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Yet, when the spring is in the land, Very close to death he lay,
And bright the heaven o'erhead, The keen eyes were waxing dim,
In sullen gloom ye will not stand, And he heard the whisperers say:
Though life's best hopes be dead;
New leaves break forth from buds unseen, “Time grows very short for him ;”
Till all the wood is clothed in green.
Fair souls, that from your high intent
By bitter fate are barred, There was nothing left to do;
Though past all hope your lives be bent, Yet, a want was in his eyes;
And past all healing scarred; Love has instincts quick and true.
Yet learn of these, to do as they, —
Not what ye would, but what ye may ! One who loved him saw it rise,
F. W. B. That last yearning – forth she went, Calm in solemn sympathies. O'er the red rose bed she bent, The roses that he loved the best,
ECHO. For their charm of hue and scent.
QU'EST-CE que le ministère ? She chose the fairest from the rest,
Mystère. Plucked it very tenderly,
A quoi faut-il se fier ? Laid it on the sick man's breast.
De quelle façon dois-je vivre? The deft hand hung uselessly;
Ivre! The voice would never speak again,
L'amour dure-t-il toujours ? But she read the grateful eyes,
Sais-tu le coeur des femmes ?
Du jeune amant le songe ?
Les profondeurs de l'âme ?
Femme! Blent with power that struggling died;
De l'art classique les charmes ?
L'école des “esthétiques”?
Temple Bar. Drowning all the paling face, In a passionate torrent broke.
There was silence in the place,
Quiet lay the unconscious flower,
All The Year Round.
In forests stand so proud,
So oft your heads have bowed,
A SINGING LESSON.
Far-fetched and dear-bought.
disperses Be the gleam of the words for the garb thereof
wrought. Let the soul in it shine through the sound as
it pierces Men's hearts with possession of music un.
With salt dews from the sea-foam wet,
By many a tempest torn,
What terrors ye have borne;
From The Contemporary Review. tenths of the English people exhausts the THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE BEAUTIFUL.
greater part of their intellectual functions The normal Englishman certainly is and their social energy. What is the not a philosophical animal. Metaphysics philosophy of the British people, or rather in his conception mean nonsense, and what voice of philosophy among the Brittheory castles in the air. Even in practi. ish people, makes itself most audible at cal matters compromise is his compass, the present moment? Likely enough the and the assertion of a great principle apt noise which is made by the fapping of the to excite bis suspicion. Nor has be any bird's wings is not exactly a measure of cause to be ashamed of this negative the significance or the potency of its feature of his otherwise sufficiently posi- Aight; but no doubt the kind of philostive character. The people that pro- ophy, or would-be philosophy, that one duced Shakespeare and Lord Bacon, and most frequently encounters in the current all that those two names imply in modern speculation of the hour, is of an extremely art and science, need not be ashamed of one-sided and inadequate character – any deficiency in the complete circle of hu- what we may most fitly characterize as man perfections. It is not given to any race Baconism run mad, or Baconism divergent to be great all round. The Romans con from its proper sphere, and rushing with quered the Greeks and all the world in an extravagant sweep into a region with one direction, but the Greeks conquered which it has nothing to do. The Baconian the Romans and all the world in another. philosophy, however catholic its concepEven in individuals, where nature is free tion might have been in the mind of its to put forth her greatest strength, many- author, has acted in this country mainly sidedness does not mean all-sidedness. as a corrective to the evil habit inherited The wonderful combination in the great from the Greeks of explaining physical German poet-thinker of poetical sensi. phenomena by constructive theories, rathbility, scientific acuteness, speculative er than by accurate observation and care. depth, practical sagacity, and knowledge ful induction; and the action of this corof affairs, is justly admired; but even rective has been so drastic and its results Goethe ignored mathematics, and turned so brilliant, and, in not a few directions, his back on the French Revolution and so useful to society, that men have almodern Liberalism in all its shapes, as lowed themselves to be run away with by decidedly as Plato did on Athenian de- this word induction, as if it were the one mocracy, and all that the word democracy talisman by which any reliable truth of implies in the history of human civiliza- great human value could be attained. tion. But whatever divine and generally And not only induction in the widest incompatible excellencies may be heaped sense of the word, but the special kind of on a few individuals, the masses of men, induction that is active in physical sci. growing up into nations, are always ence — viz., induction ab extra, or by fin. moulded after a more or less one-sided gering, weighing, and measuring of pon. type. In this region the maxim of Spi- derable materials or measurable forces noza applies with unqualified force -om- has been allowed to usurp the province nis affirmatio est negatio. The affirma- that in the nature of things belongs to tion of one tendency in any associated deduction ; while that which lies at the body of men implies the negative of its root both of induction and deduction opposite; and so a people predominantly viz., mind or hóyos, eternal, self-existent, practical and political, like the ancient self-energizing, self-plastic reason, recog. Romans and the modern English, will not nized alike by the wise Greeks and the shine in speculation. Curiously, the Ger- inspired Hebrew's — has been disregarded mans owed the great glory which they and altogether thrown aside. It is in the have gained as the leaders of speculative domain of morals and æsthetics that the thought in Europe to their having been inadequacy and absurdity of the inductive shut out, till quite recently, from the method comes most prominently into sphere of political action, which to nine-view. Not from any fingering induction
of external details, but from “ the inspiracently been made, the Scotch stood below tion of the Almighty,” cometh all true un- even the lowest standard that ever prederstanding in matters of religion, morals, vailed in England. The beauty of church and beauty. All moral apostleship and all architecture in England, even during the high art come directly from above and supremacy of pseudo-classicality, kept from within, and their laws are not to be alive amongst the people a genuine native proved by an external collection of facts, taste for the graces of stone-work; but in but by the emphatic assertion of the di- Scotland ecclesiastical architecture exvine vitality froin which they proceed. isted only in a few elegant minds, used as
These remarks apply to Great Britain an occasional stimulant to a sentimental generally, England as well as Scotland, verse, but not as a living fount of healthy but there is a specialty in regard to this action. We must consider also that the latter country which, in a general estimate extreme form of Protestantism, which of British æsthetical philosophy, cannot struck such deep root in the Scottish be omitted. Scotland, as is well known, soil, is in its nature, if not doctrinally had its school of philosophy, illustrated by antagonistic, practically averse to any ac. the name of Reid and Stewart, Hume and knowledgment of the divine right of the Hamilton, not indeed standing in the van beautiful. The majority of Scotsmen of modern speculative thought, like the even at the present hour, we apprehend, army of great thinkers, represented by, would object to paintings in the churches, Leibnitz, Kant, and Hegel; but still of for the same reason that they object to sufficient significance to warrant the hope instrumental music – viz., because both of a reasonable philosophy of the fine arts sacred pictures and instrumental music to have been promulgated there. But, are largely patronized by the pope. Not however satisfactory it may be to think to mention a certain ethical hardness that the large and capacious intellect of which long.continued religious persecuSir W. Hamilton, in a quiet way, protested tions under the Stuarts worked into the against the shallow æsthetics so long bones of the nation, the theology of Calvin fashionable in his native city,* it is none impressed on the piety of the people the the less true that the Scotch philosophy, type of stern volition rather than of ele. in its general action, has tended rather to vated enjoyment. The religion of the degrade than to elevate the theory of the Scot at its best rejoiced in producing fine arts as an independent domain of strength of character, exhibited in an speculative inquiry. The fact is, the earnest life, rather than in the apprecia. Scotch are, of all modern peoples who tion of the beautiful in nature issuing in have obtained any fame in poetry, per- works of art. To the Scotch Calvinist haps the most unæsthetical; they have nature has no sacredness, art no divinity,
uced some writers of first-class excel- and this not only among vulgar religionlence, and in these latter days landscape ists, but to a great extent among the bestpainters not unworthy of the picturesque educated classes. The proof of this lies country which gave them birth ; but, tak- in the once largely current association ing the people overhead, there can be no theory of beauty, which had its birth in doubt that a certain prosaic practicality the first decade of the present century and hard realism give the dominant tone under Alison, an Episcopal clergyman, to their character; and whatever of the the father of the historian, and Jeffrey, a beautiful in art, or the tasteful in decora clever barrister and reviewer, in the me. tion, may now be visible amongst them, tropolis of the north, and which, even always excepting their lyric poetry and now, may be found haunting the back their landscape painting, is imported and chambers of the brain of some old Edinartificial, not the natural growth of the burgh Whigs, who take their notions on soil. In one department - architecture æsthetical subjects from the old edition
in which notable improvement has re of the “ Encyclopædia Britannica.”*
* See the evidence in the preface to my book on Peauty. Edinburgh, 1858.
