royal manufactory of glasses, and shortly and formed of an iris of Ceylon jacinthi, aster he was able to send from it the with leaves of transparent green jade. splendid decorations of the Galerie des In the thirteenth and fourteenth century Fêtes at Versailles. About the same time ivory was the favorite material sor mirror. the manufacture of large flint-glass plates cases. On the one cover, to which the for mirrors seems to have been greatly mirror was fastened, scenes from domesimproved in England by the encourage. tic life, or from some poem or romance, ment of the Duke of Buckingham. The also hunting and garden scenes, or play: glass-works in which he was interested ers at chess, or assaults on the castle of seem to have been situated at Lambeth, love, were sculptured. The front cover and Evelyn, in 1677, says, “We also saw was generally plain, and frequently got the Duke of Buckingham's glass-work, lost, or was thrown away. At all events, where they made huge vases of metal it is very rare to find both covers. In (glass) as clear, ponderous, and thick as the sixteenth century the covers and crystal, also looking.glasses far larger frames of the pocket mirrors were elab. and better than any that come from Ven- orately carved in wood, with appropriate ice.”

From the Lambeth glass-house inscriptions in the panels. There were came, no doubt, many of the mirrors with also mirror-cases in iron, damascened or bevelled edges still remaining in old inlaid with gold and silver. When in the houses. In the eighteenth century mirror second half of the sixteenth century the making at Venice declined, and in 1765, Venetian mirrors became the universal amongst the fifteen glass-bouses working fashion, gilt wood frames were extenat Murano, only one, that of Jean Mo. sively used for them. Both in Venice ta, made mirrors, the largest of which and Florence soft woods, such as willow measured four feet nine and a half inches and lime, were enployed for the carvings. square. All this time, and for nearly a At first the bevelled mirror plates were century after, the backing of the glass square or oblong, seldom exceeding four plate was effected exclusively by an amal-, feet by five feet. In France elaborately gam of quicksilver and tin, a most un carved and gilt frames for looking.glasses healthy process, through the fumes aris were all the fashion from Louis XIV.'s ing from the former metal; until about time. The design generally consisted of 1850 Drayton, an Englishman, substituted delicate arabesque combinations connect. oxide of silver for the tinfoil and essence ed by wreathis of flowers, relieved by of lavender for the mercury. Since then, masks and palmettes or by shells and in 1864, Dodé, a Frenchman, made a fur. acanthus foliage. Sections of glass were ther improvement by employing platina ranged at each corner; then pieces placed instead of silver. One shilling's worth of to form a border, a pediment at the top, platina covers about one yard square of and a pendent towards the base. Gilded glass. The frames and cases of mirrors and carved wood united these complicated have always been a subject for more or arrangements, which was of excellent less elaborate ornamentation. Gold and effect and great delicacy of workmanship. silversmiths, ivory and wood carvers, Mirrors now came into general use in bronze and iron casters, vied with each France as well as in England. “La rue other to produce the most attractive St. André-des-Arts,” says Savarin, speakframes for looking-glasses. The backsing of Paris in the seventeenth century, and covers of the Roman and Etruscan "eut le premier café orné de glaces et de metallic mirrors were beautifully engraved, tables de marbre à peu près comme on les and the frames sometimes chased. The voit de nos jours." In England, soon Persians were famous for their mirror. after the Restoration, Sir Samuel Morframes, on which they lavished the most land built in 1667 a fine room at Vauxseductive charms ever inspired by wealth ball, the inside all of looking-glass and and taste. Jacquemard, in his “ History fountains very pleasant to behold. At of Furniture," describes one that has about the same period the house of Nell gone the round of several famous collec. Gwynne had the back room on the ground tions. It consists of a rectangular plate, floor entirely lined with looking.glasses. furnished with two lateral pivots, allowing During the later Renaissance and rococo it to be inclined at various angles, doubt. periods the frames of the hand and toi. less on supporting columns. The ground lette mirrors were made of precious and is of white jade, divided by an arabesque baser metals, bronze and ormolu work network of black jade, encrusted with ru- being predominant, and the backs were bies. Each medallion of the network is engraved, chased, or jewelled. This con. embellished with a bouquet set in gold, tinued to the present day.

