bandınan. Not a blade of grass had es- | the inhabitants are at once to apply to caped to reward the most careful search ; Constantinople for the services of officials the pastures had disappeared, and the skilled in setting up locust-traps, and ar. herds of cattle and flocks of sheep were ranging the whole process of destruction. left absolutely without food.

The particulars given in this vizierial The rustling noise made by these busy circular are extremely interesting. First, multitudes, when marching and foraging, is as regards the eggs. Such is the instinct compared to the sound of a heavy rainfall of the mother locust, that in no case has in a forest, when myriad raindrops are she been known to deposit her eggs in pattering on the green leaves, or, to use cultivated ground. A million locusts may ihe image of the prophet Joel, it is like alight on a field, but not one egg will there the noise of a fame of fire that devoureth be laid. But should there be a barren the stubble.

spot, where the rocky soil has defied the Our interest in the destructive powers plough, there each mother will deposit her of this insect foe becomes more keenly ninety-nine eggs, piercing the hard soil to awakened when we hear of their recent secure for them a safe nest underground. ravages in a British colony; and from the The more barren and lonely the situation, official reports of the high commissioner the better is it suited to her purpose, and of Cyprus (Sir Robert Biddulph) are en- the less fear is there of her family treasabled to form some idea of the magnitude ures being disturbed. of the task he has undertaken in endeav. Cyprus unfortunately offers wide exoring to exterminate these destructive in- panses of uncultivated land, admirably

adapted for locust breeding.grounds. A This is by no means the first time that belt of bare, low foot-bills, thirty-seven such a crusade has been attempted in Cy- miles in length by about four in width, prus. In the year 1867, the Turkish aú. stretches along the base of the nortbern thorities decided that the voracious range of mountains, forming a rocky, barlocusts must be stamped out, once and ren desert, peculiarly suited to the locust forever, and enacted most stringent meas- nurseries. It is said that the eggs will ures to that effect, commanding that every not hatch at above a given altitude, con. man in the island who was subject to tax. sequently the breeding grounds are conation should collect one kilo (i.e., a large fined to a comparatively low level. measure upwards of sixteen pounds It seems that in most lands the locust weight) of locusts' eggs. Saïd Pasha, pays periodical visits, fiying in swarms who was at that time governor of Cyprus, Irom one country to another. The Cyprian and a most energetic ruler, was deter- locust is, however, indigenous to the isle. mined to enforce these regulations to the No evil wind brings hin from Asia Minor uttermost.

or from the Syrian deserts; no blessed He accordingly made a tour of the breeze wafts him from the shore to a watisland from village to village, taking in ery grave in the Mediterranean. He is his company the archbishop, bishops, and born and bred on the island, where he all the leading inhabitants, to add weight provides an abundant generation for the to his presence. Lest the people should coming year, and dies, leaving his dust to grow weary in their search and fail in the fertilize his native soil. work of total extermination, he threatened The eggs are deposited in the months them that should they fail to collect the of May and June, and remain safely buried full weight required, he would turn out all till the month of February; or, should the the locust eggs again, and let thein hatch; season be cold, they are not hatched till and, to prove himself in earnest, he kept March, when the earth grows warmer. all that were brought to bim safely stored In the month of July the task of collectin locked magazines, and none were de- ing the eggs was cominenced in obedience stroyed until this strange tax had been to the imperal edict. Each man was repaid in full.

