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ing the idea that public sentiment in ple who make a living by preying on America has been duly aroused to a sense the casual visitor. Every opportunity is of the importance of the danger, and that seized for charging a toll, the cab-drivers recent legislative action has provided and shopkeepers are in league to procure against it. The Falls of Niagara cannot the sale of useless knick-knacks and so. be regarded as specially belonging to called "Indian goods,” touts and "runAmerica, but must be considered as exist- ners” accost you at every turn, and every ing for the advantage of mankind; no trick short of actual swindling is employeci traveller crosses the ocean without visit to squeeze money from the unfortunate ing them, and England has already taken traveller. The extent to which this is an important part in the efforts for their practised has led to the saying that every preservation, indeed, we may almost sane adult American citizen knows two say that it was an Englishman with whom things about Niagara, — first, that there these efforts originated. It is much to be is a great waterfall there ; second, that a desired, therefore, that the English public man's pocket will be emptied there quicker should understand what is involved in than anywhere else in the Union. The the question, how great is the necessity fees to the various points of interest for preservative measures, and what form around the Falls — counting those only it is proposed that these measures shall which it is necessary to see amount to take. If once these points were clearly twenty-four shillings for each person. understood and widely known, there would | And without paying, there is nothing to certainly be such a distinct expression of be seen. It is a positive fact that there opinion in England as would render easier is no spot on the American side from the task to be accomplished in America, which the Falls can be seen without payfor in spite of the frequent and half-jok- ing a fee. And when the visitor has paid ing assumption of careless independence, for admission to the principal point of every one who is really familiar with view he finds himself in a so-called * park," American life knows that by the vast where crowds of excursionists hoid picmajority of our “kin beyond sea any nics, with a “pavilion,” where they dance, genuiné word from England is received an illuminated spray fountain, and elabwith kindly respect.

orate arrangements for throwing colored In the first place, then, in what way is electric lights upon the Falls. There is Niagara being destroyed, — what is the only one place on the American side danger from which it is to be preserved? where the visitor is left in undisturbed There is a story of a man who desired enjoyment of the scene, viz., Goat Island, to approach Niagara under perfect con- the large island which divides the Rapids ditions, and who, therefore, left the train into the American and Horseshoe Falls. at some distance from the village of Niag. Owing to the good taste of its owners, the ara Falls, and made his way on foot, Porter family, and to certain peculiar tesendeavoring during his walk to bring him- tamentary conditions under which they self into a proper state of mind to be acted acquired it, this lovely island has been upon by the beneficent influences of the saved from the "improvements” which vast spectacle. At the moment, however, are ruining Niagara; but these conditions when he stepped into full view of the are valid only during the minority of one cataract, he was accosted by a brisk in- member of the family, and he will shortly dividual, who offered him for a small sum come of age. From every other point the a piece of colored glass, illustrating its visitor is invited, and frequently comuse by turning his back to the Falls, put- pelled, to see Niagara under some more ting his head between his legs, and thus or less distorted form, if not, like the man contemplating the scene upside down and in the story, actually upside down, and through his colored medium. “That, sir,” every healthful influence is excluded by said he, when he had resumed his normal the irritation produced by the constant attitude, “is the way to obtain the most demand for money to maintain these evils. impressive and gorgeous view of the Falls. The second method of the destruction Ten cents !” This story illustrates the of Niagara is worse. Hawthorne confirst of the two processes by which Ni. gratulates the Assabeth, the sluggish river agara is being destroyed. For years there of Concord, upon "the incurable indolence has been a constant stream of visitors to by which it is saved from becoming the the little village, and in the absence of slave of human ingenuity;” and it is the any restrictive legislation, the result is swiftness and incalculable power of the just what we should expect. Nearly the Niagara River which are likely to prove whole of the population consists of peo- lits ruin. For they offer an irresistible

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temptation to what Mr. Ruskin calls “the the Rhone at its greenest; its cliffs are pontifical rigidities of the engineering those of the Rhine; its rapids are those mind,” and already along the bank and on of the St. Lawrence; and to all these it the islands there are saw-mills and chain. adds a resistless might that brings the mills and paper.mills, the rapids are spectator into closest communion with blocked up by wing.dams and ice-barriers, the eternal powers of the universe, and the gas-works discharge their tar down inspires a feeling of sublimity which be. the cliff, and in place of the luxurious comes almost overwhelming.