Fifth Series, Volume XLIII.


No. 2046.- September 8, 1883.


From Beginning,


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Contemporary Review, . II. THE WIZARD's Son. Part XIV.,

Macmillan's Magazine, III. RANCHE LIFE IN THE FAR WEST,

Macmillan's Magazine, IV. THE TREASURE OF FRANCHARD. Conclusion,

Longman's Magazine, . V. BENVENUTO CELLINI. Part II.,

All The Year Round,

Contemporary Review, .
VIII. VACCINATION. Extract from Speech by Rt.
Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair,


All The Year Round,

Chambers' Journal,


All The Year Round,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. Tor Eight Dollars, renzitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

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Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGE, 18 cents.





That time has come again. I stand alone. Bright is the sunshine, the breeze is quies- The hills no more may glad my waking sight

Save when between the darkness and the light, Leaves whisper low in the Upper Thames I close mine eyes and think; then each grey reaches

stone, Blue is the sky, and the shade mighty pleasant, Each gentle hollow, each fair light and shade Under the beeches :

Are mine, imprinted where time cannot fade. Midsummer night is, they say, made for dreaming;

"Then why not come and sit beside the fire, Better by far are the visions of daytime — Make thyseif known! I would not ask for Pink and white frocks in the meadow are

more, gleaming —

Would not e'en question of that darksome Helping in Haytime !


Where I have lost thee, nor would I aspire Sunshine, I'm told, is productive of freckles To gaze within thine eyes. Let me but clasp Sweet are the zephyrs, hay-scented and Thine hand in mine! I could not fear thy soothful

grasp. Work is, of all things, so says Mr. Eccles,

Good for the youthful ! Dear, thou art dead, yet wilt thou not return? Here let me lounge, 'neath the beeches um. I do not fear thee, for I know thou’rt dead. brageous;

Canst thou not feel this ? Leave thy quiet bed, Here let me smoke, let me slumber, or slay And watch with me the drift-wood redly burn, time,

Just as thou didst of old. 'Tis eventide, Gazing with pleasure on toilers courageous What keeps thee from thy old friend's fireside ?

Working in Haytime ! Fair little faneuses in pretty pink dresses,

I will not question more; methinks thou'rt Merry young maidens in saucy sun-bonnets; Vearning to whisper of thy presence sweet.

here, Dainty young damsels with hay in their

I will be still, perchance I'll hear thy feet
Worthy of sonnets !

Pause at my threshold, or thy whisper near. Lazy the cattle are, red are the rowers,

I will be still, for death is dumb, is dumb! Making a toil of the sweet summer playtime; Thou canst not speak, so I will feel thee come.

All the Year Round. Hot are the hay-makers, weary the towers,

Thirsty in Haytime ! Under the beach, round a flower-decked table, Pouring the cream out and crushing the berry,

Nina and Florence and Mary and Mabel

AH, silent wheel, the noisy brook is dry,
Gladly make merry !

And quiet hours glide by
Laughing young laborers, doubtless judicious,

In this deep vale, where once the merry stream Come for reward when they fancy it's pay

Sang on through gloom and gleam; time;

Only the dove in some leaf-shaded nest
Splendid the cake is, the tea is delicious

Murmurs of rest.
Grateful in Haytime !


Ah, weary voyager, the closing day

Shines on that tranquil bay,
Where thy storm-beaten soul has longed to be;

Wild blast and angry sea

Touch not this favored shore, by summer blest,

A home of rest.
STRETCH out thine hand to me across the waste;
Ah, dear lost friend, see how between us rolls Ah, fevered heart, the

grass is green and deep
An arid plain, where wander weeping souls, Where thou art laid asleep;
That seek for all the shadows they have chased, Kissed by soft winds, and washed by gentle
While sadly wandering, torn by dreads and

showers, fears,

Thou hast thy crown of flowers; Amid the mazes of life's weary years.