quired to produce his kilo of locusts' eggs, So excellent was the result, that in which were duly weighed in presence of January, 1870, the imperial government the members of the Council, and then de. at Constantinople issued a circular, an- posited in a great pit, which was filled nouncing that, owing to the success of with earth and heavily trodden down to the measures adopted, the locusts in the ensure the destruction of all this embryo island had been completely destroyed. life. The said measures are then related in But as from the very nature of the detail, with an intimation that should ground it was impossible to find all the locusts appear in any part of the empire eggs, and a vast multitude were batched

notwithstanding all precautions, it was only benefits the public, and that fresh decreed that every twentieth man on the hordes of locusts will speedily come from island should be appointed locust-de- other estates to replace those killed, and stroyer for the other nineteen, who were so they are wasting their individual labor bound to support him during his term of for the general weal – a truly patriotic work. Thus a body of eighteen hundred spirit! workmen was raised, and sent to every The measures thus stringently carried district in which locusts appeared, under out by Saïd Pacha resulted in the appar. the orders of special officers and of the ent extermination of the evil. Certainly, Cypriote chiefs, both Ottoman and Chris. when a strong-headed Oriental does detian,

termine to carry out a measure dependent They were provided with special tools on the labor of his subjects, his total dis. for the destruction of locusts - axes, regard of their individual will or rights shovels, pieces of coarse woollen cloth does give him an inmense advantage. fifty yard in length and a yard wide, While English officials have, since the bound at the upper edge with a strong annexation of Cyprus, been cudgelling strip of oil-cloth six inches in width; also their brains how best to conquer this strings, poles, and planks of wood edged resuscitated and hydra-headed plague with smooth zinc. Wherever the presence without unduly burdening the unhappy of locusts was detected, the locality was Cypriotes, the official journal of the provto be surrounded by these strips of cloth, ince of Broussa contains the following which were tied to wooden poles, erected curt announcement from headquarters at about one yard apart, so as to form a cloth Constantinople: “If the governor of wall, the base of which should be buried Koutahiyah does not completely destroy six inches in the earth. Near these cloth all the locusts'eggs in the Caza of Ouchak walls long pits were to be dug, along the within a week, and report the fact to the rim of which were laid the planks with the government in conformity to orders, he edging of smooth zinc, so that the locusts will be dismissed from office.” Just im. which hopped into the pits should be agine the pressure that must have been unable to crawl up again. The band of put on all the inhabitants of the district oil-cloth upon the top of the screens to ensure the extermination thus imperaserved the same purpose. In case any tively required! should be so energetic as to hop over the And all this time, Sir Robert Biddulph screens, a second row of pitfalls was to and the home authorities have been strivbe prepared on the other side.

ing to solve the problem of how to subMeanwhile the workinen in attendance due the pest without oppressing any man. were to watch patiently, ever on the alert That strong and immediate measures to beat the shrubs and bushes with were necessary was evident, for the few branches of palm:trees, as for the first survivors of Said Pacha's raid increased ten or twelve days after they are hatched and multiplied in so frightful a ratio that the locusts cannot hop. Even when by the summer of 1880 their vast swarms their wings are developed, they are unable threatened calamity to the island. Wheat, to Ay at night, their gauze like texture barley and oats, maize and millet, fruitbeing unable to support the weight of trees and vegetables of every description, dew. It is therefore possible, before the were alike subject to their ravages. In a sun rises, for men with bags and baskets few hours after they settled on a field or to collect great quantities, which can garden they had stripped it of every green either be burnt or buried in pits.

thing, leaving only bare, brown stalks To ensure this work being faithfully rising from the earth, scathed as though performed, an officer was appointed over fire had passed over the land. every ten workmen, and "a trustworthy Accordingly, in the month of July, the

for every fifty: In each locality British high commissioner resolved to put where locusts were found a superinten. in force a considerably modified form of dent was appointed, and an inspector over the existing Ottoman regulations with every four or five superintendents. A regard to the destruction of the foe. truly' Oriental system of supervision, and whereas these required that every male doubtless most necessary, as although all between the ages of eighteen and sixty the people complain bitterly of the rav. should contribute bis quota of about six. ages of the locusts, none like the trouble teen okes of locust eggs, the quantity now of killing them, even on their own land, required was only eight okes per head, to from a selfish conviction that such labor I be furnished by January 1, 1881, a discount of one oke* being allowed to such | important fishing industry might be depersons as brought in their quota before veloped. In the same way, the locusts November 1. it was further intimated which are captured are generally burnt in that the government would hire the labor great quantities, whereas on the Bay of requisite for working the locust-traps, in- Biscay and the shores of Algeria their stead of as heretofore requiring the com. bodies are pounded into a paste, which is pulsory work of every twentieth man. highly prized by the sardine fishers, and


