Fifth Series, Volume XLIII.

No. 2047,- September 15, 1883.


From Beginning,


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Fortnightly Review,
II. ALONG THE SILVER STREAK. Part IV., All The Year Round,

Longman's Magazine,

Blackwood's Magazine, V. KING MTESA, .

Blackwood's Magazine, VI. The Locust WAR IN CYPRUS,

Nineteenth Century, VII. Two TURKISH ISLANDS TO-DAY, .

Macmillan's Magazine, VIII. Earth PULSATIONS,


Chambers' Journal,
X. THE Pathetic ELEMENT IN LITERATURE, . Spectator,


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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. Tor Eight Dollars, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money slıould be sent in a registered letter, Allpostmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTLLL & Co.

Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGE, 18 cents.


THE ORCHARD AND THE HEATH, Soon on the dark edge of a ruddier gleam I CHANCED upon an early walk to spy

The mother-pot perusing, all, stretched flat, A troop of children through an orchard gate :

Paused for its bubbling-up supreme: The boughs hung low, the grass was high;

A dog upright in circle sat, They had but to lift hands or wait

And oft his nose went with the flying steam. For fruits to fill them; fruits were all their sky.

I turned and looked on heaven awhile, where

now They shouted, running on from tree to tree, And played the game the wind plays, on and The moor-faced sunset, broaden'd with red round.

light, 'Twas visible invisible glee

Threw high aloft a golden bough, Pursuing; and a fountain's sound

And seemed the desert of the night
Of laughter spouted, pattering fresh on me.

Far down with mellow orchards to endow.


I could have watched them till the daylight

Their pretty bower made such a light of day.

A small one tumbling sang, “Oh! head!"
The rest to comfort her straightway

MAID AND BOY. Seized on a branch and thumped down apples Come, little maid, from youthful days, red.

And let me paint you as you stood ;

Your braided hair, your coyish ways, The tiny creature flashing through green grass, That would and would not when I would, And laughing with her feet and eyes among Fresh apples, while a little lass

Your gown of checkered calico, Over as o'er breeze-ripples hung:

The tire of pink, I see them yet ; That sight I saw, and passed as aliens pass.

Your little shoes not made for show,

The clean and scalloped pantalet.
My footpath left the pleasant farms and lanes,
Soft cottage-smoke, straight cocks a.crow, gay I played with you in sun and shade,

By roadside, yard, and alder streams;
Beyond the wheel-ruts of the wains,
Across a heath I walked for hours,

With many a brake and birch we made
And met its rival tenants, rays and rains.

The woven house of fairy beams,

Wherein we lived but for a day;
Still in my view mile-distant firs appeared,
When, under a patched channel-bank enriched Allured us in the wooded way,

A sweeter spot on newer ground
With foxglove whose late bells drooped

And all was new we newly found.
Behold, a family had pitched
Their camp, and laboring the low tent up. We knew not love, we knew not jar,

All things created but for toys;
The world a just illumined star,

And full of little girls and boys.
Here, too, were many children, quick to scan
A new thing coming; swarthy cheeks, white

Nothing was small to our great eyes,
In many-colored rags they ran,

Nothing so common but we wondered; Like iron runlets of the beath.

One penny was a boundless prize Dispersed lay broth-pot, sticks, and drinking

To us, and five a little hundred.


The nearest hills were mountains then, Three girls, with shoulders like a boat at sea

The meadow endless where we played ; Tipp'd sideways by the wave (their clothing I never thought to be like men, slid

And always should the maid be maid.
From either ridge unequally),
Lean, swift and voluble, bestrid

But now I am a man become,
A starting-point, unfrocked to the bent knee. And you a woman grave and sweet;

And I no longer lead you home,
They raced; their brothers yelled them on, and

Or in the brook bathe your pink feet. broke In act to follow, but as one they snuffed What have we now that's like the past ?

Wood-fumes, and by the fire that spoke Our guileless hearts knew not its name; Of provender, its pale flame puffed,

But blest are we to know at last And rolled athwart dwarf furzes grey-blue That what it was, 'tis still the same. smoke.




