all we could say would be that he and we have your choice between being tedious, mean different things by the word. When and exchanging the broad human view we are invited to contemplate a specimen for one that takes cognizance of idiosynof humanity at that nearness in which we crasies; and Wordsworth seems to us so discern such special facts as that the much afraid of the last alternative, that parents were advanced in life when the he has constantly chosen the first. If you son was born, and that they lost their expand the fitting subject for the allusion money through the treachery of an ac. of half a line into a theme of a poem, quaintance, we are apt to feel that the you will in either case eliminate the picture, being as individual as this, is not pathetic element from it. individual enough. The present writer, The contrast between the two poets at least, confesses to feeling very often brings out the explanation of our poverty that Wordsivorth has lost one excel in this direction, and its connection with lence, and not fully gained the other. the democratic spirit of our age. It is a

The contrast between the two, at any twofold connection. In the first place, all rate, is an instructive one for our purpose. literature feels the direct influence of the Wordsworth and Gray, from this point of political spirit of the age. It is true that view, may be considered as representing we should not expect the influence of the nineteenth century and its predeces- democracy to be hostile to pathos; an

That Wordsworth was the greater attention to the needs of the poor and poet (though that is at least not a disqual- the obscure would appear, at first sight, ifying circumstance for this representa- its moral correlate, and this attention will tion), we leave out of the question; we be allowed to be a part of deniocracy by consider them only with regard to their its bitterest enemies. Its very excellence contribution to this particular kind of lit is that it attends only to what is buman in erature. Wordsworth represents what is each of us, and demands no special claim best in modern democracy. He looks at of character and position before it will the poor not as the picturesque retainers, devote itself to remove grievances and the grateful dependents of their social mitigate suffering. Of course, this means superiors; he sees in them speciinens of attending more to the needs of the lowly humanity interesting on their own ac- than the exalted, for they are greater, and count, but he often fails to render his also they are the needs of the majority. picture of them interesting, because be This is a gain worth paying any price to specializes what is characteristic of the secure. But, as a matter of fact, we do class without specializing what is charac- pay a price to secure all excellence; and teristic of the individual. Where he aims the price we pay for a complete recognlat pathos, be sometimes drops into pro tion of every need is, that we have some. saic triviality. We should have expected what lost the subtle power of emotion most of his readers to agree with us in which belongs to an indirect expression thus describing his “ Alice Fell,” if Mr. of all dumb need. Gray represents the Arnold had not included the verses in his eighteenth-century glance at the life of selection from the poet. The attempt to the poor, a glance full of sympathy, describe in poetry such an incident as a but essentially a glance from afar. They child having her cloak caught in a coach. are still the dumb masses. They are cerwheel and replaced by a benevolent pas- tainly “our own flesh and blood,” in the senger seems to us, we must say, in spite sense that they feel those sorrows and of this formidable vote on the opposite hopes which their poet feels also. "On side, a very good illustration of what pa- some fond breast the parting soul relies,” thos is not. It might almost be set by in the palace as well as the cottage. But the side of the caricature of Wordsworth they are hardly our own flesh and blood in the “Rejected Addresses” as a speci. in Mr. Gladstone's sense. They are not men of what is puerile when it should be beings whom we have any notion of call. childlike. This incident is too trivial for ing into council as to the sanitary or the most passing allusion, but the homely, educational arrangements which affect sorrows of the poor may be their welfare. From this point of view, mosť pathetic when shown us by the light the notion of helping them out of their of a far-off sympathy, transient as the dumbness, and endowing them with the gleam that fringes a flying shower, while franchise, must be allowed to strike the yet if hammered at through six or seven reader with horror. A neat, slated roof verses they become simply tedious. De does not more disadvantageously replace scribe the incidents of village life at which what Gray carelessly calls a straw.built the “ Elegy” glances from afar, and you shed, than the new view of the agricultu.


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ral laborer replaces the old, with regard | part of that democratic influence on the to his place in poetry. Wordsworth does social code to which we have so often not regard him from this point of view adverted, - a change which it seems to us exactly, but he is not so far from it as he those equally misinterpret who insist on is from the view of the predecessor with labelling it as either good or bad. This whom we contrast him. We feel that the particular side of it seems to us to be re. Bastille has fallen, that the “Rights of gretted, but it is inseparably associated Man" are in the air, that America has set with so much that is a cause of satisface an example of successful rebellion, that tion, that we would rather speak of its the first Reform Bill is on its way, that dangers than its evils. It is intimately democracy, in short, is a growing power. associated with what Carlyle meant by The poor are dumb no longer; they can veracity. People are always mistaking occasionally be very tedious. We cannot unreserve for truthfulness, and if there look at a thing at the same time from at were no connection between the two, they hand and from afar. The “humane cen could not be confused. Our contem. tury,” as Mr. Frederic Harrison has porary literature is marked by instances called the eighteenth century, was just in of this unreserve that would have been time for its educated men to look at the inconceivable to our grandfathers; an poor with sympathy, and from afar. allusion to the legend of Godiva with Earlier ages were too soon for the first; which we rememb a specimen of it our own, and apparently all following being greeted many years ago, would ages, are too late for the last. The transi- have lost all its point by this time, so tion age supplies the elements of pathos. many have followed Godiva's example.