It was stipulated that the eggs must be it is thought that it might prove equally delivered quite free from any admixture useful to the fishers of Cyprus. Indeed, of earth, and should be brought to the if locusts are themselves good for human commissioners either at Famagusta, Lar. food, there appears to be no reason why naca, or Nicosia, where they should be their eggs should not be also utilized. weighed and destroyed.

Admirable as was the result obtained Some hesitation seems to have at first by this vast destruction of eggs, the col. been felt as to whether the liberty of the lecting question was one by no means de. Cypriote in his new character of British void of difficulty. One danger which subject would not be more fully recog- presented itself was that of establishing a nized by allowing the people to collect trade in locusts' eggs, which might in. the locusts' eggs of their own accord, on duce the egg-hunters wilfully to preserve the assurance that the government would a sufficient number to keep up the supply purchase all eggs brought in for sale. It for the following season. Another diffi. was, however, decided that the necessity culty was so to regulate the price at which of producing a compulsory fixed quantity the eggs should sell as 10 induce peo. would compel a more thorough search, ple really to search for them in the island, and the man who failed to collect his full but to prevent its reaching such a figure weight must buy from the surplus of his as should tempt speculators to import the more diligent neighbors. He who failed eggs from the mainland. so to do was declared subject to a pecu. Then, again, arose the British love of niary penalty.

fair play, and it seemed unfair that the As the only persons exempted from poorest laboring man who had nothing at this tax were the police, the military, and stake, should be required to furnish the the households of foreign consuls, and as same quota as the large landowner who multitudes of men had no inclination to might suffer damage to the value of hun. go out egg-hunting in person, a brisk dreds of pounds from the ravages of the trade was carried on in this commodity, locusts in a single day. It was, therefore, which fetched about a shilling per oke, proposed that in the following year the rising in value towards the close of the personal tax should be reduced to one oke season, when seven okes sold for ten per man, and that the landowners should shillings.

be required to pay an additional tax in The advantage of the compulsory col. proportion to their acreage (one oke of lection was very evident, for whereas in eggs for every fifteen donums). the autumn of 1879, when the people had Notwithstanding the enorinous destrucbeen invited to bring in eggs for sale, tion of locusts' eggs in the closing monthis only twenty-nine thousand, nine hundred of 1880, the mildness of the winter seems and thirty-three okes were collected, the to have favored the hatching of the sur. tax in the following autumn amounted to vivors, and in the early spring of 1881 the one hundred and eighty nine thousand foe were once more marshalled in mighty okes; in other words, TWO HUNDRED AND force. Happily, an unusual abundance of THIRTY-SIX TONS !! It seems difficult to wild grass tended to mitigate their on. realize the possibility of collecting in slaught on the green crops, and the har. sects' eggs in such vast quantities. vest was so unusually rich that the locust

It seems a pity, too, to think that such ravages were less severely felt than usual. a mass of material could not be made use Nevertheless, the necessity for vigorous of in some manner. It has been sug. measures was evident, and the locust war gested that if, instead of burying the eggs was waged with greater determination in great pits, they had been killed with than ever. boiling water, they might then be turned Although a very much smaller price to account in the manufacture of an ex. than beretofore was now offered for locellent bait for shore fishing, and so an custs' eggs, beginning at cne piastre per

oke (about a halfpenny per pound), and, as * In official reports I find the equivalent of oke the season advanced, rising to three times variously stated at from one to three pounds.

that value, the amount collected between


July, 1881, and February, 1882, was five chiefly directed their course towards the times as great as the total for the two points east to south. He took by com. previous years.

