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occurring at Madrid, Don John was ab- | danger, the utter absence of any comfort sent on his first cruise along the Spanish or sympathy in suffering, or any proteccoast, where he took the command, with tion from wrong, the perpetual presence the assistance of Don Luis de Requesens of cruel tormentors and vile companions, as his adviser. The king addressed to tasked to the utmost man's animal instinct him a long letter of excellent counsel and to cling to life. The galleys were at once judgment, written with his own hand; and the instrument of punishment and of war. on May 28 he sailed. It is not improbo fare. Chained to those pitiless benches able that, having regard to the faie of and those unwieldly oars, the captive, the Don Carlos, who was then under arrest, criminal, the heretic, men of different and who died at the end of July, Philip races and degrees, were doomed to a compreferred that Don John should be absent mon suffering, and subject to the same from the court.
barbarity. The Christian galleys were This first cruise of Don John led to no manned in part by Moslem slaves, the immediate results; but it supplied an im- Turkish fleet by Christian prisoners, so portant elementin bis education, destined that in war each side was exposed to the to bear fruit hereafter. The young prince fire of its own countrymen. No form of embarked on June 3 at Carthagena, on a human misery, of which we have read or royal galley, superbly decorated within heard, seems comparable to that of the and without, amidst the acclamations of galley slave at the oar; yet it was endured the fleet. The squadron of thirty-three for years, and the vessels propelled by the sail passed along the southern coast of arms of these wretched beings bore their Spain, visited Oran, reached Cadiz, in masters to fame and victory. spected the maritime defences of the The time was not yet come, however, kingdom, and above all won for the young for Don John to enter upon his naval excommander the good-will and confidence ploits. He had before him a different of the navy. Towards the end of Sep- task. After the death of the queen he tember Don John returned to the court at withdrew for some weeks to a convent at Madrid; in the interval the catastrophe Abrojo, near Valladolid, famous for the of Don Carlos had occurred, and a few austerity of its rule – a singular retreat days later the amiable and accomplished for a young and gallant cfficer — but there Queen Isabella, in her twenty-fourth year, the news of the formidable rebellion of died in premature childbed.
the Moriscos reached him. A fervent
batred of the Moslem and an eager desire Sincerely mourned by her lord, whose regard to serve the king fired his ambition, and for her is one of the redeeming features of his he addressed to Philip the following letcharacter, Isabella of the Peace, by her beauty
ter:and goodness, the auspicious circumstances of her marriage, and her early death, found a high S. (acred) C. (atholic) R. (oyal) M. (ajesty), place, which her memory long retained, in the My obligation to serve your Majesty, and popular affection of Spain. The night after the natural faith and love to your Majesty, inher decease, as the fair corpse lay in state duce me, with the greatest submission, to pro, amidst a forest of tapers in the chapel of the pose that which appears to me fitting. I palace, the king came at midnight to pray be informed your Majesty of my arrival in this side the bier. The courtiers whom he had Court, and of the cause of my coming hither; chosen' to attend upon him, and who stood and I did not think that there was any occamotionless behind, as he knelt at the head of sion to trouble your Majesty with letters of so his dead wife, were Don John of Austria, Fer- little worth as mine. I have now heard of the dinand de Toledo, and the Prince of Eboli. state of the rebellion of the Moriscos of Gra(Vol. i., p. 110.)
