an historical introduction by Sir William | Maxwell, Don John of Austria was the Stirling Maxwell, appeared in 1875, and most brilliant representative of the chiv. another magnificent folio, entitled “ Ant- alry of Spain — the most gifted offspring werp Delivered in 1577," was passing of the great emperor who died at Yuste through the press at the time of the au- - and the short but splendid career of thor's death. The author of these books that young hero, ranging over a single was indifferent to literary fame, and in decade of years, seemed to be a drama deed to any sort of notoriety. When in combining every element of historical and 1868 the electors of Perthshire thought dramatic interest. To this life, therefore, fit to dismiss from their service a repre- he devoted all his powers. Europe was sentative who stood foremost amongst the ransacked for books, manuscripts, and commoners of Scotland, his equanimity portraits to illustrate the period and the was unruffled; when the crown in 1878 man. The work of composition proceeded conferred upon him the ancient order of with extreme slowness. Every incident Scottish knighthood, even that rare dis. was verified, every turn of expression tinction added nothing to the social posi- was weighed. In this age of rapid and tion he owed to his talents and his birth.* slovenly composition, we venture to say He was alike indifferent to popularity and that no book has been written with so to what are called honors. He seldom much care. Twice the whole manuscript allowed his books to be reprinted, and was reprinted solely for the eye of the rather enjoyed the demand for these rare author. A vast quantity of blocks, woodvolumes. There was in Stirling a mixture cuts, engravings, portraits, and alphabets of splendor and simplicity, of gravity and were collected for the ultimate publicaof humor, of bonhomie and satire, which tion. The whole work appears to have rendered his conversation and his society reached the final stage of preparation, even infinitely attractive and agreeable to those to the last corrections of the second proofwho had the happiness to enjoy his friend. sheets in pencil, when the enthusiastic, ship. Though somewhat eccentric, he ingenious, and eloquent historian was lost was entirely unselfish. He loved to de- to us forever. Sir William Stirling Maxvote his vast fortune to noble purposes, well caught a fever at Naples or at Flor. especially in pursuit of literary objects. ence, which he had just visited, and These he would spare no labor and no expired at Venice, on his way back to expense to promote. His exquisite taste England, on January 15, 1878. Some and refinement left him unsatisfied with years elapsed before the state of these anything that fell short of supreme excel. manuscripts could be examined. When lence; and as be applied this standard of this was done, it was found that they criticism to his own works, he was apt to wanted nothing to fit them for publica. rate them below their real value. lf at tion. The executors and representatives times a shade of melancholy pierced of Sir William Stirling Maxwell therefore through his habitual gaiety, it was the thought it desirable that the aim of bis melancholy of a man who lives in the literary life should be accomplished, and pursuit of an unattainable perfection. that the work should be given to the

The “ Life of Don John of Austria,” world as nearly as possible in the form the work now before us, is a striking ex. which the author contemplated. The duty ample of this peculiarity. It was begun of passing the sheets through the press at least twenty-five years ago. It was and superintending the arrangement of even announced for publication by Messrs. the work has been performed by Sir Parker in 1870. To Sir William Stirling George W. Cox with excellent taste and

judgment, his sole object being to ascer. • The most ancient and most noble Scottish Order of the Thistle has never been conferred by the sov- tain as far as possible the intention of the ereign on any commoners, at least since the union of author and adhere to it. A limited edition the crowns, except on Sir William Stirling Maxwell. has been struck off in two volumes folio, The honor done to him was therefore not only great, but unprecedented, and no Scotchman deserved it bet- with all the elaborate illustrations that

