her allies. But the terms being so hard it is very expert in giving to his spiritual fastrange that she did not endeavor to allay the ther. The pontiff was assured that he indignation of the confederates by giving them need not concern himself lest Don Jobn's early information of the step which she felt services should go unrewarded, bis aggranherself compelled to take. It may be that her dizement lying very near the king's heart. minister hoped to the last to obtain peace on better conditions ; or it may be that diplomacy

It was not to the African coast, but to has a natural tendency to work underground Italy and to Flanders, that the attention and prefer darkness to light. (Vol. i., pp. of the Spanish king was mainly directed, 510, 511.)

and that the ambition of Don John of

Austria turned. About this time the ro. The Christian League was now at an mantic hope that he might deliver. Mary end. Aluch Ali signalized the good news Queen of Scouts from captivity, and claim by burning the king of Spain's tower of her hand as the reward of that knightly Castro on the coast of Apulia.

exploit, entered his mind, and appears The second volume of this great work never to have been entirely abandoned. opens with two episodes in the life of But for the present the king's service deDon John to which we can only make a manded his presence in Italy, where he passing reference, although they are not reinained from April, 1574, till the spring devoid of interest at the present day. of 1576, residing chiefly at Vigevano, and After the dissolution of the Holy League, occupied with the affairs of Genoa. Philip determined to direct his naval The constitution and the numerous rev. forces against what has in modern times olutions of the Genoese republic are far been called the regency of Tunis. The less known to the world than the history occupation of that African province, then of the sister republic of Venice. The rich in resources and in trade, had long struggle between the portico of St. Peter been held to be essential to the maritime and the portico of St. Luke, in which the power of the house of Austria, and the Dorias played so great a part, are un. security of Sicily and Naples. Charles familiar topics; but they are instructive, V., in person, had taken the Goletta in and Sir William Stirling Maxwell has de 1535, and that harbor had ever since been voted a highly original and interesting held by a Spanish garrison. The Moor- chapter to these contentions, in which ish princes of Tunis lived in fact under a Don John was called upon to interpose Spanish protectorate. To support them the influence of the Spanish crown. We against the pretensions of the Porte was must pass on to greater events. the object of Don John's expedition. The It is needless to follow Sir William conquest of the town was an easy one, Stirling Maxwell through his masterly for ihe Turkish soldiers ran away, and a historical sketch of the rising in the Neth: second fortress, garrisoned chiefly by erlands. The story is one of inexhaustiItalians, was constructed on the western ble interest, and few passages in the polborder of the Lake of Tunis, so as to itics of modern Europe have been more command the channel from the Goletta to closely investigated; for the cause of the the sea. These details are a curious an Netherlands in the sixteenth century was ticipation of the French occupation of the dawn of toleration and constitutional Tunis in recent times. But if Don John's freedom. But we must confine ourselves conquest was easy it was not lasting. In strictly to the part in this great contest the following year the Turks, under Aluch which fell to the lot of Don John of AusAli, took their revenge for Lepanto by tria. The viceroyalty of the Netherlands sweeping down the Mediterranean. Tunis had been beld for eight stormy and disas. was besieged, and the forts taken. Don trous years (1559–1567) by Margaret, John was compelled by the precise orders Duchess of Parma, who was also an illeof his brother not to sail in person against gitimate descendant of the great emperor. the enemy. The viceroy of Naples re- She was followed by the stern and sanfused supplies, and the whole incident guinary rule of Alba, who was again sucended in an ignominious defeat of the ceeded by Requesens, the representative Spanish arms, although at one moment of a more moderate policy. Requesens the pope had suggested to Philip that died on January 5, 1576, and Philip, roused Tunis might be erected into a sovereign for once into action by the urgency of the state, and the crown awarded to Don case, instantly appointed Don John to the John. The advice of Gregory XIII. was office. The government of the Nether. on this occasion met by one of those lands seemed likely to place Don John at decorous rebuffs which practice had ren- the head of a force, and in a position, to dered the first temporal prince in Italy I enable him to realize the pope's splendid dream of a conquest of England, deliver and his Holiness have thought of me as the Mary, and set her and himself on the best instrument you could choose for the executhrone of Elizabeth, and restore the Brit. tion of your designs, offended as you both are ish kingdom to the bosom of the Church. | by the evil proceedings of the Queen of EnBut, in spite of these visionary splendors, gland, and by the wrongs which she has done and the pressing commands of the king, ing, against her will, heresy in thiát kingdom.