nada, and of the distress in that city, on suspi
cion becoming certainty; and as the reparation A chapter is here interposed on the of your Majesty's reputation, honor, and gran. military marine of the Mediterranean in deur, insulted by the boldness of these malconthe sixteenth century, which was to play tents, touches me very nearly, I cannot restrain so glorious a part in the future career of myself within the obedience and entire subDon John. These details are of great mission of myself in all things to your Maj. interest to the naval history of Europe, esty's will, which I have always evinced, nor and they are collected, for the most part, help representing my desire, and entreating from original sources. “If there be a your Majesty that, as it is the glory of kings hell in this world,” said a rhymer for the to be constant in the bestowal of their favors,
and to raise up and make men by their power, people in that age, “it is in the galleys, your Majesty will use me, who am of your where rest is unknown." Hard work; making, in the chastisement of these people, hard fare, hard usage, exposure to all because it is known that I may be trusted bekinds of weather and to many kinds of yond most others, and that no one will act
more vigorously against these wretches than 1 following description of the scene of this 1. I confess that they are not people who de internecine strife, in the Alpuxarras, deserve to be made of great account; but because serves to be quoted for its remarkable even vile minds grow proud if they possess any
elegance : strength, and this is not, as I am advised, wanting to these rebels; and because this
In natural beauty, and in many physical adpower should be taken from them: and the vantages, this mountain land is one of the most Marquess of Mondejar, not being sufficiently lovely and delightful regions of Europe. Pos. strong for this purpose (he having, as I am
sessing a variety of climate elsewhere almost told, fallen out with the president, and being unknown, it might be made to yield to man but little and unwillingly obeyed); and as some
most of the products of the earth. From the person must be sent thither, and my nature tropical heat and luxuriance, the sugarcanes leads me to these pursuits, and I am as obe- and the palın-trees, of the lower valleys, and of dient to your Majesty's royal will as the clay the narrow plain which skirts the sea like a to the hand of the potter, it appeared to me golden zone, it is but a step through gardens, that I should be wanting in love and inclina; steep corn-fields, and olive groves, to fresh tion and duty towards your Majesty, if I did alpine pastures and woods of pine, above which not offer myself for this post. Although I vegetation expires on the rocks where snow know that those who serve your Majesty are lies long and deep, and is still found in nooks safe in your royal hands, and ought not to ask, and hollows in the burning days of autumn. yet I trust that what I have done may be con. When thickly peopled with laborious Moors, sidered rather a merit than fault. If I ob the narrow glens, bottomed with rich soil, were tain the position which is the object of my terraced and irrigated with a careful industry desire, I shall be sufficiently rewarded. To which compensated for want of space. The this end I came from Abrojo, which, but for villages, each nestling in its hollow, or perched the sake of your Majesty's service, and the im. on a craggy height, were surrounded by vine. portance of the occasion, I should not have yards and gardens, orange and almond orchards, ventured to do without the express command and plantations of olive and mulberry hedged of your Majesty. May our Lord preserve, for with the cactus and the aloe ; above, on the many years, the sacred and Catholic person of rocky uplands were heard the bells of sheep your Majesty. From the lodgings, this 30th and kine; and the wine and fruit, the silk and day of December, 1568, of your Majesty's crea-oil, the cheese and the wool of the Alpuxarras, ture and most humble servant, who kisses your were famous in the markets of Granada and royal hands. D. JUAN DE Austria.
the seaports of Andalusia. The seashore of
this region is in some parts, as between Adra In the following month of March his re- and the Sierra de Gador, a plain once rich with quest was granted, and on April 6, 1569, sugar and cotton; in others, as between Adra Don John proceeded in command to Gra- and Salobreña, a range of vine-covered hills, nada.
broken here and there with vegas at the mouths The tale of the Morisco rebellion has of rivers, where the finest products of the South been often and ably told. The materials still cover the alluvial soil with an emerald
verdure. On the hills, above the vines the are abundant in the histories of Mendoza, rocks are dotted with spreading fig-trees or the of Marmol, and of Hita – the first two of dark round-headed ash, and higher up, with whom were eye witnesses of that wild and the palmetto and a few pines : and the white varied warfare. These have been largely watch-towers of the Moors, placed on head. used by Count Albert de Circourt in his lands about a league apart, sparkle like pearls excellent work, “Les Arabes en Espagne" on the cliffs overhanging the sea. Such was and by Mr. Prescott in his “ Life of Philip the fair province which, by the toil of a simple 11." Sir William Stirling Maxwell has and harmless race, had fourished through ages not materially added to these well-known of misrule, which Christian bigotry had con. sources; but he has related the expedi- and the superstition of the priest had given
demned to the horrors of a winter campaign, tions of Mondejar, Los Velez, and Don over to the soldier's fire and sword. John, and the desperate resistance of the
The country was admirably adapted for that persecuted race, with the utmost spirit petty warfare for which Spain has always been and vivacity: No war within so narrow a famous. The greater valleys are for the most field ever presented so many incidents of part of their length extremely narrow, and romantic heroism, of ferocious cruelty on bounded by precipitous hills, and they branched both sides, and of subtle policy. It was into glens so numerous and intricate, and so the death-struggle of the crescent and the like each other in character, that it was a hope cross in western Europe, and if the field less task for a stranger to pilot his course was narrow and the forces small, it called those parts of the country which seem com
through their endless ramifications. Even forth the fiercest passions of man, urged paratively open prove on closer inspection to on by religion, by race, by patriotism, and be furrowed with hidden ravines.' Thus in by cruel wrongs. We shall not attempt to passing eastward from the valley of Mecina, follow this part of the narrative. But the one of the chief glens of the southern face of Muleyhacen, the traveller sees before him whatjects, and by the inconceivable procrastiappears a vast undulating district, rich with nation of the king. The Marquis of cultivation, and studded with white towers, Mondejar and the Marquis of Los Velez over which he hopes to find an easy and pleas; exercised a divided authority, and followed ant track. No sooner, however, has he entered it than he is once more compelled to fathom a conflicting policy - the one being in faunexpected gorges and climb unforeseen ridges; Ivor of conciliation, the other of extreme and the rugged descent of the Sierra is hardly severity. The king's forces were ill-supless toilsome than his progress to Valor or ported, and suffered repeated efeats. Uxixar. If he turns his face southwards, When Don John arrived at Granada, the towards Cadiar, he finds himself on what might Moors were almost within sight of the have been a storm-lashed sea turned to stone, city, and his own powers were limited by so rugged and arbitrary is the labyrinth of a board of officers, who had to report naked ravines through and over which lies his everything to the king. He himself was difficult and wearisome path. The winding condemned to inaction.