had been prepared for it. These will


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form a rare ornament to the finest libra- | son; the prince, to whom his uncle might ries. No book has issued from the Brit- have been an object of rivalry, and who ish press for many years which surpasses loved nothing else in the world, regarded or equals it in magnificent execution. him as a brother. Don John was every. The typography does the greatest credit thing that Don Carlos should have been to our townsmen, Messrs. Clark, of Edin- and was not. Perhaps the most painful burgh, and the publishers have spared no incident in his life was when Carlos concost or labor to make it worthy of the fided to him, as his friend, the diabolical writer to whose fame it is dedicated. A designs he entertained against his own popular edition in a more convenient form father, which Don John felt bound, in will shortly place the book within reach of bonor and in duty to his sovereign and his the public, and it needs no recommenda- brother, to make known to the king. tion from us to direct their attention to On February 24, 1547, then, a day so captivating a narrative ; but we shall auspicious in the annals of Charles V., a endeavor to give a sketch of it in the fol. natural son of that monarch was born to lowing pages, leaving, as far as possible, him in Ratisbon of a mother known as the author to relate the adventures of his Barbara Blomberg, who had been introfavorite hero,

duced to sing to the emperor. Such, at

least, is the most credible version of the Such was the mystery thrown over the story.* The lady, if such she was, was birth and the early years of the son of afterwards married to a commissary at Charles V., who is known in history as Brussels and treated with liberality by Don John of Austria, that some uncer. Philip II.; but such was the violence of tainty and error hung about the two first her temper that she braved and bullied conditions of all biography, bis age and the Duke of Alba himself. She lived to his name. It is now established by the see her son governor of the Low Counevidence of the medal struck in honor of tries, and survived him. the conqueror of Lepanto in 1571, that he Strangely enough, the name by which attained the age of twenty-four in that this child of fortune was first known was year. This date has been confirmed by not John, but Jerome. About two years an entry in the records of the Cortes of after his birth be was confided by the Toledo, which shows that in 1560 Don emperor to Don Luis Quixada, a Spanish John had not then completed his four- nobleman, who enjoyed the full confidence teenth year. He was consequently born of his master, and who kept the secret of in 1547 and not in 1545, as had been his birth with unbroken fidelity; but by affirmed by most of the historians, with the express orders of Charles V. the boy the exception of Moreri and Mr. Pres. was placed under the personal care of one cott. The correction is important, for it Massi, a viol-player to his Majesty, under subtracts two years from his short and another name, and his education was carbrilliant life, and it gives a more surpris. ried on by the parish priest of Leganes, a ing character to several of the earlier in- small village where Massi and his wife cidents in it. Don John was therefore lived, within a few miles of Madrid. As exactly twenty years younger than his the musician kissed the emperor's hand brother Philip II., and about two years in taking leave to return to Spain, Charles younger than the king's son, Don Carlos, said to him : “I hear that Quixada bas who was born in 1545. It may here be given you a commission. Remember remarked that, although no two beings that I shall consider the fulfilment of his ever lived who were less moved by human wishes as good service done to myself." affections than these unamiable princes, The village priest, little witting of his and the father and son hated each other charge, handed over the boy to the sacris. to the deatlı, they both lived in almost unbroken friendship with Don John. The

* Mr. Motley states, in his “ Dutch Republic" (vol.

iii., p. 129), that Don John was born in 1545, and that king treated his brother, who might have his mother was “a washerwonan of Ratisbon." been an object of jealousy, like a favorite these statements are incorrect.


tan, by whom he was sent to the common tial hand. Possibly Don John may have school of Getafe. The future hero of been present at the solemn scene when Lepanto trudged through the fields with the expiring emperor delivered into the his peasant schoolfellow's, shooting spar. bands of the priest the waxen taper which rows on the way with a little crossbow. he held, as a symbol of the surrender of

In 1554 Charles Prevost, one of the bis soul to the mercy of his Creator. But grooms of the emperor's chamber, was Quixada was not there. At the funeral sent to Leganes in a coach of state to rites which followed, both were undoubt. remove the boy to Valladolid, where higher edly present. destinies awaited him. The village was Still the secret had been kept. The amazed at the astounding event, and as truth was unknown to the princess regent, the coach rolled away it was surrounded and even to the king, until late in 1558, and pursued by urchins vociferating fare. though public rumor already pointed to it. wells to their departing comrade. At But, to remove all doubt from the subject, Valladolid Don John was presented to his Charles V. had, even before his abdica. sister, the infanta Juana, princess dow- tion - in 1554 - added the following reager of Brazil, the mother of Don Sebas- markable codicil to his will:tian of Portugal, then acting as regent of

