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Tom and caught up with Jerry and the The time came at last when we should other man. Jerry stopped for Tom to have to reach some place or starve. We come up; me and the inan went on and saw fresh horse and cattle tracks. Tbe sit down by a little stream. In a few morning came, we scraped all the flour out minutes, we heard some noise; then three of the sack, mixed it up, and baked it into shots (they all struck poor Tom, I sup: bread, and made some soup, and eat every pose); then they gave the war hoop, and thing we had. We traveld on all day as many as twenty of the red skins came without anything to eat, and tliat evening down on us. The three that shot Tom we Caught up with a sheep train of eight was hid by the side of the road in the wagons. We Traveld with them till we bushes.

arrived at the settlements; and know I " I thought that Tom and Jerry were am safe in California, and got to good shot; so I told the other man that Tom home, and going to school. and Jerry were dead, and that we had “Jerry is working in - It is a good better try to escape, if possible. I had country. You can get from fifty to sixty no shoes on; haveing a sore foot, I thought and seventy-five Dollars for cooking. Tell I would not put them on. The man and me all about the affairs in the states, and me run down the road, but We was soon how all the folks get along." stopt by an Indian on a pony. We then And so ends this artless narrative. The turend the other way, and run up the side little man was at school again, God bless of the Mountain, and hid behind some bim, while his brother lay scalped upon cedar trees, and stayed there till dark. the deserts. The Indians hunted all over after us, and verry close to us, so close that we could

FELLOW-PASSENGERS. here their tomyhawks Jingle. At dark The cars on the Central Pacific were the man and me started on, I stubing nearly twice as high, and so proportionally my toes against sticks and stones. We airier; they were freshly varnished, which traveld on all night; and next morning, gave us all a sense of cleanliness as Just as it was getting gray, we saw some. Though we had bathed; the seats drew thing in the shape of a man. It layed out and joined in the centre, so that there Down in the grass. We went up to it, was no more need for bed-boards; and and it was Jerry. He thought we ware there was an upper tier of berths which Indians. You can imagine how glad he could be closed by day and opened at

He thought we was all night. dead but him, and we thought him and I had by this time some opportunity of Toin was dead. He had the gun that he seeing the people whom I was among. took out of the wagon to shoot the prairie They were in rather marked contrast to Chicken; all he had was the load that the emigrants I had met on board ship was in it.

while crossing the Atlantic. They were “We traveld on till about eight O'clock, mostly lumpish fellows, silent and noisy, a We caught up with one wagon with too common combination; somewhat sad, I men with it. We had traveld with them should say, with an extraordinary poor before one day; we stopt and they Drove taste in humor, and little interest in their on; we knew that they was ahead of us, fellow-creatures beyond that of a cheap unless they had been killed to. My feet and merely external curiosity. If they was so sore when we caught up with them heard a man's name and business, they that I had to ride; I could not step. We seemed to think they had the heart of that traveld on for too days, when the men mystery; but they were as eager to know that owned the cattle said they would that much as they were indifferent to the [could] not drive them another inch. We rest. Some of them were on nettles till unyoked the oxen; we had about seventy they learned your name was Dickson and pounds of four; we took it out and you a journeyman baker; but beyond that, divided it into four packs. Each of the whether you were Catholic or Mormon, men took about eighteen pounds apiece dull or clever, fierce or friendly, was all and a blanket. I carried a little bacon, one to them. Others, who were not so dried meat, and little quilt; I had in all stupid, gossiped a little, and, I am bound about twelve pounds. We had one pint to say, unkindly. A favorite witticism of flour a day for our alloyance. Some was for some lout to raise the alarm of times we made soup of it; sometimes we - All aboard !” while the rest of us were [made] pancakes; and sometimes mixed dining, thus contributing his mite to the it up with cold water and eat it that general discomfort. Such a one was alway. We traveld twelve or fourteen days. I ways much applauded for his high spir

was to see ne.

