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them; and this was construed by the position is alleviated the result must be fanatical women into a distinct prophecy; fatal. and then his church is built over a cave, and this has saved it from the earth.

II. quake."

SAMOS. In short Father Procopios had asserted an unpalatable superiority.

THE steamer which plies between Chios On my return to the Chora a personage and Samos only takes eight hours, and in shabby garments expressed a desire to stops first at the Karlovassi, a nest of speak to me; his name was Constantine villages under the shadow of Mount Prochides. Twenty years ago he estab. Kerki. lished the first and only Greek printing. A weird mountain, honeycombed with press in Chios; he printed schoolbooks caves, and esteemed by the inhabitants for the gymnasium, he printed lists of the as the abode of all sorts of unearthly subscribers to charities. Six months ago horrors — Nereids, as they call them for his permission to print was taken away the most part in the island. The Nereids from him by the government, and now the of the mountain are at constant war with schools of Chios can only get books by the Nereids of the sea; if the former win sending to Smyrna; they cannot print the mountaineers are prosperous, if the the names of the subscribers to their latter, luck attends those on the seashore. charities. In short, the Sciotes have no The Samiotes are right in attributing to means of publishing anything now, and the mountain their prosperity, for amongst Prochides is a ruined man.

the heights and caves of Mount Kerki The object of this peremptory suppres. the Samiotes kept up a constant sion of the press is obvious. The Turks against the Turks lony after the settledo not wish anybodiy to know what is ment of the Greek war of independence, going on in the island, and how can any. which allotted the island, together with thing be known? An English yacht or the rest of the Sporades, to Turkey. two may stop at the Chora for a few hours After years of determined resistance, now and again; the occupants get off to France, England, and Russia gave the see the ruins of the place; they think it Samiotes leave to have a prince of their sad, perhaps, and are glad to leave so own - a Greek sent from Constantinople mournful a spot.

But since the officers -a parliament of their own – in short, of the Thunderer distributed relief after entire self-government on payment of an the earthquake scarcely a European has annual tribute of four hundred thousand passed through the ruined villages, and piastres to the Porte. “So the Nereids now the printing press is stopped nothing of the mountains," say the Samioies, can be known except what the govern- “ have put to rout the Nereids of the ment chooses to tell.

sea.From the antecedents of Chios we may These mountaineers show the spirit of fairly argue that if the island were left to independence common to their class. itself it would recover, for there is a sur. The Samiotes who cross over to the opprising amount of commercial vitality posite mainland make the best brigands, about a Sciote. Of all Greeks, a Sciote and are the dread of the Turks; the Greek is the most astute; the names of Samiotes who stop at home make the best most successful Greek merchants in En- citizens, and are the most law-abiding gland and elsewhere 'point to a Sciote race to be found in the Greek islands. origin. Even as far back as the days of Samos, with the exception of the plain Herodotus they were celebrated as a cen- around the ancient Greek city, now barely tre of commercial activity. During the inhabited, is all mountainous, and the Middle Ages the Greeks of Chios under mountains are fertile, many of them with Italian rule grew rich and prospered. forests up to the top; bence a typical Before the terrible slaughter of 1821, the Samiote is a shepherd fron the mouniainwealth and luxury of Chios were prover- side, and a fine fellow he is. This forms bial throughout the East. Even after that the difference between Chiotes and Samidisaster, which would have ruined any otes; the former live principally on the other place, Chios recovered, and before coast, and are a timid, shrewd, mercantile the earthquake, though badly governed, race, the latter brave and hardy, and in a the island was prosperous. Unfortunately contest with Turkey the laiter qualities now their struggle for recovery is coinci. are the most valuable, as the resuli shows. dent with the final struggle of Turkey for Throughout Samos every village we visexistence, and unless in some way their lited — and we visited nearly all — was

prosperous; an element of security for life | hundred thousand piastres of his tribute, and property seemed to render enterprise on condition that roads are made with the hopeful, and contentment in the existing money. "He thinks," said a cynical inorder of things prevailed.