Besides what is contained in my will, I say Spain ; but the secret of his birth was not and declare that, when I was in Gerinany, and made known either to the princess or to being a widower, I had, by an unmarried wom; himself. Thenceforth he resided at Villa an, a natural son, who is called Jerome, and garcia in the family mansion of Quixada, that my intention has been and is, for certain and under the eye of his admirable wife. reasons moving me thereto, that if it can be To this lady, Doña Magdalena de Ulloa, fairly accomplished, he should, of his free and Don John owed not only his education spontaneous will, take the habit of some order but whatever was most amiable in his life of reformed friars, and that he should be put and character. Childless herself, she will. in the way of so doing, but without any pres. ingly adopted him as her son, not without sure, or force being employed towards him. a jealous suspicion that he belonged by a fers leading a secular life, it is my pleasure

But if it cannot be so arranged, and if he precloser tie to her own husband. An acci- and command that he should receive, in the dent convinced her that the boy had a ordinary manner each year, from twenty to still higher parentage. The house took thirty thousand ducats from the revenues of fire, and Quixada carried Don John to a the kingdom of Naples; lands and vassals, place of safety before he attended to the with that rent attached, being assigned to him. preservation of his wife. She concluded The whole matter, both as to the assignment that his honor was engaged in the dis of the lands and the amount of the rent, is charge of a trust.

left to the discretion of my son, to whom I Charles V. reached the monastery of remit it; or, f:iling him, to the discretion of Yuste, after his abdication, on February person who, in conformity with my will, shall

my grandson, the Infant Don Carlos, or of the 3, 1557. In March, 1558, Quixada, still at the time it is opened be my heir. If at that aitached to the person of his sovereign, time the said Jerome shall not have already · procured a house at Quacos, a village embraced the state which I desire for him, he about a mile from Yuste, at the foot of its shall enjoy all the days of his life the said chestnut-covered hill. Hither Doña Mag. rent and lands, which shall pass to his the legit. dalena and Don John repaired. The boy, imate heirs and successors descending from then eleven years of age, seems to have his body. And whatever state the said Gerohad free access to his unknown father. nimo shall enibrace, I charge the said prince He went in and out of the emperor's whosoever it may be, as I have said, at the

my son, and my said grandson, and my heir, chamber when he pleased. This circum- opening of my will, to do him honor and cause stance is the more remarkable, as Charles him to be honored, and that they show him expressly refused to allow Don Carlos, fitting respect, and that they observe, fulfil, his grandson and heir, to approach his and execute in his favor that which is conretreat, on the ground that the lad would tained in this paper. The which I sign with be troublesome. It is pleasant to know my name and hand : and it is sealed and that the last months of that great exis- sealed up with my small private seal ; and it tence, saddened by care and by disease, is to be observed and executed like a clause of were cheered by the presence and the my said will. Done in Bruxelles, on the sixth promise of this gay, beautiful, and high-day of the month of June, 1554. spirited child.

Son, grandson, or whoever at the time that Charles was delighted this with him, and on the day before he died ing to it, may be my heir, if you do not know


will and writing is opened, and accord. sent the capital of an annuity of two hun where this Jerome may be, you can learn it dred florins to his mother by a confiden- I from Adrian, groom of my chamber, or, ir


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case of his death, from Oger, the porter of my | the royal cavalcade. A groom presently met chamber, that he may be treated conformably them, leading a very handsome horse. Quito the said will and writing.

