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this characteristic of his flock, urged Sir | addition has been made to the number of Robert Biddulph to compel all the people screens aod traps, the latter being edged to help in the labor of destruction, but the with well-greased oil-cloth, which answers representative oi free Britons deemed that the same purpose as well-greased zinc in such a measure, though it might not be preventing the locusts from passing over contrary to public opinion in Cyprus, it, and is much lighter to carry. With would fail to receive sanction in England, this increase of screens, and a large inand that considering the scarcity of labor crease of workmen and of mounted overand the abundance of the promised har- seers, it is hoped that this season the vest, it would be unfair to interfere with greater part of the locusts may have been the agricultural population.
destroyed ere they could lay their eggs. But this inertness in regard to any effort “All,” says Mr. Inglis, “ depends upon to cope with locusts has often been ob- the traps and screens being placed quickly served in other countries. In Spain, for and with judgment. As fast as the pits instance, when they were ravaging the are filled, fresh ones should be ready, and land in the last century, the peasants as soon as the great mass of the column could not be roused to any effort for their has been destroyed, or has passed round destruction, but quietly watched them de. the flanks, the line should be lifted and vouring their gardens and their crops. put down somewhere else, where most The magnitude of the evil seemed to par. required, and to do this requires not only alyze effort.
intelligence on the part of the overseers, The reports from Nicosia omit to state but also sufficient labor." the weight of locusts there destroyed, so There was every reason to expect that we fail to learn whether it equalled or ex- the work this year would prove quite as ceeded the twelve thousand tons of Fama. heavy as it has been hitherto, more so, gusta. We may safely assume that it indeed, as the locusts' eggs were scattered could not have been less than two-thirds over a much wider area, and in the Famaof the yield of the eastern province, and gusta district, sixty per cent. of the whole at this estimate the total of the year's prod- were laid in Larnaca, mostly on hilly uce must certainly have reached twenty ground, where it is difficult to manœuvre thousand tons. No wonder that my pio. the screens. The preliminary outlay has, feeding friend should so sorely regret the however, been less than in former years, burial of so much good animal food! as so large a quantity of screens and traps
The superintendents and commission had already been provided, and the ex. ers agreed in recommending that in this penditure for egg-purchase, which in 1881 spring of 1883 no effort whatever should amounted to 12,2621., has also been saved. be made for the destruction of locusts' Now that the warfare is properly oreggs, as it was evidently quite useless to ganized, there is good reason to believe expect to find them all. Even on average that ultimate victory is assured. From ground, and under government super. the fact of the locust being indigenous, vision, it seems impossible to discover all and not a visitor from the mainland, there these hidden treasures, and it is rare that seems room to hope that it may be altomore than seventy per cent. are collected.gether eradicated, and this task will be. The subsequent endeavor to capture the cone easier if the population increases locusts hatched from the remaining thirty and cultivation extends. At present the per cent. involves just as much trouble sparseness of the population and the large and expense as if the full pumber had tracts of uncultivated land are all in favor been developed.
of the locust increase. The waste lands Moreover the destruction of the locusts' which now form its favorite breedingeggs necessarily involves that of the larvæ grounds are capable of yielding wine and of the Bombylidæ or bee-fly, which is olives, cotton and corn, in lieu of locusts' a most valuable ally, as it devours the eggs, and the insect, which will only locusts' eggs, and five per cent. of those deposit its eggs on bard, undisturbed collected in Cyprus in the autumn of 1881 ground, would find an ever-narrowing area were found to be thus affected, and would suited to its purpose. consequently have perished without any Meanwhile the locust war of March, human intervention.
April, and May, 1883, has been diligently So, in the present year, all efforts are carried on, and we may trust that its close reserved for the wholesale destruction of will find the farmers of Cyprus rejoicing the locust legions when they are in full over something approaching to the exter. marching order. To this end a very large mination of their greedy foe.