• In the old edition of this great work, under the article “ Beauty," seven distinct reasons for the please
This theory was merely a revival, under creepers decorating its porch, especially the depressiog influences of the last half if it has been the scene of bright youthful century, of the sceptical doctrine taught memories, may appear beautiful by virtue by the Greek sophists in the fifth century of its accompaniments and associations ; B.C., to the effect that tò kalóv in art, as in but neither the accompaniments nor the morals, was merely a matter of individual associations can change its nature: if feeling, local convention, or arbitrary ugly, it remains ugly, only the ugliness is fashion ; a doctrine which, as every one masked; and it receives from the superknows, was effectively opposed by Socra- ficial observer the praise of beauty by an tes, Plato, Aristotle, and all the great altogether illegitimate transference of the leaders of Hellenic thought. Looked at beauty of the adjuncts to the object itself; as a contribution to mental philosophy, it as if a plain women exceedingly well is one of the most transparent sophisms dressed, should be called beautiful by a that ever sprung out of a shallow soil, and person whose eyes had been taken capwaved its crop of twinkling leaflets for an tive and bis judgment tricked by the hour and a day in the sun of ignorant grace and brilliancy of her attire. One of applause. The function of association in the most popular arguments of the assothe domain of poetry and the arts is ciation sophists is taken from the diverobvious enough. Associations of every sity of tastes existing amongst men, with kind, some necessary, some accidental, regard, for instance, to female beauty. some noble and elevating, some low and The Venus, who is the horror of the degrading, cling to words as naturally as Greeks, is the admiration of the Hottenthe snow clings to the roof when it is tot. But to observations of this kind it drifted by the blast; and it is part of the is sufficient to reply that, in a vast and art, or, as we should prefer to say, of the various world, peopled with divers creacultivated and trained inspiration of the tures of limited capacity, all sorts of false poet, so to handle his words, as constantly and inadequate sentiments and judgments to select those which are most rich in will be found somewhere; that custom in noble associations, and to avoid those ästhetics, as in morals, often deadens the which cannot be used without calling up sense to the perception of excellence; a coarse, trite, vulgar, or too heinous and that in no case can it be allowed to adjunct. And here we see at a glance make an induction of the truth of things how it is that men of great talent and un- from low and degenerate types, but rather doubted genius sometimes fail in making samples from types which are the growth the desired impression on their audience; of the finest instincts and the highest they are destitute of the fine perception culture. It may be that a wandering of the humorous which teaches a man in Highland tramp, with a screeching baghis serious addresses to steer clear of pipe under his arm, honestly believes that images and expressions which, being his reels and Strathspeys, which grate so deeply seated in the popular ear, are ever cuttingly on a cultivated ear, are more at hand to jump up and turn the sublime sweet and pleasing than the most honeyed into the ridiculous. In actual life, asso. airs of Bellini, or the subtle harmonies ciation often plays the very pleasant and of Beethoven; but no association sophist profitable part of making ugly things ap. has yet been mad enough to bring forpear less ugly, or even, if the associating ward such a case as a proof that the di. force be very strong, quite beautiful. A vine art of music has no concords, against very plain cottage, for instance, with not which a Highland tramp with a broken a single architectural feature to raise it bagpipe, or an Italian boy with a hurdyfrom the category of mere masonry, if gurdy, may not legitimately protest. The pleasantly situated, under the shade of fact is that, where there is a fundamental graceful leafage, and with roses or wild want of seriousness in the mind, any
sophism, however superficial, and howing effect of Greek architecture are given, of which ever contrary to the healthy instinct symmetry is not one!