If the collection of two pass the direction in which fifty-two arhundred and thirty-six tons had seemed mies were marching, and found that two startling, what shall we say to so amazing were steering north, five north-east, an accumulation as 1,063,555 okes, or in twelve east, ten south-east, thirteen plain English, one thousand three hundred south, four south-west, five west, and one and twenty-nine and a half tons, which north-west. As a matter of preference, was the weight of locusts' eggs destroyed they seemed to select small ravines or in Cyprus in the spring of 1882!!

roads. This destruction of the yet unhatched When two armies marching in opposite foe was but a small portion of the task directions met, the smaller force turned that had to be accomplished. It was nec- and joined the larger. essary to organize a scheme for the exter. Nothing seemed to stop these columns; mination of the hungry hordes of living they kept on their course through villages locusts, which began to appear in vast and over walls, and even streams did not numbers, and were not only a present check them; indeed the streams only indanger, but would inevitably be the procreased the labors of thė workmen, for, genitors of an ever-increasing multitude. having been filled by the rains they some

Preparations for their destruction were times carried whole regiments of locusts therefore made on a very large scale. into districts which had been already Upwards of eight thousand locust-traps cleared of their brethren. The advanc. were manufactured, and fifty-five hundred ing column on reaching such a stream cloth screeps edged with strong oil.cloth would endeavor to cross it, and although like those devised by Saïd Pasha, each large numbers were invariably drowned, a fifty yards in length. These, with tools multitude would keep afloat till they had and materials (amounting to five hundred been carried down stream for a mile or tons' weight) cost of transport, and pay more, reaching some place where they ment of laborers, together with the sum could land in safely. (12,000/.) paid for locusts, involved a total The rate of progress of the locust army expenditure of 32,000l. for the year ending is found to vary with their age. When June, 1882, a heavy item of outlay for an full.grown they march about two miles a island with so small a revenue, but one day. which would assuredly be recouped with- Notwithstanding the enormous destrucin a twelvemonth, could it but lead to the tion of eggs since the last season, the total extermination of the foe.

number of locusts in the spring of 1882 To carry out the canıpaign, the island proved to be very much greater than in was divided into ten locust districts, in the previous year. According to some which fifteen hundred workmen were reports they were ten times as numerous. distributed, under direction of fifty-two The hatching commenced in the begin. memours, i. e., overseers, who were re- ning of March, but as it was found impossponsible to the nazirs or district super-sible to effect an infant massacre, about a intendents, and these in their turn to the fortnight was devoted to discovering the head superintendents of the eastern and nurseries and cominencing siege operawestern divisions. As the laborers were tions. The actual work of destruction required to keep watch day and night began on March 21, and was continued wherever operations were being carried till May 7. It was, however, greatly hinon, it was necessary to provide tents for dered by the rains in the first half of their shelter, and to forin camps and or- April, as the locusts object to march in ganize a regular commissariat.

cloudy or cold weather, so they lie still, The first duty of the overseers was to and obstinately refuse to approach the go over the district allotted to them in pitfalls so invitingly prepared for them. search of those places where newly So the laborers watched in vain, and the hatched locusts were numerous, and to canvas screens were considerably injured have these enclosed by cloth screens, or, by exposure to weather. if the extent and nature of the ground

But if the locusis remained at rest on rendered this impossible, then to set up rainy days, they must have marched to the screens in the direction in which the their doom with double zest on those foe might be expected to march.

which intervened, for out of 32,220 pits Mr. Arthur Young, the commissioner which were filled in the district of Famaof the Famagusta district, reports that the gusta, 4,280 were the tale for the last ten locusts in the eastern division of Cyprus | days of March, 11,188 for the first half of April, 14,741 for the latter half, and 2,011 | Aya Serghi figures as dismally as that of for May. Each pit contained one cubic Cawnpore in the records of India. yard of struggling insects of about 300 From the western division of Cyprus, okes weight. The total weight of locusts Mr. Inglis, commissioner of Nicosia, rethus destroyed in one district was above ports that he had never in previous years TWELVE THOUSAND TONS!