C. F. GORDON CUMMING.
From Macmillan's Magazine. doing what they can to help their fellowTWO TURKISH ISLANDS TO-DAY. countrymen. And then the pasha lives
here, and it is to the interest of the Turks to put on a good appearance in the Chora,
as hy this means they can hide the hideous CHIOS.
state of the rest of the island. If a forChios suffered, as we all know, from eignei comes at all, for business or pleasan overwhelming earthquake just two ure, he unly stops at the Chora, and there years ago ; sor a short time the island was he may lament the ruins, but he sees no a nine days' wonder, and relief poured in abject poverty. But then the Chora con. from all quarters of Europe. Since then tains not quite ten thousand Christians, she has been forgotten; Europe has had and under five thousand Turks ; whereas earthquakes and other excitements nearer the island has fifty thousand Christians home, and the ruin of Chios is now only altogether, and but few Turks except sola vague memory: Unfortunately for the diers out of the Chora. island it forms an insignificant portion Mule-riding for a week is the only way of the Turkish dominions, consequently to see the interior of Chios; of carriages its disasters are twofold - the one over there are none. The southern road from whelming at the time, the other perma. the Chora leads through the plain, or nent and galling in the extreme. During Kampos as it is called, once dotted over a tour I took in the island it seemed to with charming villas, but now all these are me that no other portion of the Turkish ruins. Here, before the earthquake, rich dominions that I had visited offered such Greek merchants lived, who had made a lamentable example of misrule and op- their money abroad, and who had retired to pression, and there is no one to raise a their native Chios as to a sort of earthly protest. For what is Chios but a small paradise. The names of Ralli, Scaraisland in the Ægæan Sea? Nobody visits manga, Mavrocordato, are all connected the interior now the villages are in ruins; with this fertile plain of Chios, forming, all the rich that could have left her. The as they did, an aristocracy of wealth, for printing.press has been peremptorily before the war of 1821 the Turks treated stopped, so who can hear the groans of Chios with unusual clemency. those who suffer and are robbed ?
Wherever the eye can reach stretch We will dismiss the chief town, or orange and lemon groves. Old towers Chora (Xúpa) as it is called, in a few words, remnants of piratical days — had been for though in ruins the people here are utilized to form the nucleus of pleasant comparatively prosperous. Even if they villas, but these are now for the most part do live in wooden huts instead of three entirely ruined or tottering. Walls are storied houses with marble staircases, in standing, perhaps with fireplaces in them a country subject to earthquakes they are and shreds of paper hanging from them safer where they are. Their climate is – tokens of a home life but recently de. delicious, and the perfume of orange and stroyed. Strangely enough, the church lemon groves makes you forget that there steeples alone seem to have stood the are still buried in the ruins the bones of shock, holding their own whilst all around the victims of the earthquake. The peo is ruined, and some of these are slightly ple of the Chora are timid about return out of the perpendicular, unpleasantly sug. ing to their bouses for more reasons than gestive of insecurity: one; they affirm that the ghosts of the Our first halt, for lunch, was at the conunburied still haunt the ruins, and a vent of Agios Minas, built on a gentle Greek of to-day, just as a Greek of old, eminence overlooking the plain, the sea, objects to return to the ruined site of and the adjacent coast of Asia. This, till some great disaster. Again, the great the disaster, was a flourishing spot, with dread of the earthquake has not lest them a church within its precincts, which dated yet; “It may return or not,” they say, from the early centuries of the Christian “ who knows?" It is only a venturesome era; but it is now alınost entirely de. minority which tries to make the most of stroyed, and the niosaics which adorned the ruins and live as they lived before. the interior exist no more. The Rev.