Poor heart, too long in this mad world opprest,

Take now thy rest. Stretch out thine hand, nor heed all that which lies

I, too, perplex'd with strife of good and ill, Between my living form and thy dead heart. Long to be safe and still; Help me to play alone my listless part, Evil is present with me while I pray Wherein I see naught of those clear bright That good may win the day; skies

Great Giver, grant me thy last gift and best, We watched together, standing hand in hand,

The gift of rest! To see the sunset deck the darkling land.

Good Words.



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From The Contemporary Review. tist ideal, and were not in themselves

unreasonable. The people required to

be allowed to choose their own pastors; The Reformation had risen out of the an equitable adjustment of tithes, emanpeople; and it is the nature of popular cipation from serfdom, and lastly, liberty movements, when the bonds of authority

to kill game

- a right for a poor man to are once broken, to burst into anarchy feed his starving children with a stray Luther no longer believed in an apostolihare or rabbit. Luther himself saw nothcally ordained priesthood; but he retained ing in this petition which might not be

But Münzer himself a pious awe for the sacraments, which be wisely conceded. regarded really and truly as mysterious

made concession impossible. He raised sources of grace. Zwingle in Switzerland,

an “army of the Lord.” He marched Carlstadt and others in Saxony, looked on through the country, burning castles and the sacraments as remnants of idolatrous convents, towns and villages, and executsuperstition. Carlstadt hiinself, “ Arch- ing savage vengeance on the persons of deacon of Orlamund,” as he was called, the “ Lord's enemies." It was the heavbad sprung before his age into notions of iest blow which Luther had received. universal equality and brotherhood. Lu

His enemies could say, and say with a ther found him one day metamorphosed

certain truth: “Here was the visible into “ Neighbor Andrew,” on a dungheap

fruit of his own action." He knew that he loading a cart. A more dangerous fa

was partly responsible, and that without natic was Münzer, the

him these scenes would not have been. of Allstadt,

parson near Weimar. It was not the Church | The elector unfortunately was ill — moronly which needed reform.

The nobles tally so.

He died while the insurrection had taken to luxury and amusement.

was still blazing. His brother John sucToll and tax lay heavy on their peasant

ceeded, very like him in purpose and tenants; as the life in the castle had character, and proceeded instantly to deal grown splendid, the life in the cabin had

with the emergency. Luther hurried up become bard and bitter. Luther had con.

and down the country, preaching to the fined himself to spiritual matters, but people, rebuking the tyrannous counts the spiritual and the secular were too and barons, and urging the Protestant closely bound together to be separated. princes to exert themselves to keep the The Allstadt parson, after much“ conver

Philip of Hesse, the duke of sation with God,” discovered that he had Brunswick, and Count Mansfeldt cola mission to establish the Kingdom of the lected a force. The peasants were de

feated and scattered. Sainis, where tyrants were to be killed,

Münzer was taken and all men were to live as brothers, and and hanged, and the fire was extinguished. all property was to be in

It was well for Luther that the troops Property, like all else which man may

which had been employed were exclu

The Catholics said possess, is a trust which he holds not for sively Protestant. his own indulgence, but for the general scornfully of him : “He kindled the flame,

and he washes his hands like Pilate." good. This is a universal principle. Nature is satisfied with a very imperfect

Had the arıny raised to quell the peasants recognition of it, but if there is no recoge Worms would have been made a reality.

belonged to Ferdinand, the Edict of nition, if the upper classes, as they are called, live only for pleasure, and only for

The landgrave and the new elector, themselves, the conditions are broken un- John, allowed no severe retaliation when der which human beings can live together,

armed resistance was over. They set and society rushes into chaos. The ris.