It is a foliage with which the cliffs were once spectacle peculiarly adapted to exert a crowned, the whole length of them is dis- bealthful and lasting influence upon the figured by these various erections, and by human mind:heaps of lumber and refuse. Every day If thou art worn and hard beset new mills are planned, new obstructions with sorrows that thou would'st forget, put out into the rapids, and trees cut If thou would'st read a lesson that will keep down. Now that the storage of electricity Thy heart from fainting and thy soul from is an accomplished fact, ihe land which sleep, gives access to water-power is increasing rapidly in value. There is little left ex. go to Niagara; there is cept Goat Island, and when that is bought The cataract, whose angry roar shall smite by some manufacturer of pulp or spoons Thy heart with courage. or spittoons, denuded of its forest growth, The writer well remembers spending the pierced by canals, and crowned with a tall

greater part of a brilliant summer night chimney, the last blow of the destroyer on Goat Island, at the brink of the Horsewill have been struck, and the beauty of shoe Fall. In the moonlight the rapids Niagara will be gone forever.

were like silver; each jet of spray sparkled The description of Niagara has well as it rose, and the whole ocean seemed to been called the Ulyssean bow of travel. be hurrying to pour itself into the misty lers, and we shall not indulge in any su- gulf; most beautiful of all, the famous perlative adjectives or soaring metaphors lunar bow stretched in a perfect arch from concerning it. Its discoverer, the Jesuit side to side. All the weird beauty of the father Hennepin, told all that is necessary moonlight seemed concentrated in that when he said, “The universe does not one circle. In the stillness of the night afford its parallel,” and this is the point the "slumberous sound” of the waters we would impress upon our readers. Ni.

more impressive than during the agara is unique, not merely because it is noises of the day. Overhead the stars, the second waterfall in the world, for that the awful cataract underneath. No man alone would render it of little value, but can live long in such a scene, and remain also because it possesses most of the an unchanged man. In Matthew Arnold's qualities which men are accustomed to verse, the sentiment of the place is perseek in widely separated parts of the earth. rectly expressed:A common error is to suppose that the Falls themselves constitute the chief in

“Ah! once more," I cried, "ye stars, ye waters, terest of Niagara. Nothing could be on my heart your mighty charm renew;

Still, still let me, as I gaze upon you, more mistaken; the Falls are merely one Feel my soul becoining vast like you!” of the constituent parts of the whole spectacle. The rapids, the islands, the Wiat, now, is it proposed to do, to cataract, the chasm below the cataract, make Niagara all that it should and may the whirlpool rapids, the basin of the be? The answer will occur to every one whirlpool, — all these are included in the who knows the place, and may be given word“ Niagara.” If one part be more in a sentence. The proper treatment of impressive than the rest, we should agree Niagara cannot be better expressed than with Mr. Howells, when he says, in that in the phrase, “ Plus on lui ôte, plus il est delightful book “Their Wedding Jour- grand.” Niagara must be delivered from ney," that the whirlpool rapids, “seen its worst enemy, the sensational; it must from any point, are the most impressive cease to be treated as a show, and must feature of the whole prodigious spectacle be restored to its original condition as a of Niagara.” But Niagara must not be simple piece of nature. This is a case in thus split up; it is a unique whole. One which the words of the old hymn are pe. part of it is a characteristic bit of the culiarly applicable, -“only man is vile.” English Lake scenery; another is one of Everything that man has done to Niagara the features of Norway ; another is the must be undone ; then only will its simMaelstroia; its color surpasses that of plicity be restored, and with its simplicity