Furthermore there are a few wealthy Gregorius Semariotes, the superior, fed merchants still in the Chora – M. Cho us with eggs, figs, and bread, beneath an remi, for example, who has headed a sub- olive-tree, for there was no place left for scription for the erection of new schools, the accommodation of strangers save a and who is making a new road through the wooden hut where the three monks slept; ruins; M. Polimedes and others, who are l and it was from his lips that we first heard
the story of oppression and tyranny which A year goes by and the case is only we were to verify as we went on. Of all altered, inasmuch as Europe has forgotten the buildings which composed this con: Chios. Money had been distributed vent one only is in fair preservation, and amongst the sufferers — surely that was this is a square mortuary chapel, filled enough! But the inhabitants had not with the bones of four thousand Greeks recovered, for the whole of that year who were slaughtered here in 1821. Fa. shocks recurred again and again; they ther Gregory told us the storyas he were still paralyzed by their great disasshowed us the bones – how fourteen ter, and dreaded another. Turkey now thousand Greeks, from all parts of Chios, sees her opportunity; double taxation took refuge here from that terrible is demanded to make up for the year of slaughter in the war of independence exemption, and this double is established which first ruined Chios; how the whole as the rate of taxation for the future. Turkish army laid siege to the place, Could anything be more atrocious, savkilled four thousand and took the rest as ing perhaps their way of exacting it? The slaves or prisoners ; and here the bones inhabitants of the village of Kalamotti of the dead are still — skulls cut in two form a committee to discuss whether reby swords, arms, legs, etc., heaped one on sistance is possible; it is decided that the other in cupboards around the wall. nothing could be done, for the Sciote is It is a pity that the earthquake, whilst not by nature brave like the Samiote, he destroying the rest, did not bury forever is mercantile, shrewd, but timid. Money these perpetual reminders of Turkish is therefore borrowed at an exorbitant barbariiy.
rate of interest, their mastic crops and It is undoubtedly to the priesthood that implements are mortgaged, abject starvawe owe the existence of a Greek identity. tion is the result. At each village we By means of pilgrimages, miracles, mar. passed through we were shown women tyrdoms, and saints, they have kept to starving in their hovels, without a crust to gether through centuries of slavery the give their hungry children. At Olympi, individuality of the nation.
another mastic village, Turkish soldiers After leaving Agios Minas, we soon met the laborers in the fields, and in deentered the so-called mustic villages, fault of payment of the desired taxation, once the most prosperous district of the seized their mules, their goats, and their island, and now the scene of the wildest tools. On the slightest demur the delin. devastation. The mule-track through quent was thrown into prison. And now these villages winds its way over the tops the Turks are raising forts and placing of houses; now you ride past the fireplace garrisons all over the island to ensorce in a second story, and then down you go payment. to the level of a street. From many of It may be said that throughout the these mounds the dead have never been length and breadth of Turkey the inhabiextricated. One spot was pointed out to tanis are ground down to the uttermost us as the tumulus of twenty-eight men farthing, but in Chios there is a difference. there assembled in a café, when the earth. On the other Turkish islands and on the quake came on them and kilied them all. mainland I found all complain more or Money, time, and energy are all wanting less, but there life is possible; Chios has even now to dig amongst the ruins. Gen. suffered recently from such a terrible erations to come will find in Chios Pom. disaster, that if she is not treated with peiis without end.
greater lenience life will be impossible The story of one mastic village is the there. Suppose, for example, instead of story of another — abject poverty. Here sending succor to India after the famine, everything was ruined, for the earthquake we had demanded double taxation, we came on Sunday, so that the people, with should have done precisely what the their mules and implements of husbandry, Turks are now doing in Chios. But were all at home. In the face of this ter- Chios, unfortunately for herself, is not rible disaster and the generous contribu- India - only a small, unnoticed island in tions from Europe, the Turkish govern. the Ægæan Sea. ment could do nothing but promise to Some statistics I gathered from the remit taxation - for five years, they said, books of the demarch of Kalamossia may or until such time as the people iiad re. serve to show the estimated extent of the covered from the effects. This sounded disaster. After the earthquake there were well enough in the ears of Europe, and twelve hundred inhabitants left surviving, everybody was satisfied. The Turks were five hundred of whom were children; five poor, they could do no more.
hundred and fourteen were destroyed.