habitant of the slopes of Mount Kerki, We land at Karlovassi, and are at once " that in case of a disturbance arising, cheered by the sight of a flag – red and when good roads are made, he will be blue with a white cross thereon, the em- better able to subdue us than he was be. blem of independence. On the shore of fore." the little harbor soldiers in exceedingly As we wait for our mules, the smart gay uniform meet us; they wear the Greek guards come to us, and ask where we are costume, only their petticoats, or fusta. going and our object; when satisfied as nelli, instead of being white cotton are of to our innocent intent they encourage us blue cloth; their coat is blue, with long, by saying we may travel all over their flapping sleeves, their waistcoats are richly island without fear, "very different from embroidered with red, and so are their over there,” they add, pointing contempgaiters; they carry a sword by their side. tuously at the mainland. The truth of These are the Samiote guards. On in this we realized, for nothing but the quiry we were told that this costume was greatest civility attended our wanderings. only adopted two years ago; originally it We stroll into the church ; perhaps the was the dress of the villagers in Maratho- most interesting thing for us who have Combo, a colony in Samos from Epirus, just arrived at Samos is the throne of the and consequently Albanian.

prince therein, with 5tw (let him live) writModern Samos in fact is a mass of little ten over it, and then there is the invaria. colonies, for the island was uninhabited ble richly carved tempelon or rood-screen, for a century after the Turkish inroads, which we see in every church in these until a pasha in 1550 went to hunt there islands. · In fact carving is quite a spe. one day and recognized its fertility, as the cialty about here. poet Menander did centuries before, when The mountain scenery of Samos is truly he applied to it the Greek proverb that at gorgeous, surpassing all things in the Samos "even hens give milk.” On rep. Greek islands in loveliness. Through resenting this fertility to the sultan, colo- peeps in the fir forests you get glimpses nists from all parts of the empire were of olive groves, of dis nt sea and islands; induced to go there by promises of gifts through peeps in the olive groves you get of land; consequently each Samiote vil. glimpses of fir forests, craggy mountains, lage has a different type of countenance, blue distances and bluer sea. Every though I am inclined to think from their shade is blue, and then sometimes these dialect and physiognomy that the Ionian olive groves reach to the summit of lofty type prevails — probably lonians from the hills, giving to each peak certain peculiar neighboring mainland. At the same time tints of blue, resembling stamped Utrecht many villages claim relationship with the velvet in softness; tall, gaunt cypresses Peloponnese, Macedonia, Lesbos, etc. stand out by way of contrast, and poplars Doubtless this mixture of blood has had without leaves, when we saw them a beneficial effect on the Samiote of to. called mevkù by the Greeks from the whiteday; only hardy and energetic men would ness of their bark — and then the foreundertake to colonize an island which ground beneath you is gay with various had run to waste; at all events the off colored anemones spread out like a carspring are finer Greeks than you meet pet, amongst the bushes.

We turn a elsewhere.

corner, and look down on a village climbAs in Chios mule-riding is the only ing the mountain-side, of a curious rich mode of progression ; roads are being orange color, which harmonizes wondermade, and an excellent one from the capi- fully with the scenery. On the flat roofs tal Vathy to the ancient capital Samos, or, they place soil of a certain yellow marl, as it is now called, Tigani, is actually fin. which, when soaked with rain, imparts its ished, but the islanders have as yet a dis. color to the walls, and hence the curious trust in the merits of carts and carriages, effect. and the road is grass-grown save for a This was the village of Maratho-Combo mule track in the middle. The prince on the southern slopes of Mount Kerki, told me that the Parliament had extensive where we arrived on the third day. It is schemes for road works all over the island, the chief town of one of the four districts only money is wanting at present for the into which Samos is politically divided, various enterprises. The sultan in cun- and in point of size is second only to the sideration of this fact has remitted one capital, Vathy. Here we learned more