xada now dismounted, telling Don John to do This paper, Sir William Stirling Maxwell the same. The ancient soldier then knelt beadds, was one of a parcel of four which seems fore his pupil and asked leave to kiss his hand, to have been placed by the emperor in the saying: “You will soon learn from the king hands of Philip II. before they took leave of himself why I do this.” Don John hesitated, each other on the Flemish shore in Septem- but at length held out his hand to be kissed; ber, 1556. Folded up within it was the receipt and when Quixada desired him to mount the for Jerome, given by Massi, and already cited. new horse, he said gaily to his old friend : It was sealed up with the emperor's seal, and “Then since you will have it so, you may also was endorsed, in his hand, with these words: hold the stirrup.” They rode onward towards “This my writing is to be opened only by the the rocky pass of Torozos. Here a group of prince, my son, and failing him by my grand gentlemen came in sight. As they drew near, son, Don Carlos; and failing him by whoso- Quixada once more halted, and alighting from ever shall be my heir, conformably to and at his horse caused Don John to follow his examthe opening of my will.". The other three ple. A short, spare man in black, with a pale papers were unsealed, and related to other face and sandy beard, advanced towards them matters – the executorship of the will in Spain alone, and checked his horse when within a and the Netherlands, and the rights of the few paces. “Kneel down, Don John,” said king of Spain and the pretensions of others to Quixada, “and kiss his Majesty's hand.” As the kingdom of Navarre and the lordship of the youth obeyed the instructions, he found Piombino. The whole parcel bore an inscrip- bending over him a pair of cold grey eyes and tion in the handwriting of Philip with his sig. a pouting under lip, which may well have re.

-"If I die before his Majesty this called the features of the august invalid whose packet to be delivered to him; if after him to gouty fingers he had knelt to kiss at Yuste. my son, or, failing him, to my heir.” (Vol. i., “Do you know, youngster,” said the king, Pp. 22, 23, Svo edition.)

“who your father was ?” The abashed youth It is due to Philip 11. to say that the in- embracing him with some show of affection,

made no reply. Philip then dismounted, and, junctions of his father were faithfully and said: "Charles V., my lord and father, was piously observed.

also yours. You could not have had a more In the autumn of 1559 Philip sailed illustrious sire, and I am bound to acknowlfrom the Low Countries to take possession edge you as my brother.” Ile then turned to of his Spanish dominions. The story of the gentlemen behind him and said: “Know the meeting and recognition of the broth and honor this youth as the natural son of the ers has often been told, but it is essential emperor, and as brother to the king.” At to this sketch, and we quote it in Sir Wil- of hunters and peasants who had by this time

these words a loud shout burst from the crowd liam Stirling Maxwell's words :

collected round the spot. Don John, by Phil. Processions, triumphal arches, thanksgivings ip's desire, remounted his borse, and received in the churches, and all other displays of civic, the salutations and felicitations of the lords courtly, and religious joy celebrated the king's and gentlemen. The real object of the hunt. arrival at Valladolid.' The regent Doña ju ing party being now accomplished, the king, ana resigned the reins of government, and re- who was no sportsman, turned his horse's head tired, well pleased, to her beads, and prayers, towards Valladolid, saying that he had never and scourgings, in the pine-shaded cloisters of before captured game which had given bim so Abrojo. . . . Philip was then at leisure to much pleasure. Don John entered the capital make the acquaintance of his stranger broth. riding at his side, amidst the acclamations of

Luis Quixada was instructed to bring the multitude, amongst whom the news of the Don John in bis ordinary dress on St. Luke's recognition of the new prince, the son of their Day, to meet him at the convent of San Pedro great emperor, had already been promulgated. de la Espina. This convent of Bernardines (Vol. i., pp. 31–34.) owed its name to the most famous of the relics venerated in its church, a thorn of the From that moment Don John assumed bis crown worn by our Lord on Calvary. Its rank as a prince of the house of Austria, sumptuous buildings, the pious work of Doña distinguished only in some minute particSancha of Castille, were situated about a ulars from that of the legitimate members league from Villagarcia, on the side of a hill of the royal family. abounding in game. Hither the king was to come on a hunting expedition. Quixada there; lence scenes of the Spanish court which