The assistance received from all sources ern Greeks do, according to accent, and was entered in a book, each page of which ignoring the long 0,' but with a sort of muwas stamped with the official stamp; each sical cadence in it, placing an accent on sack of potatoes, each sack of flour, each both the first syllables. Their double plank of wood was valued and entered at letters, too, are prominent, each k in a very reasonable valuation, as far as I ypáuja being distinctly sounded. could judge, and the total item of assis. It was very difficult to obtain a lodging tance came to 7421., or at the rate of 125. in this ruined village. We sat for a long 4d. per head. This, of course, was little time in a wooden hut, thinking that this compared to the losses, but still it was would be our abode for the night; but at enough to stave off starvation for a time. length a room, with yawning cracks in Other villages further from the capital the ceiling, was prepared for us, and here were not so lucky, for the distribution was we sat to receive the demarch, as a deputy uneven. Everything came first of neces- of the village, to tell their past and pres. sity to the capital, and the people of the ent misfortunes. He sat on a sack of Chora knew how to take care of them- mastic as he talked, and the whole room selves. Further on we found that in vil. smelt of mastic, for it is the chief indus. lages where the destruction had been the try of the place. In August they tap the same, the survivors had not received more trees for the sap, and it is much prized than 3s. 6d. per head.
as a luxury in the East. You masticate On another page was put down and like little lumps of this gum mastic, which rewise stamped with the government sealan sembles varnish in its flavor, and candle. estimate of the loss, and its total came to grease when reduced to a proper pulp. 82,0001., which can be no exaggeration, as Even this industry, which the earthquake the items included churches, schools, pub- could not destroy, is not as it used to be. lic buildings, and three hundred and fifty The capital is poor, the whole of Turkey houses. To-day we see the five hundred is poor, and mastic is but a luxury, which children of Kalamossia running about in can be done without. rays like spectres amongst the ruins, In the same way the villages which the without a schoolhouse, or a schoolmaster, earthquake did not touch have suffered or any chance of such a luxury, because too, for they have not now a sufficient their parents have to pay double the market for their goods; and they tell me amount of taxes they had to do before that even in the north of the island, where their ruin.
the shock was comparatively slight, the Excessively quaint was the picture of greatest poverty prevails. the next village, Kalamotti, as we rode in Olympi was the first village we reached towards sunset. Some twenty, or thirty where the damage had been but slight;
were assembled round the well here, however, there was but little imwith ruins all around them. Each was provement in prosperity. It is a purely dressed in the costume peculiar to this agricultural village, and had supplied its corner of the island. On their heads they neighbors with food; the neighbors have
a white, twisted headdress, the now no money with which to buy food. So Kovkoupi, the serpent-like ring, symbolical Olympi, with no means of sending its proof eternity, with its long white streamer ductions further afield, is suffering much. down their back; there is a sort of peak But still they have their homes left to inside the rings to raise it somewhat. them. It is a funny little village from a Their blue jackets, the owuáplov, with nee distance, like one large house or sort. In dle-work down the back and frills round the centre is an old Genoese fortress, and the edge, fit tightly to their body. One around are tightly packed the narrow white petticoat beneath this, is all — no streets; around the whole is a wall. You shoes, no stockings, and a pitcher in can visit any house you like in Olympi by either hand. The features of the Greeks climbing on the roofs, which mode of in these villages are highly marked, and progression is preferable to threading differ from any I had seen elsewhere; your way through the dirty, arched-over dark, almond-shaped eyes, pencilled eye, streets. brows, round face, prominent nose, and Our host was a genial man; he took us sallow complexion being the distinguish. to visit all points of interest, and told us ing feature, hair hanging like whiskers on how he had an aunt who was a Turkish each side of the face. Their language, slave, being captured as a young girl in too, is more primitive, with many Ionic the war of 1822. At that same time the peculiarities; they pronounce the omega Turks liad used the Church of St. Midistinctly, saying ivopwnos, not as the mod. Ichael at Olympi as a stable, and pierced