seen such vast swarms of locusts, and the I happened to mention this fact to a alarm of the farmers was consequently celebrated pig breeder in Yorkshire, and very great. Owing to deficiency of labor, the idea of so much good food being a large number of locusts were unfortuwasted distressed him greatly. He only nately suffered to escape, probably upwished he could have got the whole lot wards of ten per cent of the whole. boiled down to fatten his pigs ! It does Nevertheless the destruction was very seem strange that if dogs, hyenas, camels, great, and whole districts were cleared. and horses eat the locusts of northern It continued from March 15 till May 5, Arabia with such avidity, no use could be about which time the locusts commenced found for these on the island. Doubtless to fly, and to traverse the country, seeking all varieties are not equally good for food, food, and a suitable place to lay their eggs. but as four different branches of the great To quote from Mr. Inglis : “ Towards clan locust are mentioned among the the end of the destruction, when the loslain, we may safely assume that the edi- custs concentrated, labor was difficult to ble locust is included in the list.

obtain, and I saw a line of screens, some The four sorts specified are, first, the three or four miles long, which had common locust, akritha, which when newly stopped the progress of a vast column of hatched is white, but almost immediately locusts, but the labor obtainable at the turns black, but in later life assumes a moment was insufficient to open and fill light brown bue. It is hatched about in the pits fast enough, and the locusts March 10, lays its eggs about May 15, and were making for the fanks. dies' about the end of June.

“ To give some idea of the vast number Secondly, the tehakros acræda, a very concentrated here, and which, as they small reddish locust, very injurious to were travelling so fast, might have been the cotton crop. It is hatched in the totally destroyed in a very short time, had beginning of April, lays its eggs in July, there been sufficient labor on the spot, and dies in the beginning of August. – the nazirs had pits or trenches from

Thirdly, the vrouchos, a large green twenty-five to thirty seet long, dug at right locust, very injurious to trees and cotton. angles to the screens. These pits were It hatches in April, lays and dies in July. about four feet deep, and from three to

Fourthly, the scarnos, a very large light four and a half feet wide, and were lined brown locust, which does comparatively with canvas screens with the oil-cloth so little damage to trees. Born in April, it adjusted as to prevent the locusts from lays in July and perishes early in August. getting out. The locusts were advancing

The three kinds last enumerated lay so quickly, compactly, and closely, that their eggs on damp ground, and are more the noise of their fall into the chasm was wary in avoiding traps than the common like the sound of rushing water. locusts, which march onward steadily and “ These pits were filled in, and others blindly, tumbling over one another, and dug, but not fast enough. Had there pressing on so fast that those which first been sufficient labor, every locust would fall into the trap are smothered by the in a short time have been destroyed. In multitude falling above them. Mr. Young this case the overseer worked 'men by timed the filling of the pits, and found night, and I sent out a party of police to that when the locusts were on quick assist. march, the pits were filled to the brim in “The peasants were, as I have already about an hour and a half. Late one after found them, very apathetic, and in but noon he saw the head of a column about few instances would they come out even four hundred yards distant from a line of to assist in the protection of their own screens, where, at one point, ten pits bad crops." been dug, joining one another. Next Such apathy as this speaks volumes in morning at io A. M. he visited these traps, favor of the plenary powers possessed by and found them abont two-thirds full. In Saïd Pasha, when he compelled the whole one place a dry well, twenty-five feet in population without exception to turn out depth, was entirely filled with a densely and assist in work for the general weal. packed mass of struggling insect life. Last year the Archbishop of Cyprus, Doubtless in locust history this well at who doubtless was well acquainted with

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