was

its sublimity. The directors of a State | been made. An act to carry out its sug. Survey made a few years ago proposed gestions has twice been presented to the that the land adjoining the rapids, falls, Legislature, and allowed to perish in neg. and chasm should be condemned by the lect. At last, a short time ago, a Board State, and, with the erections on it, ap- of Commissioners was appointed to repraised and purehased. This land would port upon the desirability of the purchase be a strip a mile long, and varying in of the land by the State. It is this nonwidth from a hundred feet at the head of cominittal bill which some of our conthe rapids to eight hundred feet at the temporaries have mistaken for the setFalls. The buildings would all be re- tlement of the question. Three weeks moved, the unsightly constructions along ago, the Commission adopted a resolution the banks would be swept away, appropri. providing for the taking of land as deate trees planted, and the village thus shut scribed above. The matter is thus very out from view. This could be done for much where it was two years ago, except the sum of one million dollars. On the that the restoration has become more diffi. Canadian side, the cliffs have been left cult day by day. The Legislature will in their native picturesqueness; there are soon be called upon to decide upon the fewer buildings to be removed, and, best report of the Commission. We cannot of all, there is a military reservation of believe that a measure which would be so sixty-six feet from the dge of the cliff. welcome to the world at large, which The difficulty and expense of restoration would confer both material and moral would consequently be very much less. benefit upon the country, which is deIt is needless to point out the material ad- manded by every sentiment of considervantages to the immediate neighborhood, ation for those who are to come after us, and the moral advantage to the world at -a measure in which future generations large, which would result from the estab. will find a proof of the civilization of lishment of this free international park. our age, — will be rejected because It is important, however, to remember America, with its embarrassing public that the employment of the water-power wealth and its gigantic private fortunes, of Niagara would be in no way interfered cannot find the sum of two hundred thouwith; it would be secured by a hydraulic sand pounds for such a purpose. We canal, supplying, if necessary, twenty do not hesitate to say that English opinion miles of factories, providing an unlimited will be unanimous upon the result, which amount of power, and free from all objec-ever way it may be, and we trust that the tions.

unanimity may be in the form of grateful The first suggestion for the preservation recognition of an act of enlightened legis. of Niagara Falls came from Mr. Church, lation. an American artist. He drew the attention of Lord Dufferin, then governor.gen. eral of Canada, to the matter, and from the latter came the first definite proposi. tion about the International Park. This was embodied in a message by Governor Robinson. Then came a memorial ad- The Warwickshire papers report a curi. dressed jointly to Governor Cornell and ous open-air service held on Sunday week the governor-general of Canada, praying at Stockton, near Rugby, to“consecrate' “that the State of New York and the Do- a large granite boulder which has been minion of Canada should secure and hold inscribed and railed in at the expense of for the world's good the lands adjacent to the villagers. It lies on a bed of concrete the Falls of Niagara.”. This memorial in the centre of the little place, protected was signed by seven hundred persons, by a handsome iron railing; a few square almost all of distinction. Among the En- inches are polished to show the grain; an glish names are Lord Houghton, Lord inscription records that it was brought Reay, Sir John Lubbock, W. R. Greg, from Mount Sorrel, a distance of sixty Carlyle, Ruskin, Max Müller, Jowett, miles, by an iceberg or a glacier in the Leslie Stephen, and Frederic Harrison. great ice age; and the ground around it Among the Americans are Emerson, is to be enclosed, turfed, planted, and set Longfellow, Lowell, Whittier, Palfrey, with rustic seats. A fine day, and the Parkman, Holmes, Gray, Agassiz, Howo novel proceeding, drew a large and atten. ells, Norton, Child, and President Eliot. tive crowd; a short, bright service was Previous to this, the New York State conducted with the aid of an unusually Survey, to which we have alluded, had | good village choir; and the big stone set

From Nature. THE STORY OF A BOULDER.