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its. When I was ill, coming through crets of their old-world, mysterious race. Wyoming, I was astonished – fresh from Lady Hester Stanhope believed she could the eager humanity on board ship - to make somethiog great of the Cornish; meet with little but laughter. One of the for my part, I can make nothing of them young men even amused himself by in- at all. A division of races, older and commoding me, as was then very easy; more original than that of Babel, keeps and that not from ill-nature, but mere this close, esoteric family apart from clod-like incapacity to think, for he ex. neighboring Englishmen. Not even a pected me to join the laugh. I did so, but Red Indian seems more foreign in my it was a phantom merriment. Later on, a eyes. This is one of the lessons of travel man from Kansas had three violent epi. - that some of the strangest races dwell leptic fits, and though of course there next door to you at home. were not wanting some to help him, it was The rest were all American born, but rather superstitious terror than sympathy they came from almost every quarter of that his case evoked among his fellow- that continent. All the States of the passengers. "Oh, I hope he's not going North had sent out a fugitive to cross the to die ! ” cried a woman; “it would be plains with me. From Virginia, from terrible to have a dead body!” And Pennsylvania, from New York, from far there was a very general movement to western lowa and Kansas, from Maine leave the man behind at the next station. that borders on the Canadas, and from the This, by good fortune, the conductor ney. Canadas themselves - some one or two atived.

were fleeing in quest of a better land and There was a good deal of story-telling better wages. The talk in the train, like in some quarters; in others, little but the talk I had heard on the steamer, ran silence. In this society, more than any upon bard times, short commons, and other that ever I was in, it was the nar. hope that

ever westward. I rator alone who seemed to enjoy the nar- thought of my shipful from Great Britain rative. It was rarely that any one lis. with a feeling of despair. They had come tened for the listening. If he lent an ear three thousand miles, and yet not far to another man's story, it was because he enough. Hard times bowed ihen out of was in immediate want of a hearer for one the Clyde, and stood to welcome them at of his own. Food and the progress of Sandy Hook. Where were they to go? the train were the subjects most generally Pennsylvania, Maine, Iowa, Kansas ? treated; many joined to discuss these These were not places for immigration, who otherwise would hold their tongues. but for emigration, it appeared; not one One small knot had no better occupation of them, but I knew a man who had lifted than to worm out of me my name; and up his heel and left it for an ungrateful the more they tried the more obstinately country. And it was still westward that fixed I grew to baffle them. They as they ran. Hunger, you would have sailed me with artful questions and insid. thought, came out of the east like the sun, ious offers of correspondence in the and the evening was made of edible gold. future; but I was perpetually on my And, meantime, in the car in front of guard, and parried their assaults with me, were there not half a hundred emi. inward laughter. I am sure Dubuque grants from the opposite quarter ? Hun. would have given me ten dollars for the gry Europe and hungry China, each secret. He owed me far more, had he pouring from their gates in search of understood life, for thus preserving him provender, had here come face to face. a lively interest throughout the journey. The two waves had met; East and West I met one of my fellow-passengers months bad alike failed; the whole round world after, driving a street tramway car in San had been prospected and condemned ; Francisco; and, as the joke was now out there was no El Dorado anywhere; and of season, told him my name without sub- till one could emigrate to the moon, it terfuge. You never saw a man more seemed as well to stay patiently at home. chapłallen. But had my name been De. Nor was there wanting another sign, at mogorgon, after so prolonged a mystery he once more picturesque and more disheart. had still been disappointed.

ening; for as we continued to steam There were no emigrants direct from westward toward the land of gold, we Europe, save one German family and a were continually passing other emigrant knot of Cornish miners, who kept grimly trains upon the journey east; and these by themselves, one reading the New Tes others were as crowded as our own. Had tament all day long through steel specta. all these return voyagers made a fortune cles, the rest discussing privately the se- / in the mines? Were they all bound for

VOL. XLIII. 2226

LIVING AGE.