themselves to cure, as far as possible, the ing spread, 1524-25. The demands actu

causes of discontent. They trusted, as ally set forward fell short of the Anabap. Luther did, to the return of a better order

of things from “a revival of religion.” • Luther's Leben. Von JULIUS Kostlin. Leip

The peasant war had been the first zis, 1883.

scandal to the Reformation. The second,




which created scarcely less disturbance, was a certain Catherine von Bora, sixteen was Luther's own immediate work. As years younger than he, who bad been a a priest he had taken a vow of celibacy. nun in a distant convent. Her family As a monk he had again bound himself were noble, but poor; they had provided by a vow of chastity.

for their daughter by placing her in the In priesthood and monkery he had cloister when she was a child of nine; at ceased to believe. If the orders them- sixteen she had taken the vows ; but she selves were unreal, the vows to respect detested the life into which she had been the rules of those orders might fairly be forced, and when the movement began she held to be nugatory. Luther not only bad applied to her friends to take her out held that the clergy, as a rule, might be of it. The friends would do nothing; but married, but he thought it far better that in April, 1523, she and nine others were they should be married; and the poor released by the people. As they were men and women, who were turned adrift starving, Luther collected money to proon the breaking up of the religious houses, vide for them, and Catherine von Bora, he had freely advised to marry without being then twenty-four years old, came to fear or scruple. But still around a vow a Wittenberg to reside with the burgomas. certain imagined sanctity persisted in ad-ter, Philip Reichenbach. Luther did not hering; and when he was recommended at first like her; she was not beautiful, to set an example to others who were and he thought that she was proud of her hesitating, he considered, and his friend birth and blood; but she was a simple, Melancthon considered, that in his posi- sensible, shrewd, active woman ; she, in tion, and with so many indignant eyes the sense in which Luther was, might conturned upon him, he ought not to give sider herself dedicated to God, and a fit occasion to the enemy. Once, indeed, wife for a religious reformer. Luther's impatiently, he said that marry he would, own father was most anxious that he to spite the devil. But he had scarcely a should marry, and in a short time they home to offer to any woman, and no leis. came to understand each other. So on ure and no certainty of companionship. the 13th of June, 1525, a month after He was for some years after the Edict of Münzer had been stamped out at FrankenWorms in constant expectation of being hausen, a little party was collected in the executed as a heretic. He still lived in Wittenberg cloister Bugenhagen, the the Augustinian convent at Wittenberg; town pastor, Professor Jonas, Lucas Crabut the monks had gone, and there were nach (the painter), with his wife, and Pro

He had no income of his fessor Apel, of Bamberg, who had himown ; one suit of clothes served him for self married a nun; and in this presence two years; the elector at the end of them Martin Luther and Catherine von Bora gave him a piece of cloth for another. became man and wise. It was a nine The publishers made fortunes out of his days' wonder. Philip Melancthon thought writings, but he never received a florin for his friend was undone; Luther himself them. So ill-attended he was that for a was uneasy for a day or two. But the whole year his bed was never made, and wonder passed off; in the town there was was mildewed with perspiration. “I was hearty satisfaction and congratulation. tired out with each day's work,” he said, The new elector, John, was not displeased. "and lay down and knew no more.” The conversion of Germany was

But things were getting into order again arrested. Prussia and Denmark broke in the electorate. The parishes were pro- with Rome and accepted Luther's cate: vided with pastors, and the pastors with chism. In 1526, at Torgau, the elector modest wages. Luther was professor at John, the landgrave, the dukes of Bruns. the University, and the elector allowed wick, Lüneberg, Anhalt, Mecklenburg, him a salary of two hundred gulden a and Magdeburg, formed themselves into year. Presents came from other quarters, an evangelical confederacy. It was a and he began to think that it was not well measure of self-defence, for it had apfor him to be alone. In Wittenberg there'peared for the moment as if the emperor

no revenues.




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