to the Queen of Scotland, especially in sustain. Don John (who was then in Lombardy)| Although neither for that nor for aught else do allowed twenty-four days to elapse before I believe myself to be fitted except in so far as he acknowledged the appointment. On it is your Majesty's pleasure ; yet, as in the May 27 he wrote to Philip pointing out world's opinion that task is incumbent on me, the extreme difficulty of the task, and in and as your Majesty, ever ready to show your dicating his own views of the policy which kindness to me, lends a willing ear to the ought to be adopted in the following re project, and gives such evident marks of your markable terms:

desire that it should succeed, I cannot but long

to kiss your hands for this favor; for although All ordinances [he wrote] contrary to the I esteem it at its just value, my own sentiments laws and customs of the Provinces, which have considered, it is of still greater value in my been issued by late governors, and which give eyes, because it is conformable with my fixed so much offence, ought to be annulled.

purpose to desire nothing from your crown, All possible means of bringing back to the even should your Majesty offer it, beyond that royal service the vassals of your Majesty, who which as your creature' I can and ought to may repent of their faults, should be adopted. have, and beyond those things which by your

In appointing to places of trust, and in the grace and favor, when your arins are at liberty, general administration, the ancient customs of may dispose me to manifest my zeal for your the country ought to be observed.

service and aggrandizement. That this zeal No person should be attached to my service cannot be greater either in vassal, servant, or who can give offence, and no foreign lawyers, son, I hope your Majesty will believe ; and I who are so unpopular, should be employed. hope God will grant me His grace to make it

As affairs are to be conducted without the good. (Vol. ii., pp. 118-120.) employment of force, and solely by the authority of your Majesty and myself, I must have

In spite of the king's commands, he a household well'appointed and respectable, insisted on a personal interview, and and composed of persons of all nations. landed at Barcelona on August 22,

At To meet the unavoidable expense of even the Escorial, Philip gave his brother a such an establishment as I have at present, I favorable reception. can assure your Majesty that neither the ordidary allowance nor the extraordinary subven- Into the scheme for the invasion of England, tion is sufficient, and that I am in debt to the and the marriage with Mary Stuart, Philip apamount of several thousand ducats. As I have pears to have entered with real or affected no means of meeting these liabilities, I must warmth. In the feasibility of invasion, at one entreat your Majesty, in this as in all things time at least, he had so firmly believed as to be else, to supply my needs, with due regard to disappointed with the Duke of Alba for not the part which your Majesty desires that I accomplishing it. In the marriage he foresaw should sustain in the world.

an object which would turn all the energies of One of the things which will most contribute Don John into a channel by which his own into the success of my mission is that I should terests in the Netherlands would be benefited. be held in high esteem at hoine, and that all | He therefore gave his full sanction and appromen should know and believe that your Maj- bation to the gigantic plan of conquest and esty, being unable to go in person to the Low aggrandizement which had been laid down at Countries, has invested me with all the powers Rome, subject to such conditions and instrucI could desire. Your Majesty will see that I tions as might be sent after Don John to the will use them for the re-establishment of your Netherlands. . .. authority, now so fallen, in its due place. And The instructions began, it is true, with the if my conduct shall not satisfy your Majesty, injunction that England was not to be invaded you can resume these powers without fear of until the Low Countries were pacified, and murmur on my part, or of opposition founded until it was certain that no opposition would on my private interests.

be offered by France. “You are to consider," The true remedy for the evil condition of the said the king solemnly, “what a mistake it Netherlands, in the judgment of all men, is would be to leave our own dominions in dan. that England should be in the power of a perger, wbile we are trying to take possession of son devoted and well-affectioned to your Maj- those of other people.' The help that was to esty's service; and it is the general opinion be had from the English Catholics was to be that the ruin of these countries, and the im- rigidly examined and weighed, “ for no kingpossibility of preserving them to your Majesty's dom is so weak that it can be conquered with. crown, will result from the contrary position of out aid from within." Don John was to enter English affairs. At Rome and elsewhere the into the inost amicable relations with Queen rumor prevails that in this belief your Majesty | Elizabeth, to ascertain the exact amount and