Paris, and to be in Rome by Easter? It | are in their persons, the more delicate is would seem not, for whenever we met their sense of modesty. A clean man them the passengers ran on to the plat. strips in a crowded boat-house; but he form and cried to us through the win-who is unwashed slinks in and out of bed dows, in a kind of wailing chorus, to without uncovering an inch of skin. “come back." On the plains of Ne. Lastly, these very foul and malodorous braska, in the mountains of Wyoming, Caucasians entertained the surprising it was still the same cry, and dismal to illusion that it was the Chinese wagon, my heart, “Come back !” That was what and that alone, which stank. I have said we heard by the way “about the good already that it was the exception, and country we were going to." And at that notably the freshest of the three. very hour the Sand-lot of San Francisco These judgments are typical of the was crowded with the unemployed, and feeling in all western America. The the echo from the other side of Market Chinese are considered stupid, because Street was repeating the rant of dema. they are imperfectly acquainted with Engogues.

glish. They are held to be base, because If, in truth, it were only for the sake of their dexterity and frugality enable them wages that men emigrate, how many thou. to underbid the lazy, luxurious Caucasian. sands would regret the bargain! But They are said to be thieves; I am sure wages, indeed, are only one consideration they have no monopoly of that. They out of many; for we are a race of gipsies, are called cruel; the Anglo-Saxon and the and love change and travel for themselves. cheerful Irishman may each reflect before

he bears the accusation. It comes amiss DESPISED RACES.

from John Bull, who the other day forced Of all stupid ill-feelings, the sentiment that unhappy Zazel, all bruised and totterof my fellow-Caucasians towards our com- ing from a dangerous escape, to come panions in the Chinese car was the most forth again upon the theatre, and constupid and the worst. They seemed never tinue to risk her life for his amusement; to have looked at them, listened to them, or from Pat, who makes it his pastime to or thought of them, but hated them a shoot down the compliant farmer from priori. 'The Mongols were their enemies behind a wall in Europe, or to stone the in that cruel and treacherous battle-field solitary Chinaman in California. I am of money. They could work better and told, again, that they are of the race of cheaper in half a hundred industries, and river pirates, and belong to the most de. hence there was no calumny too idle for spised and dangerous class in the Celesthe Caucasians to repeat, and even to be- tial Empire. But if this be so, what relieve. They declared them hideous ver-markable pirates have we here ! and what min, and affected a kind of choking in the must be the virtues, the industry, the throat when they bebeld them. Now, as education, and the intelligence of their a matter of fact, the young Chinese man superiors at home! is so like a large class of European Awhile ago it was the Irish, now it is women, that on raising my head and sud- the Chinese, that must go. Such is the denly catching sight of one at a consider cry: It seems, after all, that no country able distance, I have for an instant been is bound to submit to immigration any deceived by the resemblance. I do not more than to invasion : each is war to the say it is the most attractive class of our knife, and resistance to either but legitiwomen, but for all that many a man's wife mate defence. Yet we may regret the is less pleasantly favored. Again, my free tradition of the republic, which loved emigrants declared that the Chinese were to depict herself with open arms, welcomdirty. I cannot say they were clean, for ing all unfortunates. And certainly, as a that was impossible upon the journey; man who believes that he loves freedom, but in their efforts after cleanliness they I may be excused some bitterness when I put the rest of us to shame. We all find her sacred name misused in the conpigged and stewed in one infamy, wet our tention. It was but the other day that I hands and faces for half a minute daily on heard a vulgar fellow in the Sand-lot, the the platform, and were unashamed. But popular tribune of San Francisco, roaring the Chinese never lost an opportunity, for arms and butchery:. “At the call of and you would see them washing their Abraham Lincoln,” said the orator, “ye feet - - an act not dreamed of among our. rose in the name of freedom to set free selves - and going as far as decency per- the negroes ; can ye not rise and liberate mitted to wash their whole bodies. 1 may yourselves from a few dhirty Mongo. remark by the way, that the dirtier people lians ? " It exceeds the license of an