Many months tracks which traversed the country were at every turn commanded by some beetling crag the field, and even then the king's chief
elapsed before he was permitted to take or tuft of brushwood, from whence a musket or a crossbow could securely dispose of an ap- anxiety seems to have been to protect his proaching foe. Each hamlet, embowered in daring kinsman from personal danger. its fruit-trees and fenced with its outworks of Their correspondence is curious, and on aloe and cactus, was a natural stronghold; and the part of Don John modest and graceful. if the inhabitants were driven from it, the Sierra above usually had its cavern where With Don John himself the king remonwomen and children might be sheltered, and strated against his going out with skirmishing household goods and treasure safely concealed. parties to harass or surprise the enemy. "I Even in the vegas by the seashore, the trees, heard with regret,” he wrote, “ that you had which, hung with tangled trailers, generally been out the other day on one of these expediskirted the river's bed, the tall reeds which tions, because it does not befit you, nor is it hedged and overhung the narrow pathways be your duty, which is to watch over the safety of tween the fields, afforded a thousand points the city. . . . If a large force went with you, where a well-armed resolute peasantry might the Moriscos might appear on the other side, withstand with success the soldiers of the king. and effect something which might be incon
Within a week the whole region was in arms, venient; so you must do this no more. Even from the valley of Lecrin to the plain of Alme. if the Duke of Sesa and Luis Quixada go with ria, from the vega of Granada to the shore of you, that is not right, for one of them ought to the Mediterranean. Village after village, rising look after such things, and the other remain against its civil and religious authorities, de with you. I have also heard that you go and stroyed or expelled them. The same bloody visit the sentinels, and watch the patrols on drama was acted at once in a hundred scenes, their rounds: this should not be done by you which the bounteous hand of nature had formed too often; only from time to time when cirto be abodes of beauty, plenty, and peace. cumstances require it. News came to a hamiet that its neighboring
Don John was very averse to shutting himpopulation, down the glen or across the hill, self up in Granada if there was anything to had risen ; that a great army had landed from be done against the enemy in which he could Africa ; and that Granada and Alhambra once take a part. “If I had more experience and more belonged to the Moors. The Moriscos practice in my profession,” he wrote, “I should gathered in the street to hear the tidings and have nothing to reply to your Majesty, but discuss the course to be taken. The Chris- seeing that I am only learning the service in tians, if they were few and timid, fled; the which I hope to die, it is not right that I curate stealing into his sacristy and securing should miss what opportunities there are of the host from desecration by swallowing it. If improving myself in it, and besides, I know they were bold and numerous, they assembled that it does not suit your Majesty's affairs. I in the church and considered their means of entreat you to observe how little it befits me, defence. Their usual resolution was to shut being what I am, or my age, that I should shut themselves up with their women, children, and myself up, when I ought to be showing myself valuables, in the belfry, confiding in the strength | abroad.” In vain the king replied: “You of its masonry, and trusting that their hastily must keep yourself, and I must keep you, for collected stock of provisions might hold out greater things, and it is from these that you until succor should arrive. The Moors were must learn your professional knowledge.” meanwhile proclaiming with cymbal and horn, Don John's reasonable and spirited rejoinder and shouts of joy, that there was but one God, was : ""I am certainly most desirous to give and that Mahomet was his prophet. (Vol. i., satisfaction to your Majesty, and do in all pp. 127-129.)