the picture of the saint with their bayo. one hundred and twenty only, but still pets,
prosperous, as recent travellers know who Of course these remembrances of a have partaken of their hospitality. They past are still keen in Chios, and don't help were educated men, too. ihem to endure the present with any Now there are barely eighty of them greater resignation. Wholesale cruelty left, mostly in rags, ill fed, and feverand slaughter like that of 1821 and 1822 stricken from exposure in their wooden
never happen again, but then the huts to the inclement mountain winds, cruelty of exacting more money than men and they are so busy tilling their ground can possibly pay, if not so openly mon- to earn their bread that they have not
a great slaughter, is no less even dug the books of their library out disastrous in the result; and then the of the ruins. For two years now these Turks bave ways and means of exacting books and numerous old MSS. have remoney which none can realize without mained buried in the débris. actually witnessing. For example, hun- Two rival berinits live on two rival dreds of poor Greek pilgrims left Smyrna peaks above the monastery. Father Pro. this spring for the neighboring island of copios built a church for himself over an Tenos, as they do twice every year, with. anchorite's cave, and, wonderful to relate, out a passport, or even dreaming that the earthquake did not so much as injure such will be required of them. This year, a stone of his building; furthermore, the however, it occurred to an ingenious offi- people of the Chora maintain that he cial to demand of these pilgrims on their prophesied the earthquake, and so idol. return their passports. None of course ized was hie by the populace that the Turks had them, and a fine of five francs a head put him into prison last year as a mover all round was imposed.
of sedition; but on religious matters the Again, a new governor is sent to Chios, Turks are as a rule tolerant, so they sent and finds on his arrival that meat is a him back again in answer to the clamors shilling a pound; he immediately says it of the people, and now he has returned is too dear, and orders it to be sixpence to his cell and his prophecies. in future. The butchers, however, know When Moslem fanaticism has not been what he is after; they have a meeting of aroused, as was the case in 1821, the their guild; they make up a purse amongst Turkish government has been excessively them, and present it to the governor. If lenient to their Greek subjects in the he is satisfied with this, without any fur. matter of religion. In every Greek church ther demur he raises meat to eighteen in Turkey of any antiquity, there exists pence a pound.
but one sign of subjection; and it is this. No sadder sight for the archæologist Before the conquest of Constantinople, exists than the ruins of the new monas- in the churches there existed a stone slab tery (Néa Movi), as it is called. It is up in with the eagles of Constantine carved the mountains of Chios, at the head of a thereon, and put up in some conspicuous romantic gorge, and was built by Con. position. Now this is placed, by order of stantine Monomachos nine hundred years the sultan, on the pavement to be tramago, in recognition of a cunning prophecy pled under foot, and the eagle has to have the monks had made about his ascending keys in its hands to symbolize the authorthe imperial throne. All the glories of ity handed over to the sultan. Byzantine art were lavished on it; the In Lesbos a few years ago, commission. mosaics were amongst the finest in the ers were sent to see that these eagles East, and styled the glory of the Ægæan were as they should be, and serious comSea.” Now the largest quantity of them plaints were made that some were misslie in a heap outside the church door; ing. In some churches the ingenious red, yellow, blue, green, square bits of Christians have placed this slab on a glass may be picked up in handfuls. Ev- pivot, so that the eagle may be placed ery building round the church is in ruins, downwards, and when there is a rumor of yet the church itself, though much dam- an inspection the stone is turned round. aged, and the mosaics ruined, is standing, Father Parthenios is the name of the for it has a vaulted roof; and everywhere rival heriit on the rival peak. I asked we noticed that vaulted roofs, arches, and him about the success as a prophet Faso forth were the best preserved.
ther Procopios had gained, and he an. Before the war of independence this swered with a sinister smile, monastery had no less than four hundred He only preached to the people that monks - a perfect village, as the ruins if they did not turn from their wicked attest. Before the earthquake there were | ways something terrible would happen to