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Irishman to rebaptise our selfish interests | have touched any thinking creature; but by the name of virtue. Defend your belo my fellow-passengers danced and jested lies, if you must; I, who do not suffer, am round them with a truly cockney baseno judge in your affairs; but let me de- ness. I was ashamed for the thing we fend language, which is the dialect and call civilization. We should carry upon one of the ramparts of virtue.

our consciences so much, at least, of our For my own part, I could not look but forefather's misconduct, as we continue with wonder and respect on the Chinese. to profit by ourselves. Their forefathers watched the stars be- If oppression drives a wise man mad, fore mine had begun to keep pigs. Gun. what should be raging in the hearts of powder and printing, which the other day these poor tribes, who have been driven we imitated, and a school of manners back and back, step after step, their promwhich we never had the delicacy so much ised reservations torn from them one after as to desire to imitate, were theirs in a another as the States extended westward, long.past antiquity. They walk the earth until at length they are shut up into these with us, but it seems they must be of a dif- hideous mountain deserts of the centre ferent clay. They hear the clock strike and even there find themselves invaded, inthe same hour, yet surely of a different sulted, and hunted out by ruffianly dig. epoch. They travel by steam conveyance, Igers ? The eviction of the Cherokees (to yet with such a baggage of old Asiatic name but an instance), the extortion of Inihoughts and superstitions as might check dian'agents, the outrages of the wicked, the the locomotive in its course. Whatever ill faith of all, nay, down to the ridicule of is thought within the circuit of the Great such poor beings as were here with me upWall; what the wry-eyed, spectacled on the train, make up a chapter of injustice schoolmaster teaches in the hamlets round and indignity such as a man must be in Pekin; religions so old that our language some ways base if his heart will suffer him looks a halling boy alongside; philosophy to pardon or forget. These old, well. so wise that our best philosophers find founded, historical hatreds have a savor of things therein to wonder at; all this trav- nobility for the independent. That the elled alongside of me for thousands of Jew should not love the Christian, nor the miles over plain and mountain. Heaven Irishman love the English, nor the Indian knows if we had one common thought or brave tolerate the thought of the Amerifancy all that way; or whether our eyes, can, is not disgraceful to the nature of which yet were formed upon the same man; rather, indeed, honorable, since it design, beheld the same world out of the depends on wrongs ancient like the race, railway windows. And when either of us and not personal to him who cherishes turned his thoughts to home and child- the indignation. hood, what a strange dissimilarity must As for the Indians, there are of course there not have been in these pictures of many unteachable and wedded to war and the mind — when I beheld that old, grey, their wild habits; but many also who, castled city, high throned above the firth, with fairer usage, might learn the virtues with the flag of Britain flying, and the red- of the peaceful state. You will find a val. coat sentry pacing over all; and the man ley in the county of Monterey, drained by in the next car to me would conjure up the river of Carmel: a true Californian some junks and a pagoda and a fort of valley, bare, dotted with chapparal, over. porcelain, and call it, with the same affec- looked by quaint, unfinished hills. The tion, home!

Carmel runs by many pleasant farms, a Another race shared among my fellow. clear and shallow river, loved by wading passengers in the disfavor of the Chinese; kine; and at last, as it is falling towards and that, it is hardly necessary to say, a quicksand and the great Pacific, passes was the noble red man of old siory – lie a ruined mission on a hill. From the over whose own hereditary continent we church the eye embraces a great field of had been steaming all these days. I saw ocean, and the ear is filled with a contin. no wild or independent Indian ; indeed, 1 uous sound of distant breakers on the hear that such avoid the neighborhood of shore. The roof has fallen; the ground the train; but now and again at way.sta. squirrel scampers on the graves; the holy tions, a husband and wife and a few child | bell of St. Charles is long dismounted; dren, disgracefully dressed out with the yet one day in every year the churchi sweepings of civilization, came forth and awakes from silence, and the Indians re. stared upon the emigrants. The silent turn to worship in the church of their stoicism of their conduct, and the pathetic converted fathers. I have seen them degradation of their appearance, would trooping thither, young and old, in their