It may seem to be putting a strain upon And the fashion is reflected in fiction. the theory of political life thus to connect Our greatest writer of fiction expresses it with literature, and that homely, every-all she means. Hers is not the art that day life which supplies literature with its calls up a train of suggestion with half a subjects. But those who care least for word, we never feel in closing the volume politics are moulded by politics. That that she has roused a set of recollections perennial life in which each one of us in which the original note is drowned; partakes, makes up in permanence what her words linger in the memory with all it lacks in vividness; its hopes and fears the strong characteristics of their own become our hopes and fears to some ex. individuality; but they stir no hidden tent, and even they who turn away from spring, surprising the reader with the all political interest and try to lose them- revelation of depths of emotion within, selves in the past, discover in the echoes perhaps forgotten, perhaps never fully to which they cannot deafen their ears known. And the words which convey something that by its very continuity the writer's whole meaning, though they forces them to fear it or admire it, may convey it perfectly and admirably, somehow or other, to wish that this or can hardly, according to our understand. that may come of it. However, it is not ing of the word, convey what we mean by so much the direct influence of demo. pathos. cratic feeling on literature that we would The loss of the pathetic element in trace, as its influence on literature through literature is great. With it, we lock the the medium of the social life. The ten door of escape from unendurable comdency of our age to leave nothing unsaid passion, we forbid ourselves ever to con. is impressed on our attention by every template pain without actually sharing it. newspaper and almost every book we We lose the medicine for many a sick open, and is forced on our belief by its mind, the spell that recalls without its record on contemporary legislation. Why bitterness many a bitter memory, the was obstruction never a part of the tac mediator that teaches us compassion tics of opposition until our own day? for many a hated foe. We lose that Not because people have suddenly dis. refuge from the pressure of individual covered, as a truth of which their fore. sorrow which is so little the discovery of fathers were ignorant, that while you a civilized age, that the singer whose insist on discussing a measure it cannot words most recall it is the earliest known pass into a law, nor because members of to our race, telling us how the obsequies Parliament are less high-minded than they of a hero released the tears they did not were, but simply because the whole tone cause. “ His loss the plea, the griefs of general taste was in former days they mourned their own." Nor let it be against such a method of procedure, and thought that we speak of a merely sentiin our days is with it. The change is a mental loss; the thing we describe is,

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after all, the literary reflection of a view continued through that month. January of the sorrows of life needed by all. was colder still, the thermometer once or What we can never forget, we must at twice approaching - 50°, but in the early times put far from us, and contemplate part of February a violent storm was acthrough the softening medium of thoughts companied by a remarkable rise of temthat blend sorrow with hope. What perature (tot 20°), and followed by some pathos is in literature that resignation is mild weather, since which the thermomin life, and if a democratic age fail to eter bas again fallen, reaching — 39o a recognize the excellence of this virtue, it couple of days ago. is because men forget that apart from it This, however, I am informed by the no manly effort is possible, and for the inhabitants, is the mildest winter that has majority of lives, no sustained cheerful- been known for many years, and I have ness. They know it little who think it no doubt that a temperature of -60° is the foe of energy; the truth is, that not uncommon in severe winters. energy loses half its efficacy in a nature It is strange how much less one feels that knows nothing of resignation. Do this extreme cold than might be imagined. we mean to urge that the literary quality For the first day or two it was unpleasant, thus nobly related should be made a con- but after that the systein seemed to acscious effort? All we have said shows commodate itself to it, so that a day when that we hold such an attempt to be self- the temperature was anywhere above. defeating; at the first effort to attain -15° felt quite warm and pleasant. To. pathos, it takes its inexorable flight. But day, for instance, I am writing with my we do not think that the endeavor to window open, although the thermometer avoid its foes is equally vain, and the is several degrees below zero, and there most deadly among them, that love of the is a light breeze. There have been days, ridiculous which is quite equally the foe it is true, when – with the thermometer of all humor, is what, for our own part, near — 30°, and a strong breeze blowing, we feel among the most serious dangers filling the air with snowdrift like a dense of a democratic age. While the inquest fog - outdoor exercise was most unpleas. over a heart-rending calamity is inter- ant, probably resulting in a frozen face, rupted with laughter at every grotesque but such days were not very numerous, a or absurd expression in the account of strong wind, even from the cold quarter the disaster, while the pages of Punch (the north west), sending the temperature are the chief study of the young in their up in a way that I cannot quite account leisure hours, and while the bracketed lor. “laughter” in our Parliamentary reports Now the climate reminds me of Davos calls the attention of the reader to state. Platz, the sun having considerable power; ments in which there is no wit or pleas- there is, however, more wind. Yesterday antry, or any possible source of them, we the black bulb in vacuo read 82o. · Thé shall lose the pathetic element in litera. only drawback is the intense glare from ture, and a great many other good things the snow, which makes colored spectacles also. Against this vulgarizing tendency a necessity. of our time we would gladly see a strong During the first part of the winter we and conscious effort, being certain that were a little anxious about food, not that it would encourage not only those facul. we were in any danger of starvation, as ties which make literature pathetic, but the Indians had brought in quantities of also that it would reinforce the sources dried meat in the autuinn, but dried meat of all true humor, as much the friend to is a most unpalatable article of diet, and true pathos, as it is the foe of its vulgar requires strong teeth and a strong digesand libellous caricature.