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about the government and the internal ment. The lack of money is felt here, as working of the Samiote freedom.

it is in Greece proper, as a serious draw. They have a parliament, consisting of back to progress. Samos is full of minthirty-eight members in all, which meets erals, but there is no local capital to open once a year, in the spring, either at Vathy, mines. Drainage would make the plain, where they have a, or at once so fertile near the old town, again the Chora, the old Turkish capital, in the habitable. Nevertheless great activity is parish church. The sitting is never for evinced by the handful of merchants who less than thirty, or more than forty days. live at Tigani, on the ruins of the once Every nian in Samos has a vote. Out of famous Samos. This year they have this assemblage five senators are annually opened out the old aqueduct which Herod. chosen to stay at Vathy, to act as the otus mentioned as one of the wonders of prince's permanent council one from Samos (Herod. lib. iii., ch. Ix.), with a view each of the divisions, and the fifth to act to supplying the town with water. This as chancellor of the exchequer ; but with is an excessively interesting object for the out the consent of parliament not a penny archæologist, piercing, as it does, for two can be spent.

and a half miles the heart of the moun. All justice in its minor details is admin. tain behind the town, and showing thereistered locally in the dikasteria of the by the engineering skill of the ancient four provinces by the two demarchs Greek. It was lost till the spring of last elected for the purposes. Cases of greater year, when a priest named Cyril, from the i importance come before the Court of monastery of the Holy Trinity, discov: Areopagus, or assizes, which take place ered its long-lost southern entrance whilst periodically, and are presided over by the ploughing. senator for each province.

At the cost of twenty thousand francs The dikasterion at Maratho-Combo was the Samiotes have now almost completed not a prepossessing building, and the gov. the restoration of the ancient channel, and ernment official (evayyeleùs) was not a man the merchants of Tigani, excited in the of great personal intelligence; but he grew possession of this boon, hope soon to rewarm on the subject of his country's free store the ancient prosperity of their town. dom. On the table of the justice hall lay They have dug up the ruins of an old tem. a copy of the code of laws in use in the ple, with which they are restoring the old modern Hellenic kingdom. The Samiotes inole, mentioned likewise by Herodotus express a great respect for their kinsmen as the second wonder of Samos, and they on the European mainland, for whose are clearing out their harbor; to do this freedom they fought. It is a fashion in they purpose putting a small tax on forthe island to eat off plates on which the eign merchant ships, which touch here for king or queen of the Hellenes, or heroes raisins, wine, and caryb-beans, but the of the war of independence, are printed. consular agents live at Vathy, and are opBut during the Cretan revolution so many posed to having Tigani raised up as a rival Samiotes went to join their fighting fel. harbor. low-Greeks that the sultan sent a man-of- It is a pleasant walk across the once war to Vathy harbor. It was an awkward fertile plain to the third wonder of Samos time for the prince; he feared that if his — the ruined Temple of Hera, of which subjects assisted the Cretans too visibly, but one tottering column is left standing. and the Cretans failed, an attempt might The plain is covered with remnants of the be made to place Sainos once more under past, and the buried town and its environs direct Turkish rule. So, amongst other would amply reward an archæologist for orders of a like nature, he cominanded all the trouble of digging. Moreover in Sa. these plates to be broken. “ But,” said mos the country is safe. It is not as it is our host, off whose plates we were eating, at Ephesus, where the excavator has to be "we only broke a few for show, and put guarded by cavasses; here he can dig at the rest into a cupboard until affairs were his leisure, and could doubtless easily settled.” Certainly there are plenty of come to terms with the Samiote governroyal plates in Samos now, and plenty of ment for the transport of his treasures portraits of their Hellenic majesties on troven, which for some time past has been ihe walls, not to mention handkerchiess by an object of difficulty in Greece, and is the dozen with stirring pictures thereon now in Turkey. of Kotsari, Diakos, and other celebrities How glorious must have been a pane. of the revolution.

gyris at the Heræon of Samos, when the To the development of Samos there is temple in all its richness, before the manaturally more wanting than good govern. Irauding days of Marc Antony and other


Vandals, received countless Greek pil- | enough instrument in a house, but exceedgrims from the neighboring islands and ingly quaint amongst the wild bills. It coasts!

consists of an inflated pig-skin, with a Greek religious history is apt to repeat cow's horn at one end with holes for the itself, for up on the bill slopes above the fingers and a hole to blow in.