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clean print dresses, with those strange, have it not, and lay down a quarter, the handsome, melancholy features, which barkeeper or shopman calmly teoders seen predestined to a national calamity; you a dime by way of change; and thus and it was notable to hear the old Latin you have paid what is called a long bit, words and old Gregorian music sung, and lost two and a half cents, or even, by with nasal fervor, and in a swift, staccato comparison with a short bit, five cents. style, by a trained chorus of red Indian in country places all over the Pacific men and women. In the huts of the coast, nothing lower than a bit is ever Rancherie they have ancient European asked or taken, which vastly increases the Mass-books, in which they study together cost of life; as even for a glass of beer to be perfect. An old blind man was you must pay fivepence or sevenpence. their leader. With his eyes bandaged, half-penny, as the case may be. You and leaning on a staff, he was led into his would say that this system of mutual rob. place in church by a little grandchild. bery was as broad as it was long; but I He had seen changes in the world since have discovered a plan to make it broader, first he sang that music sixty years ago, with which I bere endow the public. It when there was no gold and no Yankees, is brief and simple – radiantly simple. and he and his people lived in plenty under There is one place where five cents are the wing of the kind priests. The mis recognized, and that is the post-office. A sion church is in ruins; the Rancherie, quarter is only worth two bits, a short and they tell me, encroached upon by Yankee a long. Whenever you have a quarter, new-comers; the little age of gold is over go to the post-office and buy five cents' for the Indian ; but he has had a breath- worth of postage-stamps; you will re. ing-space in Carmel valley before he goes ceive in change two dimes, that is, two down to the dust with his red fathers. short bits. The purchasing power of

your money is undiminished. You can go TO THE GOLDEN GATE.

and have your two glasses of beer all the A little corner of Utah is soon trav. same; and you have made yourself a ersed, and leaves no particular impres- present of five cents' worth of postagesions on the mind. By an early hour on stamps into the bargain. Benjamin Wednesday morning we stopped to break. Franklin would have patted me on the

ist at Toano, a little static on a bleak, head for this discovery. high-lying plateau in Nevada. The man From Toano we travelled all day who kept the station eating-house was a through deserts of alkali and sand, horri. Scot, and learning that I was the same, he ble to man, and bare sage-brush country grew very friendly, and gave me some ad- that seemed little kindlier, and came by vice on the country I was now entering. supper-time to Elko. As we were stand. “You see,” said he, “I tell you this be. ing, after our manner, outside the station, cause I came from your country." Hail, I saw two men whip suddenly from un. brither Scots!

derneath the cars, and take to their heels His most important hint was on the across country. They were tramps, it moneys of this part of the world. There appeared, who had been riding on the is something in the simplicity of a deci- beams since eleven of the night before ; mal coinage which is revolting to the and several of my fellow-passengers had human mind; thus the French, in small already seen and conversed with them affairs, reckon strictly by halfpence; and while we broke our fast at Toano. These you have to solve, by a spasm of mental land stowaways play a great part over arithmetic, such posers as thirty-two, here in America, and I should liave liked forty-five, or even a hundred halfpence. dearly to become acquainted with them. In the Pacific States they have made a At Elko an odd circumstance befell bolder push for complexity, and settle me. I was coming out from supper, their affairs by a coin that no longer ex. when I was stopped by a small, stout, ists — the bit, or old Mexican real. The ruddy man, followed by two others taller supposed value of the bit is twelve and a and ruddier than himself. half cents, eight to the dollar. When it “Ex-cuse me, sir," he said, “but do

to two bits, the quarter-dollar you happen to be going on?” stands for the required amount. But how I said I was, whereupon he said he about an odd bit? The nearest coin

to it hoped to persuade me to desist from is a dime, which is short by a filth. That, that intention. He had a situation to then, is called a short bit. If you have offer me, and if we could come to terms, one, you lay it triumphantly down, and why, good and well. “You see,” he con. save two and a half cents.

But if you | tinued, “ I'ın running a theatre here, and

comes

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