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state of her naval and military resources, and stand she desires, and which indeed will be to take every means of corrupting her minis due to the man who shall deliver her from so ters and favorites. “ And as you are aware,' great nisery, and set her free and in possession pursued the royal writer, “of the nature of of her realms, even to one whose quality and that queen, and how she usually gets into cor- valor might not, as yours do, of themselves respondence and relations with the persons deserve it. In case of success there will be whom she thinks she might perhaps marry, it some things to fix and determine ; but upon may be that, by some roundabout way, she these it is not expedient to enter till the time may entertain the same notions about you, shall come. Meanwhile, it is sufficient to ad. and draw you into correspondence. If this vise you that your settlement in the aforesaid should happen, you must not be by any means kingdom will have to be in such form and on backward, but let her run on as she pleases, as such conditions as shall appear to me expedi. it will afford a good occasion of furthering the ent for my service and for the good of our design aforesaid.” It had been agreed that affairs and States ” These instructions, al. the Spanish troops were to be withdrawn from though committed to writing, were, it seems, the Netherlands; it must therefore be given only read to Escovedo. But he was furnished out that they were going to Barbary, and with with a short note, in which Don John was told them the invasion of England must be effected. that the bearer was charged with a verbal Victuals, munitions, and artillery must be pro- message from the king on a certain business vided in reasonable quantities, and also arms which he did not choose to enter upon on for the English Catholics. All these things paper because of the insecurity of the roads ; must be done in profound secrecy. The ob- and you will hear and believe him," added jects of the enterprise were the restoration of the king, as you would hear and believe my. England to the Church and of the Queen of self, seeing that he is a person in whom all Scots to her rights; but nothing was to be confidence may be placed. (Vol. ii., pp. 123said about them at first, lest Mary should be 128.) put to death.

When her liberty had been achieved she was to be placed at the head of It was the last time the brothers met. the enterprise. It was to be considered what Four weeks later Don John mounted his English seaport was to be chosen for disem-horse, and crossed the Guadarramas to barkation Plymouth, Falmouth, Southamp: Abrojo, where he took leave of his be. ton, or Liverpool; and the one nearest to the

loved foster-mother. Here be assumed prison of the Queen of Scots was to be pre the disguise of a Moorish slave, and set ferred. Don John was not to lead the expedition until á landing had been effected out with one com panion and three ser. and some success obtained. Julian Romero, vants to ride across France, Not till Sancho de Avila, and Alonzo de Vargas, were October 30 did he reach Paris, and as he all eligible for the command; but the king left it on the following day, we have small inclined to Romero, as being better acquainted belief in the story that he attended a ball with England and English affairs. It would at the Louvre in disyuise on that same be best to conduct the affair wholly in the night, and lost his heart to the gay, young name of Don John, as if it had been a sudden queen of Navarre. He reached Luxemthought of his own, on which he had been led bourg on November 3; almost at the same to act by the tempting opportunity afforded by the dismissal of the Spanish troops, and by moment the fury of the Spaniards bad his sympathy with the wrongs and sufferings broken out with unparalleled violence, of the Queen of Scots, the English Catholics, and accomplished the hideous and abomiand the Church. The Pope's name was not to pable tragedy of massacre and pillage be put forward; but, if success were obtained, | known as the sack of Antwerp. his Holiness might be asked to supply the necessary benediction, briefs, and a Nuncio, The few days which preceded and followed and to interpose if any of the Catholic

powers the arrival of Don John at Luxemburg were sought to support Queen Elizabeth. The en- | the most eventful days of a year full of great terprise must be carried on in a spirit of "lib. i events for the Netherlands. The latest infor. erality, kindness, and forgiveness,” and noth- mation furnished to him in Spain, or even the ing must be said about rebellion or heresy to still fresher news which he may have learned the Catholics or others who might join the from Zuniga at Paris, could hardly have preSpanish standard. The instructions concluded pared him for the intelligence now brought by in these characteristic words : “ The great each succeeding courier. The day before he brotherly love with which I regard and always reached Luxemburg Antwerp had been lawhave regarded you makes me desire the suc- lessly sacked by the Spanish soldiery, who had cess of this affair, because I consider it, next been for some months in open mutiny, and to the service of God, the means it may afford against whom even the Spanish authorities me of showing how much I love you ; in token had thought it right to arm the inhabitants of whereof I now assure you that, if all goes well the defenceless towns. Of the first commer. with this enterprise of England, it will please cial capital in the north a great part was a me to see you settled there and married to the smoking ruin; and several other towns had Queen of Scots — a marriage which I under- shared a similar fate. Negotiations had long


been going on between the two Protestant | upon the shoulder of Orange that the emStates of Holland and Zeland, which had peror leaned when he pronounced his openly cast off the royal authority, and the abdication speech before the Estates at other States in which the Catholic faith had Brussels, and it was by the hand of still preserved a real or nominal obedience to the Crown. The Spanish Fury of Antwerp,