Then anHereon an annual Christian pilgrimage other pastoral instrument is the oupaú hcov, still takes place; three thousand go there a veritable pan.pipe, an Ionian instrument from Asia Minor and the neighboring made out of a simple reed, with six holes islands with their blind, their paralyzed, for the fingers down on one side and one and their lame. Miracles are on record, for the thumb on the other. A small but the sceptical say the same people are shepherd-boy played this for us with wonkept to be cured year by year. Undoubt. derful precision and taste, rambling on edly the monks are very rich, and they from one tune to another. have chosen the spot for their monastery As we approached the old capital after of the Holy Cross with judgment; it is our sojourn in the mountains traces of out of the reach of pirates, and near antiquity grew around us - a statue let enough to the Heræon to carry on the in bere and there, an inscription on a idea of a religious centre.

church tower, and so forth. At the vilA parallel case is before us in the lage of Maurodei they still make a sort panegyris to the shrine of the Madonna of ugly, quaintly colored pottery, and inof Tenos, called by the Greeks the Queen genious cups which, if you fill them above of Queens. It is a sort of panhellenic a certain point, become entirely empty. festival, whither twice a year from twenty- This is all that is left of the once celefive to thirty thousand pilgrims will as. brated Samiote industry. We saw many semble. Now Tenos is an island only a specimens of plates let into houses and few miles from Delos, and the miraculous churches by way of mural decoration, picture of the Virgin was conveniently dis- and in some villages a few were still ex. covered just after the war of independence, isting amongst the household crockery. when the idea of panhellenism was rife; When we reached the Chora, however, so to the Cyclades, close to the ancient the old Turkish capital, we were at once centre of Delos, flock Greek devotees steeped in antiquity: every house boasts from every corner of the Greek world at of a treasure let into the walls. this very time.

statue, some carving, or some column Samióte shepherds are quaint, simple which has come from the ancient town men, the back-bone of their country. You two miles distant; but the glory has demeet one; he says, "Spa van), “Good hour parted from this southern side of the to you.” Practice alone teaches the appro- island, and is now centred in Vathy. The priate replies, Iókha érn, “ Many years Chora still possesses a palace for the to you;"*" Well met." And never shall I prince, and it may be gay when the par. forget the effect produced by a shepherd liament meets in its church. who related his adventures to us with a Vathy, which takes its name from its Nereid. There he sat in his skin cloak, deep (Badùs) harbor, must be the seat of his crook in his hand, his red fez jauntily, government until better days dawn on placed on one side of his head, as he told

igani, and hey can restore the old har. us how one night a goat followed him all bor of Samos to its ancient value. Vathy the way from Karlovassi to Pyrgos with a is built in a basin surrounded by lofty tinkling bell; at each village he came to hills; it reminds one of a Riviera town. the goat left him as he entered, to rejoin There is the higher Vathy struggling up him on the other side. At length at a the hillside, house above house; and well near Pyrgos his mule stopped, and there is the lower Vathy on the shore no power of his would urge him on. At with a well-appointed quay, and the the same time a bright light in the shape prince's square, substantial-looking palace of a figure came out of the well; the goat in the middle. The lower Vathy has all ran off and was seen no more. Three days been built since Turkish days, and a very afterwards he was sick. Surely,” he flourishing little place it is, attesting more added, with excitement, “there was no than anything else can do to the sounddoubt about it; it was the havayla (Virgin)ness of the new government. herself who came as a Nereid to drive Forty years have elapsed since Samos away some evil spirit that was following was definitely free, and this space of time

has wrought a wonderful difference in the The shepherd sits on the mountain-side island. There are now schools in every with his catoūva, or bagpipe - a hideous village and paid masters, whereas thirty