which guides common lise, will pass for
an argument; and, as for Scotland, it lies which any beauty of feature or complexion on the surface of its intellectual history, would appear as much out of place as fine that at the time when Alison and Jeffrey lace on a coarse gown; but no excellence gained an ephemeral celebrity by the of such basis could relieve a female form setting forth of their association theory, from the charge of ugliness, if mere perthe Edinburgh mind, in the whole de- fection of mechanically well-compacted partment of æsthetics, was a sheet of limbs constituted her only claim to blank paper on which any ingenious theo- beauty, Let this sophism, therefore, go rist could write any nonsense that he to Limbo with the association juggle, withpleased with applause.
out further discussion. We shall suppose Let us now take one of our best-known our rude Highland hut or Indian wigwam and most easily appreciated of the fine of the most primitive structure, and note arts viz., architecture — and see how in by what steps of unnecessary and purely this case the beautiful arises out of the ornamental addition the rudé masonry is necessary and the useful, by an obvious elevated into architecture. The first step law of natural gradation and necessary sub- in this process is one in regard to which ordination. A building erected so as to it may be doubtful whether it has its oriachieve the primary necessity of all habit. gin in the wish for increased utility, or in able domiciles, protection from wind and the delight of superadded beauty. If the weather, fulfils the laws of mere masonry; - original but or wigwain has been conit may be the most crude, like the ma- structed of stone or wood, or a mixture of sonry of the lowest style of Irish crofters; both, in a rude and haphazard style, withor the most finished, like the masonry of out either shapeliness in the individual the pyramids, still it is not a fine art. It pieces, or fair order in the structure of is perfect as masonry when it serves a the work; and if, after having inhabited useful purpose; only when beauty is con- for some time this modest dwelling, the templated in addition to utility does it savage builder should rise in his ideas, become architecture. The distinction as civilized builders are wont to do, and thus stated between utility and beauty ex- erect a more imposing structure with fair ists in every healthy mind; and yet, as is tiers of shapely stone, it may be doubtful well known, even in ancient times there whether this advance in the style of the existed a class of sophists, even more masonry arose from utilitarian considerashallow than the association-mongers, tions or from an æsthetical instinct. The who taught that beauty is simply utility, a utilitarian consideration might be to give fitness to attain a useful object.* If any greater solidity and permanence to the person is inclined to talk such nonsense structure; the æsthetical delight, proat the present day, he need not travel far duced by an inborn instinct, might be to find his confutation ; for there is not a exactly of the same nature as that which railway line in the country which has not a child feels, when it arranges pebbles or sinned against the most obvious laws of shells on the beach in a circle or other æsthetical science, by erecting the ugliest pattern. In the case of the savage builder, possible bridges, which are in every reihe utilitarian and æsthetic forces might spect as useful as if they had been alto act so spontaneously together that it might gether beautiful. To confound two such be impossible to say which was dominant; manifestly diverse ideas is the most but, in the case of the child, utility diswretched quibbling. Utility, of course, appears altogether, and a delight in the and fitness to attain a practical end must creation of Order by a selective energy be in architecture, as in all the useful is the sole force to which the calculated arts; but it is there as a basis on which distribution of the shells or pebbles can the beautiful is erected, or as a stem out be ascribed. Nor is it of any consequence of which it grows. It is the same obvi- in this question whether the child or the ously with beauty in women. No woman savage
- supposing him to have acted could be beautiful who could not walk from æsthetical instinct - ever saw any well, or stand well, or sit well, because other person arranging pebbles in a circle, her joints had either been clumsily or stones in ordered tiers. The instinct formed, or unskilfully put together. Her of imitation, under which we all grow up skilful construction, as an animal capable from babyhood into manhood in various of rest or locomotion, is an essential basis ways, is not arbitrary or indifferent, it is of her womanly beauty; a basis without eminently selective, and by his special
selection the imitative artist shows that * See this sophism humorously handled by Socrates he is guided by a special innate preference in Xenophon's Symposium, ch. v.
for the particular spliere in which he