Orange that he transmitted to his suc. as the massacre there was called, inspiring the cessor the insignia of the Imperial throne. whole country with rage and a thirst for ven

Yet he had soon excited the distrust of geance, had given a conclusive impulse to the Phi by his leaning to the side of naprogress of these negotiations. The Pacifica tional right and constitutional freedom; tion of Ghent, which was signed on the 8th of and his unbounded respect for the rights November, bound Catholic Brabant, Hainault, of conscience rendered him no fit servant Flanders, Artois, Namur, and various impor- of the Catholic king. The part he had tant Catholic cities, to support Protestant played as the directing genius of the revHolland and Zeland in resistance to royal solution in preceding years placed Orange authority until the Spanish troops should be at the suminit of power and popularity at withdrawn, the States-General convoked, and the oppressive edicts of late administrations the moment of the arrival of Don John in unconditionally rescinded by the Crown. To Flanders. Perhaps it was jealousy of a this treaty province after province declared power so alien and so adverse to his own; its adhesion, until only two of them, Luxem. perlaps it was a genuine distrust of an burg and Limburg, remained alogf from the Austrian prince (for after all Don John confederacy. The islands on the north-west, himself was by birth and parentage more which had been reconquered from the rebel. a Fleming than a Spaniard), but certain it lion under the government of Requesens, fell is that the Prince of Orange viewed him, piecemeal into the hands of the patriots, and and treated him from the first, as an irrecthe gallant Mondragone, unsupported by his oncilable enemy. His proffered conces. mutinous soldiery, was forced to surrender sions were solemnly rejected; his desire Zierick-Zee to the troops of Orange. These were the tidings which each post brought to of peace was derided and denied. Too the new Governor at Luxemburg. (Vol. ii., much blood had been shed, too many pp. 188, 189.)

crimes had been committed, for any peace

to be lasting between Orange and Spain. There is abundant evidence to show Don John paid the penalty of the acts of that Don Jolin of Austria entered upon his his predecessors, not unconscious of the arduous task in a spirit of conciliation, fatal position in which they had placed and that he was earnestly desirous to re. himself. store peace, to prevent the effusion of The first step taken by Don John was blood, and to recognize the rights of the to announce to the States-General at Netherlanders, within the limits of bis Brussels his arrival at Luxembourg, and commission, which bound him to main- to order the Spanish troops to cease from tain the authority of the crown and the all acts of hostility. He was aware that faith of the Church. But the exaspera. he would not be permitted to enter upon tion of the people of Flanders, both Cath. his functions until he had agreed to cer. olic and Protestant, was now kindled tain conditions, and that in fact the gove beyond the reach of conciliation, and the ernment of the country resided in the entire history of his brief administration States. They showed their power by reis a record of surrender, humiliation, and fusing to allow the viceroy even to enter defeat. It seems, too, that the noble and Namur at the head of fifty horse, still chivalrous nature of Don John recoiled, less to come to Brussels. The conditions more than was common in that age, from he was to accept had been framed by the use of artifice and deceit. Beneath Orange, and they involved the withdrawal him, behind him, before him, lay all the of the Spanish troops forever from the plots and intrigues of the sixteenth cen- country. Eventually these terms iury ; but he was too little of a politician embodied in the Perpetual Edict. “Some to play that game with success, and he of the conditions of this peace," wrote was directly opposed to an antagonist who Don John to Garcia de Toledo, must combined, with all the resources of a pro- appear hard, and to me they seem very found statesman, the strength of popular hard; but to serve religion and obedience, power and of religious fervor.

where this and States themselves seem William of Orange, it is curious to re. lost, it has been necessary to bear with mark, had been brought up in the house them, making account of everything as if hold of Charles V., who was very fond of happening by chance. For the rest we him, and gave him, before he was twenty must trust to time, that which God gives one, the command of an army.

It was

us not being little.”

were no rem.