- some


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VOL. XLIII. 2228



From Nature.

years ago there were only schools in the principal villages, and the masters in many

EARTH PULSATIONS. cases scarce able to live.* These schools are very tidy specimens indeed — well

FOR many years philosophers have built, all of them, and adorned internally speculated as to whether the surface of with maps, and mottoes all round the the earth is really so stable as it usually walls, such as "Success to the Principal appears. With the sudden and violent ity, and freedom of Samos.'

motions of our soil which we call earth. Every child is brought up by its par; quakes man has been familiar since the ents and masters to revere the very word earliest times, and the origin of these disof freedom, and the prince has no power turbances has always formed a fruitful to infringe their hard-woń liberties; for source of speculation. With the help of Greek though he is, he has lived at Con- properly constructed instruments, our stantinople all his life, and is a nominee knowledge of the nature of these moveof the sultan, and might be tempted, as ments has during the last few years been Greek hospodars of the Porte used to be, greatly extended, and we are brought to to gain credit to himself by infringing the the conclusion that these natural vibra. liberties of those under them. The first tions are propagated through the surface princes of Samos tried to do this, but one of our earth in a manner very different to day the Samiotes drove Prince Vogrides, that which we should have anticipated his agents, and his caïmacan, out of the from our knowledge of elastic solids. An. island; and in 1850 the sultan by a firman other order of earth movements which, in granted the complete liberty of self-gov- the hands of Timoteo Bertelli of Florernment which is now enjoyed.

ence, M. S. di Rossi of Rome, and other The prince lives at Vathy, and receives Italian investigators, have recently retwelve thousand five hundred piastres per ceived considerable attention, are earth annum; he has a steam yacht provided tremors. From observations carried on for him, and he has a very grand guard to during the past ten years it would appear attend upon him, the facings of whose uni- that the soil of Italy is practically in a form are of gold, where that of the others perpetual state of vibration, even in dis. is only red; he has a good house, and a tricts far removed from volcanic centres. large garden, divided from it by a street. On account of the smallness in the ampliHe walks about the town with an easier tude of these motions they are only to be step than most princes would do, for in observed with the aid of specially conpoint of fact he is only the sultan's agent structed instruments. Messrs. George there, to see that the three hundred thou. and Horace Darwin, in connection with sand piastres are paid regularly, and to see their experiments on the disturbance of that the Samiotes don't quarrel amongst gravity caused by lunar attraction, have themselves, in which way his presence is shown that these movements are common beneficial, for they know that the least to the soil of Britain. Like observations misconduct on their part would be at once have been made in Japan, and it does not reported, and made the most of at Con- seem improbable that after further experistantinople.

ments have been carried out we shall be As we steamed out of Vathy harbor I brought to the conclusion that the sur. could not help wondering how long this face of the whole globe is affected with rope of piastres would bind Samos to similar microseismical disturbances. Turkey, and thinking that the coins would In addition to these minute movements, be better spent in converting mule-tracks which escape the attention of the ordinary into roads than in swelling the coffers of observer on account of the smallness of the sick man. We touched at Chios their amplitude, theoretical investigation again on our way to Smyrna, and the con- has shown that there may be existing in trast was still more forcibly brought be the soil on which we live movements fore us = we had left prosperity and which have escaped our attention on acpeace, we saw around us ruin and desola- count of the slowness of their period. tion. J. THEODORE BENT. These motions for want of a better term I

call earth pulsations. Mr. George Dar. . M. Guérin's account of Samios, 1854..

win in his last report to the British Association has shown that movements of that nature may be produced by barometrical variation. A rise of the barometer over an area is equivalent to loading that area with a weight, in consequence of which it


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