From The Fortnightly Review. Now it is certain that, if M. de Lesseps FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN EGYPT.

bad applied his spirit of perseverance, his The Suez Canal question presents so clear foresight, his power of unravelling many different aspects that the treatment the future of international relations - in of it might easily assume encyclopædic a word, his genius, towards the conception proportions. The political and geograph: and execution of any other idea, of whatical chronicles of the isthmus, and the soever nature, in any other quarter of the attempts made in ancient times to open a globe, he would not have reaped the passage through it, constitute the history popular fame and national affection which of civilization itself. The Isthmus of in his green old age reward the efforts of Suez is the best standpoint for the obser- his earlier years. In Panama M. de Lesvation of humanity in its childhood. The seps would never have achieved the nascientific and economic records of the tional grandeur which none now deny nineteenth century find their most inter- him, and of which he laid the foundations esting chapters in the works of the canal, between the Mediterranean and the Red in the modifications in the construction Sea. And the reason is that Egypt has of vessels brought about by its navigation, always filled, and still fills, every imaginaas well as in the changes consequently tion in France, and at the traditions of effected in the great currents of com- France, ever revived by new events, in

The waters of the world, in their cessantly carry her thoughts back to the distribution over the surface of the globe banks of the Nile. Thus, when M. de and their movements in the basins which Lesseps was seen planting upon this spot confine and direct them, have been the the banner of his noble enterprise, he was cause of human civilization, and have de. deemed to be France herself in one phase termined, by conditions which we can of her natural evolution. The idea of the examine, the march of its commerce and Suez Canal is a French idea, carried out its industry. The great valleys of the in a land where France has played a great globe have been the main routes of human and glorious part; and nothing could genius ; and the basins of the great rivers, efface from the French mind the convicthe offspring of nature, saw the birth of tion that there is a national dignity to be that commerce which has enriched the upheld in all that affects the great work world. It has been reserved for our age to which M. de Lesseps has bound his to behold man in his turn creating, as it name. were, a new basin of a mighty stream, and There is, moreover, a particular virtue thus completing the system of river routes which adds to the nobility of the idea as which has ever strongly influenced the it is conceived in France — that the civilized societies of mankind.

scheme of piercing the Isthmus of Suez It would be a mistake to see in the con- has been considered a grand peace-bearstruction of a maritime canal by an illus. ing conception. In the eyes of those who trious Frenchman the only cause, or even from a distance followed M. de Lesseps the chief cause, of the interest taken by in his career, it seemed like another link France in all that touches the water-way. added to the blessed and beneficent chain M. Ferdinand de Lesseps is one of the which binds peoples together in order to glories of France; the country knows make them associates, allies, and friends. that the total value of the nation is aug. A grand idea of peace, that was at the mented by the fact that she counts him same time a French idea, of which the among her sons. He has shared his per nation felt proud

such was the concepsonal renown with his fatherland, and tion which prevailed in France concerning every one in France feels that whatever the communication to be established be. happens to him attains the proportions of tween the two seas. It has sometimes a national event. In thinking of him, been said that the French make war for men spontaneously repeat the saying of an idea, and they have often seemed to Terence concerning mankind : “ Naught welcome the reproach with a certain satisthat affects him is indifferent to us." | faction. Not every one, they think, is


capable of having so robust a faith in his indubitable that improvements would have ideas, and they were proud to think that been made in the methods by which the they were deemed capable of forgetting Anglo.French influence worked, if the their interests for the sake of a noble policy of the two countries had been dipassion. Horace has said :

rected in some other way during the O cives, cives, quærenda pecunia primum est ; revolution. Common action on the part

mournful period of Arabi's attempt at Virtus post nummos.

of France and England would have led In France men were ready to believe to a more speedy result, and one better that the world reversed the phrase when for both the two powers, than that which applying it to them, and said of them, was produced by the isolated action of nummi post virtutem. But it is equally England. But two faults were committed, true to say that France makes peace for both of which lie heavy upon the two an idea. Peace it was that she sought to nations. The policy of England was unmake by the Suez Canal. This water in certain; it oscillated between a Turkish the midst of the lands, this inner sea of intervention, an intervention of the two the ancient civilization, she converted into powers, and an isolated intervention. The an ocean which reached out to, and with policy of France was timid; it made prea new arm touched, the Indian Ocean. Istence of being European, instead of bethat idea of peace which was to be caught ing and remaining Anglo-French alone; as in a fisherman's net and brought up and at the end it committed the error of from the depths of the Suez Canal, is abdicating, at the moment when it ought that now changed for an idea of war? to have acted. These two faults proWill that cause which was to bring the duced their consequences; England bas nations together result in estranging them undertaken a task which will give her from each other? It is impossible, I will very great anxieties, and she has not, not say to desire, but even to suppose, for from the point of view of Anglo-Indian a single moment, that it can be so. interests, more security or more tranquil