We are compelled to pass over in si. fore summoned his vassals to join the royal are described with all the pathos and sport. . .. Don John and he then mounted their horses and rode off to the chase, followed power of our author: the great auto-de-fe by the vassals and servants on foot and horse. at Valladolid of May, 1559, when not mere back, in their best array. Parties of yeoman. Jews, Moriscos, or infidels, but victims of prickers, and the cries of men and hounds in the noblest blood of Castille, were offered ihe distance, soon announced the approach of up in that holocaust of superstition; and


the splendid ceremony in the cathedral of to call forth all the resources of Philip and Toledo to take the oath of allegiance to all the strength of his empire. In the Don Carlos as heir of the monarchy, at Low Countries that revolt had broken out which Don John stood at the head of the which kindled the fires of religious aninobility of Spain. No greater contrast mosity, national enthusiasm, and the spirit could be conceived than that between the of freedom against the dominion of insullen, misshapen, and morbid heir of so tolerance, an alien rule, and a despotic many crowns, and his gay and gallant power. The Duke of Alba was appointed kinsman who kissed the hand of Don Car- governor of the Netherlands in August, los on that day as the representative of 1567, and began his sanguinary and unthe nation. The contrast of their persons successful contest against the liberties of was not greater than the contrast of their Flanders. In the Eastern seas the Turkfate. Yet the youths started in life to ish fleets of Solyman and Selim rode gether, and, with the exception of one supreme. Malta was besieged, and the hasty taunt met by a keen repartee, they Turk defied the armaments of Venice and lived (as we have said) on terms of inti. Genoa, and harried the coasts of southern mate friendship. In November, 1561, Italy, Spain, and Spanish Africa. In the Don John, Don Carlos, and with them ancient kingdom of the Moors brooded a their cousin Alexander Farnese – des. spirit of rebellion, soon to break out in tined as Prince of Parma to fill a still open violence. Moreover, the policy of broader page of history — were sent to the Philip embraced the whole of Europe : in University of Alcalá.* Their studies France, the League; in England, the conwere directed by Honorato Juan, a learned test with Elizabeth, suspended at times Valencian who had been selected by but never abandoned ; in Italy, his vary. Charles V. to be the preceptor of Philip. ing relations with the sovereign pontiff. He ranked high amongst the men of let. His emissaries were at work from the ters of his time, with the singular distinc- Baltic to the Mediterranean. The epoch tion that he had written nothing. But it then about to open was the most momen. soon became apparent that the tastes and tous in the history of that eventful cen. talents of Don John led him away from tury. It began with the insurrection of the ecclesiastical profession to which the the Low Countries, it ended with the emperor had dedicated him, and from the Armada. It included the tragedy of St. ecclesiastical dignities the king sought to Bartholomew's Day in Paris, and the obtain for him. In 1564 the young prince comedy of Anjou's matrimonial advenleft the university, and in the following tures in London. The first decade of this year Don John, then eighteen, fired by the period corresponds with the short but approach of the Turkish fleet, broke loose brilliant career of Don John of Austria, to join the Spanish squadron which had and it is probable that the prescient mind been ordered to the relief of Malta. The of Philip foresaw that whilst he directed enterprise failed, for when he reached these complicated movements with his Barcelona the galleys had already sailed, pen from the cells of the Escorial, the arm and the king imperatively ordered him to of his young brother and of his nephew return. Few men ever crossed the will of Alexander Farnese were precisely the Philip II. with impunity; but when Don weapons he required to execute his polJohn approached him and begged par- icy. Certain it is that in October, 1567, don for his flight, the king received him ah mention of the Church was dropped, kindly and bade him kiss the hand of the and Don John received at the king's queen. Isabella laughingly asked him if hands the high office of admiral of the he found the Moors and Turks brave war- fleet, or, as it was termed in Castilian, riors. Probably the king discerned in general of the sea." His martial prethis boyish adventure that there was more dilections were now suffered to have their in his brother than the stuff of a cardinal, own way. Don Carlos was so gratified by and that he might fight the Moors and the appointment that he went from Madrid Turks in more serious encounters. to the Escorial to thank the king for havThe moment was one which threatened ing made it - a remarkable circumstance,

because at that very time Don Carlos was * Alexander Farnese was born, according to Litha, meditating and contriving his own flight on August 27, 1545; he was therefore about eighteen from the kingdom, he was arrested two months older than Don John. This date is probably correct, but the year of his birth is variously given by months later, and in the following sumdifferent biographies as 1544, 1545, and 1546. In the “ Biographie Universelle" of Niichaud, he is stated to

mer came to his miserable and mysterious have been born in 1555, and to have been married at

end. ten years old, but these evidently are absurd errors. Whilst these deplorable events were


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