This settlement led to a reaction in of fixed purpose which Don John had displayed favor of the prince who had yielded so at Luxemburg and Huy." The only differ. much, and though he remained at Lou- ence,” he wrote, “ between this new governor vain, be enjoyed a brief gleam of popular and Alba or Requesens is that he is younger favor. But no settlement could suit the his venoin and more impatient to dip his hands

and more foolish, less capable of concealing plans of William of Orange.

in blood.” This feeling of contempt does not Don John evidently did not understand appear to have been lasting. Orange was too either the character or the motives or the ends wise to despise an antagonist whose power, of William the Silent. If he had understood shown as it was, was so considerable as that of them he would bimself have been an abler and the King of Spain's viceroy, and his constant a less honest man than he was. His experi- advice to those who consulted him to beware ence of public affairs and the men who con. of Don John, seemed to show an apprehension ducted them - Granvelle, Perez, and the king that that power was likely to be used with no - was not likely to have given him a very inconsiderable skill. Nor did he ever relin. exalted idea of human nature. Selfishness, it quish his schemes for obtaining possession of was plain, was man's ruling principle, a prin. Don John's person, although they were doomed ciple sometimes too strong to be checked even to prove abortive. (Vol. ii., p. 215.) by loyalty to Church and king, in which Don John had been religiously fostered and in

To the king Don John wrote fearlessly: which he steadfastly believed. Loyalty to the

“ In the Netherlands the name of your right of a community of obscure mariners and Majesty is as much abhorred and despised graziers, seriously pleaded by a great lord of as that of the Prince of Orange is loved almost royal blood as a reason for taking up and feared;" and again: “I see arms against his sovereign, was a feeling edy to preserve the State from desirucwhich Don John's education and habits of tion except by gaining over this man, who thought and life must have rendered incon-has so much influence with the nation." prehensible to a man of his intellectual calibre. That attempt was vanity itself. But the When he came, therefore, to study the charac. viceroy bad so far gained ground that in ter and ends of Orange, he naturally and inev. May, 1577, he was allowed to make his itably concluded that William's own interests, and those of his house, were the objects which public entry into Brussels. His stay there really lay near his heart and guided his course;

was exceedingly short, for he was apand that the true policy of Philip's representa- prised of plots to seize his person, and he tive was to make it plain to his great antago- retired shortly to Malines, and afterwards nist that these interests could be better served to Namur. by submission than by continued opposition, It is interesting to learn that about this by selling than by defending the people of time he received the visit of Sir Philip Holland and Zeland. He was confirmed in Sidney, then on his return from his misthis conclusion by the tactics of Orange in the sion to the emperor Rudolph at Prague, matter of the Edict, which were as shifty and Once then the model and ihe mirror of tortuous as any that could have been devised by Perez or practised by Granvelle. In Don English and of Spanish high breeding and John's opinion, Leonnius had not been in chivalry met, and met on kindly terms; structed io use sufficient plainness of speech, both destined to that early death which William was too cautious to be more explicit; the gods grant to those who have fulfilled when the principals themselves came face to a course of glory. A month later came a face, a bargain would nevertheless be struck, visitor of a different race. Queen Marga and meanwhile nothing remained but to warn ret arrived at Namur on her way to Spa. the king that the aspect of affairs compelled She was received by the.prince with great liberality, and that the man who had thwarted him for twenty years was not going to sell Sir William terms her, passed on her way

magnificence, and the “lair inischief,” as himself cheap.

Orange, on his side, regarded Don John in a web of adventure and intrigue, des. with the distrust with which he could not fail tined to lead eventually to the French in. to regard any one sent to the Netherlands by tervention in Flanders. Philip 11. for the obvious purpose of trying But whilst Don John was laboring to fraud alone in the game where fraud and force win the confidence of the people and dis. had hitherto failed. He studied his character arm their leaders, against searful odds, he and policy in the letters which he occasionally bad also to contend against the indiffercontrived to intercept, and it would have been ence, the suspicions, even the hostility of singular indeed if, on the governor's confiden- the court of Spain. Antonio Perez, then tial communications with Spanish military officers in the Netherlands, or with statesmen in

chief secretary of Philip, had awakened Spain, he did not find matter for increasing his the jealousy of the sovereign; altempts suspicions. At first his distrust was mingled were made to entrap Don John in bis corwith a feeling of contempt, which was probably respondence; when Escovedo, bis confi. engendered by the want of self-command and | dential secretary, was sent to Madrid to

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