things as you wish; but at my age, and in my
position, I see that your Majesty's interest The rebellion was allowed to spread requires that when there is any call to arms or through the province by the monstrous any enterprise, the soldiers should find me in impolicy of the crown to its Moorish sub- front of them, or at least with them, ready to
encourage them to do their duty, and that they | the reputation of Don Jolin of Austria ; should know that I desire to lead them in the he was acknowledged by the army to be a name of your Majesty.” (Vol. i., pp. 182, 183.) worthy son of the great emperor; he had
The generals quarrelled, the soldiers shown valor and skill in war; he was disdeserted, the army lived by pillage: it posed to show forbearance and temper in was not till the winter of 1570 that the negotiation. The time was come when a king allowed it to take the field, in two higher destiny awaited him. On the last divisions, one commanded by Don John, day of November, 1570, he was recalled the other by the Duke of Sesa. The hour by the king from Granada to Madrid. of action had at last arrived, and the The conqueror of the Morisco, king of the young prince advanced against the strong. Alpuxarras, and of a few mountain
towns, hold of the Moors at Galera. The siege was to lead the fleets and armies of Spain, was conducted with energy and ability, Venice, and the pope in a new crusade and, in spite of two sanguinary repulses, against the Moslem tyrant of the Medithe town, being undermined, fell on Feb. terranean. ruary 1o.
The Spaniards had been exas. At the death of Solyman the Magnifiperated to the last degree by the stubborn cent in 1566 the Ottoinan power had atresistance of the place, and by the defeats tained the apogee of its greatness. The they had sustained under its walls. Don battles of Mohacs and Essek had placed John himself shared their passion, and it Hungary at the feet of the Moslem; the is a blot on his fame that on this, his first Turkish armies had occupied Ispahan; memorable deed of war, he ordered or al- the naval exploits of Barbarossa had sublowed a frightful butchery of the wretched dued the Mediterranean. He was courted people after their surrender. Mr. Pres- by France, he was seared by Spain. Such cott denounces this "atrocious massacre." was the empire that passed to Selim II., Sir William throws some doubt on the the son of Solyman, and the descendant matter. It seems certain that four thou of a shepherd chief of the Bithynian highsand four hundred women and children lands. were made prisoners, about three thousand fighting men perished, and the town kingdoms of Selim had been won from the
By the scimitars of nine stout Sultans the was demolished. The fall of that “proud marshalled hosts of civilization, or from the galley," as the poets of the day termed the fierce hordes of the desert. While he himself Galera of the mountains, did not termi- reigned in the palace of the Cæsars by the nate the struggle. Don John next pro shores of the Bosphorus, his Viceroys gave ceeded to attack Seron, another strong. law in the halls of the Caliphs at Bagdad in hold of the Moorish garrison. There he the east, or collected tribute_beneath the encountered a similar resistance, and at shadow of Atlas in the west. From Aden in first a similar check. There, too, Quixada, the south his banner, emblazoned with the the foster-father, the guide, the friend of crossed scimitars, was unfurled to the Indian his childhood and his youth, fell, struck by quaffed their sherbet in the libraries and the
Sea; and at Buda in the north his Pashas a Moorish ball, by his side. Another ball
galleries of the poet-king Matthias. The Shah glanced from his own helmet. The loss of Persia, the Chief of the Holy Roman Emof Quixada touched him to the heart, and pire, and the proud Republics of Genoa and wrung a rare expression of grief from Venice, were reckoned amongst the vassals Philip himself. Soon after this event whose tribute swelled his annual revenue. Seron was evacuated. Don John pursued From the headlands of Istria to the cliffs of a rapid career of success. Negotiations Kent the cruisers of his seaports levied a tax were opened with El Habaqui, one of the on the coasts of Christendom and the comMoorish chiefs, and although the war was
merce of the world. (Vol. i., pp. 289, 290.) renewed for a short time by Aben Aboo, Yet already, in passing to the weaker son who rejected all compromise, and caused of the great sultan, the seeds of dissoluEl Habaqui to be killed as a traitor, the tion were sown in the empire, and ere insurrection was finally crushed, the Mo- long a blow was to be struck at Turkish riscos were scattered in the adjacent greatness. provinces of Mercia and Valencia, and It is a mistake to suppose that during it was not until the next reign that the the sixteenth century an incessant strug: Church and the crown expelled the most gle was carried on between the Porte and industrious and intelligent of their sub. Venice or Spain. The last twenty-eight jects from the peninsula. The contest years of the reign of Solyman were had done no credit to the policy of the marked by no naval contest, because the king or to the conduct of the Spanish Turkish maritime supremacy was com. troops, but it had unquestionably raised plete - a striking proof of what may be