tion; and then the fishery was not as productive as usual, and the daily produce of the nets (which are set under the ice) was gradually diminishing. At last, however, the deer made their appearance some forty miles from this, and since then our

supplies of fresh meat have come in reg. It was not until the beginning of De ularly. Rabbits, too, have lately become cember that our winter really set in, but most numerous. These animals are the when it did so there was no mistake about great resource of the Indians in times of it, as the first of the month began with scarcity, but they are not always plentiful. the thermometer at -34°, and except for They are said to attain their maximum some mild weather at Christmas, the cold once in ten years, when they seem to

From Nature.




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suffer from a disease which shows itself | expected, with the dry north-west wind. in lumps on their heads; the following Sometimes the first warning of an imyear there is hardly a rabbit to be seen, pending change of wind to the south-east and then they gradually increase for an. was given by a rise of this thermometer other ten years.

before the barometer was affected. The winter has passed very unevent. A thermometer suspended on the outer fully. On November 17 and two or wall of the observatory at times read 9° three following days there were mag. or 10° lower than one in the screen, owing netic disturbances of great violence, due, to radiation, and I think that the common no doubt, to the large sunspot. The dis- practice of exposing unsheltered therplays of aurora at that time, however, inometers may explain some of the low were not of any remarkable brilliancy; we temperatures 'sometimes reported from have had far brighter ones since, with far this country. less magnetic disturbance. But as a rule Our daily routine of observations goes the auroras have not been remarkable, on very regularly. Lately wolves have though a night seldom or never passes taken to prowling about the neighborwithout more or less — the brilliant col-hood, and the observer on duty goes to ored ones one reads about are conspicu- visit the thermometers armed with ous by their absence. For the most part buge club; of course a gun or axe cannot they are all of the same yellowish color, be allowed near the observatory on acshowing the single characteristic bright count of the magnetic instruments. line in the spectroscope, but a bright au- A remarkable epidemic of influenza rora usually shows more or less prismatic made its appearance here in January. coloring along the lower edge, with a We first heard of it among the Indians spectrum sometimes of one or two addi. far to the north-west of this. When it tional bright lines, as a rule towards the arrived here it attacked every soul in the violet end of the spectrum, though on one place — Indians and whites — fortunately occasion I observed a bright band in the in a very mild form, and we hear that red.

Fort Simpson, on the Mackenzie, suffered Aurora is very rarely seen until night in the same way. Such an occurrence is has quite set in, but on three occasions we most unusual in this country. With this have seen it shortly after sunset, and on exception we have all enjoyed good health. these occasions it was of a reddish or We expect the ice to break up about copper color, as though partly colored by the middle of June, and then will come the the sun's light; it must, I think, have reign of the mosquitoes, which make the been associated with thin cloud. Its mo- summer the most disagreeable season of tion and shape showed it to be aurora. the year in this country. Fortunately

The terrestrial radiation thermometer they do not last long in this latitude, and placed on the snow generally showed a by the end of August, wben we set out depression of from 10° to 20° on every on our homeward journey, they will be calm, clear day throughout the winter, over. even by day when sheltered from the sun.

HENRY P. DAWSON. The lowest readings were, as might be Fort Rae, March 25.

TREES AND SMOKE. — A recent investiga- | those regions. The oak seems really the only tion by Herr Reuss, of the injury done to trees tree that can be successfully grown. Trees by the smoke of in the Upper that have been injured by the smoke are not Hartz region, yields the following among other exempt from injury by beetles. All smelting results. The sinoke is injurious, he states, authorities should unite in effort to prevent mainly by reason of its sulphuric acid. All this injury to vegetation. By instituting sultrees are capable of absorbing a certain quantity phuric acid manufactories, effecting condensa. of this through the leaves, whereby they are tion of the smelting vapors, the evil may be rendered unhealthy, and often killed. Their greatly reduced, and brought to a minimuin. growth in the smoke is irregular and difficult. Places cleared of vegetation by the smoke may Leafy trees, especially the oak, resist the smoke be brought under cultivation again after rebetter than the Coniferæ. No species requir. moval of the injurious cause. (Herr Reuss's ing humus or minerally rich soils prosper in report appears in full in Dingler's Journel.)

Fifth Series, Volume XLIII.


No. 2048. - September 22, 1883.


From Beginning,


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Fortnightly Review,
II. ALONG THE SILVER STREAK. Part V., All The Year Round,

IV. Town MOUSE AND COUNTRY Mouse, . Temple Bar,

Blackwood's Magazine,



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