The mistakes of French policy in Egypt lity, for a short or long term, than if her have obscured minds upon both sides of power had been shared at the same time the Channel; but whatever those errors as her difficulties. France, in drawing may have been, the fact remains estab- back, has been unable to explain the realished as firm as ever that the Anglo- sons, and, so to speak, the conditions of French alliance, in the Mediterranean as ber withdrawal; and at the present time elsewbere, is the surest pledge of the she seems to be in danger of losing that world's peace, and can best give unlimited moral influence which she never meant to scope to the economic progress of the abandon, when she thought that she was two countries. The idea of an Egypt only holding aloof, for her ally's advan. developing all its natural riches under the tage, from a political movement in which benevolent eye of France and England she believed she could leave the initiative in close alliance is a political conception to England. The political idea which of the highest rank, which by the exten- has guided the conduct of France was sion of its results should produce the wrong, but it was honest; it contained most salutary effects upon the whole nothing adverse to the policy of the intibody politic of Europe. It has often mate alliance, the entente cordiale, be. been sought to give a form to this idea, tiveen France and England. Thus it is and the policy which has been called the with profound astonishment that we in policy of the condominium has been, France have seen the English press use whatever may have been said of it, a happy towards us most outrageous expressions. phase of the Anglo-French alliance. 1 Wounds have been inflicted which at. do not mean to say that the condominium tempts must be made to heal. Those was a necessary form of it, and one can who have caused them are without excuse; easily understand that the alliance in and it is as true to say that they have Egypt might take another shape. It is failed in patriotism towards their own country as in decency towards a great highway of civilization ought to be travnation.

ersed with equal liberty, and in equal There is but one means of repairing security, by all the nations of the uni. the evil which the two countries did by verse; and if this be true when speaking the faultiness of their foreign policy in of all peoples, is it not still more true of Egypt. England suffers, and will suffer, France than of any other cou

country? from the indecision which she showed at In the future of the commercial rela. the beginning, and the disadvantages of tions of England and India, there is one her isolated position imposing on her an problem which concerns much that is un. excessive responsibility. France suffers, known; that is, the financial problem. If and will suffer, from its impolitic resolve the coinage of the United States of not to intersere, and from what has been America is the same as that of Great considered an abandonment of its natural Britain, that is not true of the coinage of ally. It is on the soil of the Isthmus of India. India is a country with a silver Suez, in the settlement of the question of currency, and the adjustment of Anglothe canal, that the basis of a harmonious Indian commerce is extremely difficult policy must be found. France only ex- now, and may become still more so, hy pects this, that her name and moral inilu reason of the difference of money. Unless ence should still serve the cause of civil care be taken, the movement of Angloization in Egypt, without hurting England, American business will tend more and but without being hurt by her. Whether more to the detriment of Anglo-Indian France in Egypt be the guest of the khe business, and the United States will take dive or of the empress of India, she has the place of India as the intermediaries a right to be treated with the considera- of English commerce with China. It is tion due to an ally and friend. In return in the power of France to re-establish the for this respect, England will find in equilibrium; having the same currency France a support which she will certainly as India, she can bring back, viâ Suez, to need some day, to prevent her influence Europe all that might escape by way of from giving way before those eclipses America and California. France, then, which should always be looked for in Ori- has a like interest with England in the ental politics. But how is this mainte development, possibly boundless, of the nance of the name of France at its due relations of India with England and the moral height to be achieved, concurrently continent of Europe. Even now Burmah with the increased political harmony of sends her rice to Italy; even now the the two nations? By respecting the name culture of wheat is making considerable of France in the Suez Canal, by showing progress in India. England and the contithat England has in view only the claims nent of Europe will always have need of of justice, and is not pursuing a policy of foreign corn; and in the same way as the ill-conceived egotism in all that concerns ancient world had its granaries beyond that international and pacific road which Europe, in Africa, so do we modern peois the creation of a great Frenchman, in ples have ours also beyond Europe, in spite of the strenuous opposition of a America, at the present time, but we can great Englishman. The Suez Canal is have them in India. It is, perhaps, we the highway to India; it is an open route might even say certainly, an unpleasant which England has the greatest interest fact for European agriculture; and the in seeing frequented by all Europe, and duty of the governments and peoples of especially by France. Has England ever old Europe is to deliver agriculture from dreamt of shutting India within its own the fetters of a legislation which in many confines, of closing Bombay or Calcutta countries is out of date. But whatever against the industry and commerce of the opinion may be held upon the extent and world? Is not her colonial policy the effects of the agricultural conflict raging policy of the greatest possible amount of between ancient Europe and the rest of liberty? England cannot dream of cut. the universe, whatever ideas of legislative ting off India at Port Said. The grand reforms on behalf of agriculture and

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