinship to please diverse tastes, inanity of his material; he systematically there will be found in all of them some of excludes all actuality from his reasonings; those elements of things naturally noble and so can have no share in the richness, and excellent, which elevate plain masonthe variety, the luxuriance, and the mar. ry into elegant architecture, or pedestrian vellous concordant contrarieties of the prose into winged poetry. Light, as existing frame of things. He lords it bave already noted, is naturally preferable magnificently over his domain of abstract to darkness; skill and dexterity to coarse. thought; but is weighed in the balance ness and crudeness of execution ; deco. and found wanting the moment he has to ration to bareness; strength to weakness; do with the conflicting claims of manifold truth to falsehood; love to selfishness; luxfacts, spiritual and material. He is in uriance to meagreness; variety to monot. this respect like the mere logician; and, ony; significance and suggestiveness to as the logician from want of a rich expe. unineaningness of feature and shallowness rience of moral and intellectual life is of conception. But over and above these often a poor philosopher, so mathematics, elements of natural nobility, there are as Voltaire said, leaves the esprit where certain great laws in the constitution of it found it. By deduction pure and sim. the universe, in its relation to human perple from his primary assumption, the ception, which, if they are not constitutive mathematician finds his way froin point to elements of the beautiful, are at least so point of bis curious conclusion, without essential to its effective presentation in looking to the right hand or to the left; art that no masterpiece in poetry, painthis intellect is in the position of a ball ing, sculpture, music, or architecture can sent to roll down in a winding groove, be produced without them. Of these the which must go where the groove leads it. most notable are - the law of novelty, the But when, in æsthetical science, I say that law of contrast, and the law of moderathe primary postulate of all beauty is men- tion. That novelty, however impotent as tal unity, and from that deduce order, or a productive cause, is a potent spur to the symmetry, and again congruity, I cannot appreciation of the beautiful, every day


experience teaches; and, therefore, as the | Pythagoras to Hegel and Goethe, who best things in the world are amongst the knew that humanity without God is a oldest and the most trite, the great writer monstrous conception, which, like a flower bas been said to be the man who can say without a root, can have only an imaginary old things in a new way with the greatest existence. To the wise Greek the exclueffect, when and where and to whom he sion of the beautiful from theology in its appears. Mere novelty, of course, di- most comprehensive sense would have apvorced from “the eternal canons of love. peared unnatural. In modern times this liness," as Ruskin calls them, can produce exclusion has arisen, on the one hand only oddity of various kinds, as we see in from the unæsthetic character of modern the world of fashion, where a morbid love European compared with ancient Hellenic of change is always at hand to usurp the culture, on the other hand from the promthrone of reason, and to juggle nature out inence given in the Christian Church to of her most comely graces and most the holy and the good, as the phasis of healthful proprieties.* Of contrast we divine excellence through which Chrisneed say nothing; it is impossible in the tian teaching has brought about the purifinature of things that the effect produced by cation of the moral world from the sensu. any acting influence upon any susceptible alism into which the imaginative theology recipient should be as great when working of the Greeks so naturally declined. This, in its pure absoluteness as with the simul, of course, was quite necessary; the good taneous or closely consecutive presenta- being the element, the very atmosphere tion of its contrary, Moderation, again, rather, which society must breathe in or the nice balance between too much and order to maintain itself in any degree of too little, which Aristotle uses so effec- health and comfort. Nevertheless, the tively in his practical treatise on morals, is world is beautiful, nay flowing and over. equally the law of the beautiful as of the fooded with superfluous beauty in all good.' In art, as in archery, the arrow directions; and the aboriginal' savage, which overshoots the mark misses as de. with whose germing æsthetics we started cidedly as that which falls short.

these remarks, whether he reasoned or There remains only one other remark pot on the subject, would unquestionably to make, if we would place the science of be possessed by a healthy instinct that the beautiful on its true pedestal along the same sort of law for decoration, which side of the other sciences. The science had compelled him to adorn his hut, was of æsthetics, if founded, as we have en. at work in the well-ordered garniture of deavored to show, in the essential con- flowers and fruits and stars, with which he stitution of things in nature and in in the found himself surrounded. He would mind, must have its root in theology, is in feel, if he could not formulate, the idenfact, when traced to its fundamental printity of the plastic design which marshalled ciples, a part of theology, as all absolute the stars, and diapered the fields, with science necessarily is. The true, the the imitative and secondary art with which good, and the beautiful, the three cate, he had studied to clothe the bareness of gories under which the whole objects of his original place of shelter. Savages human cognition are subsumed, are all are in some respects better off than the equally human or equally divine : equally devotees of special sciences in the ad. human in the estimation of those whose vanced stages of social culture. That narrow speculation, from poverty of rever. systematic divorce of the beautiful from ential sympathy, begins and ends with the holy and the good, wbich has marked themselves; equally divine in the belief some modern Christian sects, could not of all complete men, from Moses and bave occurred to a healthy-minded human

animal in the Homeric or pre-Homeric • It is an unmistakable sign of the poverty of thought stage. In carrying out this unnatural in the region of pure æsthetics prevalent among the divorce, the Scotch, as we stated at the writers of the last century, that they treat the whole outset, have been the most systematic subject under the three heads of novelty, beauty, and grandeur, placing novelty in the front, whereas, as we offenders; an extreme section of them, have shown, novelty is no constituent element of beauty even at the present day, having banded at all, and grandeur is merely beauty - plus magnitude and power. The humorous again, valuable as it is for over the fine arts wholesale to. the Devil, cenain accessory effects, and especially powerful in cer- or at least, with a rigid repulsion, insisted tain departments of literature, being only an ingenious on keeping them out of the Church. The sport with significant incongruities, is altogether outside of the domain of beauty, though, no doubt, in the evil of this narrow policy is double; for, manner of representing the incongruous, there will be while on the one hand it'renders the baldone sort of humor, which is graceful in iis feature, and delicately suggestive in its conception, and another

ness of the Church service unpalatable to which is coarse and clumsy, exaggerated and shallow. a considerable section of the middle and

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