the naval power of an empire seated on / of Solyman quick-witted Greeks and Italthe Bosphorus, and disposing of the re. ians, bold Albanians, patient Bosnians and sources of the adjacent coasts. Against Croats — who bartered their genius and valor such a power Venice was too weak to con. for the gold of the slothful Turk. (Vol. i., tend. The whole political skill of the P. 301.) republic was applied to preserve peace, to
Selim had not been long upon the throne retain her own possessions, in Cyprus and when he cast his eyes on Cyprus. It was the Archipelago, and to protect the Adri- an axiom of Turkish policy that to preatic coast from her formidable neighbor. serve the empire was to extend it; and in
The relations between the republic, proud spite of the opposition of the sagacious of her ancient fame yet conscious of declining grand vizier, Mahomet Sokolli, an expedipower, and the Ottoman, riding on the food. tion was fitted out against Cyprus, war tide of prosperity, deinanded on the Venetian was proclaimed against Venice, and Barside the most delicate and dexterous handling baro, the Venetian Bailo at the Porte To humor the arrogant barbarian, avoiding (whose biography we owe to M. Yriarte), exasperating opposition on the one hand and was sent to the Seven Towers. In March, tame submission on the other, was well com- 1570, the Turkish armament was almost pared, by one of the ablest hands in the game, ready to sail. Never was the republic
to play with a ball of glass, which must be in greater peril. The Turk could launch kept in the air by slight and skilful touches, two hundred and fifty vessels of war. and would be broken either by a fall or a vio. The arsenal of Venice had recently been lent blow.” (Vol. i., p. 296.)
devastated by a conflagration. The SenSelim II. was no warrior, and his life ate was aware that they could not hold was spent in gross sensual indulgence and their own at sea, or protect their islands, crimes.
against so powerful an enemy. Every
effort was made by Barbaro to parry the In person he was said to have resembled in early life his Russian mother, the famous Rox: blow, at Constantinople. Every court in alana, whose imperious temper he had inher: Europe was applied to for aid by the ited without her vigorous understanding. His Venetian envoys, but with small success. disorderly life had, however, long ago effaced As for Spain, the spring of 1570 was the all traces of her transmitted beauty. Excess, last crisis of the Morisco war, and the both in eating and drinking (for he was said king was still agitated by the catastrophe to remain sometimes for whole days and nights of his son Don Carlos. He received the at table, and to drink a bottle of spirits every overtures of Venice with marked coldness morning by way of aiding his digestion), had and reserve. In this her hour of need, bloated his cheek and dulled his eye. He lhe Queen of the Adriatic found help but was, however, not a little proud of his crimson in one quarter whence she least expected complexion, and dyed his hands and face to a
it. blood color. To the western stranger, who was
But Pope Pius V. saw, with an intui. led through the wide courts of the Seraglio, tion of genius, that the moment had ar. between long ranks of janissaries, terrible rived when the long struggle of the cross and silent as death, to the barbaric pomp of and the crescent for supremacy in the his presence-chamber, or who beheld him rid Mediterranean must be fought out. It is ing at noon to mosque, glittering with gems, said that Cosmo de' Medici had pointed amongst his gilded and jewelled cavaliers, the out to his Holiness in 1568 that a marilittle ñery-faced infidel with his beard dyed time league of Venice, Spain, and the jet, his blackened eyelids, and his huge turban, pope could alone make head against the must have appeared the very personification of Turk. Pius, the master of two worn-out the fierce and wicked heathen tyrant of chiv. alrous romance.
galleys, adopted the design, and applied If his brief reign belong to the splendid himself to direct this new crusade against period of Turkish history; if it produced the infidel, with the same energy he had some of the chief monuments of Mahometan directed against the liberties and the relegislation, and added several Arabian prov. ligion of Protestant England. The name inces and the royal isle of Cyprus to the do. of Pius V. is odious in English history, minions of the Crown; if the Selimye mosque, because he was a mortal enemy of our whose airy domes and delicate spires so nobly sovereign and our Church; but as the crown the city of Adrian, equals, or perhaps author of the Holy League this memorable excels, the temples left to Constantinople by Solyman and Justinian, the glory of these pope was the saviour of the liberties of
southern Europe. Sir William Stirling achievements is due not to the indolent mon. arch who soiled the throne with the foulest Maxwell has drawn a striking portrait of vices, but to the unexhausted impulse of a this pontiff, and like all the other portraits better time, and to that able band of renegades of his heroes, it is accompanied by a reand soldiers of fortune trained in the school production of the vera effigies, from the