up by Joshua at Shechem formed the text their neighbors; the subscription point for a sermon intended to stamp the boul. was reached, and money found to move der as a religious no less than a scientific and rail in the treasure; the surrounding monument. This charming little idyll is villages finally emptied themselves to at. the closing chapter in a story which might tend the consecration service, and Stockclaim to share the title made historic by a ton is at this moment, like douce Davie great geologist. Five years ago the pres-Deans, “as uplifted as a midden-cock on ent rector, coming to Stockton, found the pattens.” The moral of the story is twoboulder lying in a ditch, into which it bad fold. First: what has been done in Stockbeen rolled from its inconvenient position ton ought to be done in scores of other by the roadside. A hazy clerical belief | villages. This boulder was the first link that it was “ Druidic" had saved it from in a chain of evidence, lengthening ever complete destruction; but it was the since, in favor of a new and pregnant cockshy of all the children, bonfires were probability, the current of an ice-sheet lighted on it occasionally, and it lay at from the Charnwood Forest heights across the mercy of every field club which might the table-land of south Warwickshire. come hammering that way. Larve, gla. In countless corners more lie similar ciated, and of granite, it was clearly worth monuments, unknown and doomed, which, preserving. The new rector told iis prob- if thus preserved and studied, would af. able history from the pulpit, and the vil. ford the keys to like problems in geology, lage mind was roused. Reports came in And secondly: the clergy ought to do it. of other big stones far and near, some of Our country parsons are, if they could be which were also of glacial origin; the educated to see it, the natural discoverers quarrymen in the adjoining limeworks, and conservators of local relics; with the digging down to a smaller piece of granite opportunities they have and the attain. and some beautifully striated blocks of ments they ought to possess, they might sandstone, protected' instead of breaking in their mere leisure write such a scientific them; and by following up the hint thus history of England as no country has yet given, a fine bed of boulder clay was possessed. Let them read the delightful uncovered, shown to Dr. Crosskey, and chapter in " Le Mandit,which paints the inserted in the Boulder Committee Re- Curé Julio in his Pyrenean parish, and in port of the British Association. The order that they may be qualified to imitate fame of the great stone spread; visitors bim, let the bishops be wise in their gen. came to see it; the Stocktonians, who eration, and exact a knowledge of some had through frequent lectures learnt its branch of natural history from every can. scientific value, became proud of their didate for orders. “pibble" and of their ability to instruct

CUTLETS IN CURL-PAPERS. — History tells their city. "Sire,” exclaimed Madame de the story of the famous côtelette de mouton en Maintenon, “this truffled snipe will not be papillotes which reconciled Louis XIV. to the enough for our guests and for us, so that you Duke of Burgundy when the latter returned will please let me offer you a dish invented by from the campaign in Flanders in 1708, pre- my father, Baron de Surineau d'Aubigné, who ceded by the news of defeat on defeat. The was reputed a gourmand.' The favorite ex. duke was expected at court, and on bis arrival plained that the plat in question was a mutton, he bastened to the apartment of Madame de lamb, or veal cutlet strewn with parsley and Maintenon, where the king was in the midst savory herbs, placed in a sheet of thin, wellof his supper. Madame de Maintenon had buttered paper, and then grilled.

“Why," eaten her cabbage soup, picked a few crayfish said the king, “that is wrapping a chop in from the Bievre, and was drinking her favorite curl-papers !” “Precisely,” replied the lady. Hermitage wine. The king got up, and to the The king seemed to enjoy the joke immensely, great surprise of every one, kissed the duke and declared he would have one of these cutmost affectionately, pressed him warmly by lets on the following evening for supper, invit. the hand, and seconded by the hostess, bade ing the gentlemen and courtiers present to him sit down and share their supper. “Cha. partake of the meal. At the same time a marande,” said the king, addressing his valet messenger was sent to the governor of Ramde chambre, “has not the mayor of Rheims bouillet ordering him to send up one of the sent me some of the best vintage of Cham- best sheep he could find on the royal farm. pagne and some of the famous Rousselet On the following day the mutton cutlets en pears?” These good things were placed on papillotes were eaten by the guests, who drank the table, and Chamarande read the letter the choicest of Rhine wines, and declared that from the burgesses, saying that they sent their they had never sat down to such an excellent king their wine, their pears, and their hearts dish before. - in fact, the best of everything they had in

Fifth Series, Volume XLIII.

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No. 2043.- August 18, 1883.

From Beginning,

Vol. CLVIII.

• 387

402

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CONTENTS.
I. HALF A CENTURY OF LITERARY LIFE, London Quarterly Review,
II. UNCLE GEORGE'S WILL,

Temple Bar,
III. JOHN RICHARD GREEN. By Edward A.
Freeman,

British Quarterly Review,
IV. ALONG THE SILVER STREAK,

All The Year Round, .
V. THE EMPRESS EUGENIE'S FLIGHT TO EN-
GLAND,

Temple Bar,
VI. THE NORTH FARM: Now. By J. E. Panton, Tinsley's Magazine,
VII. SEA ISLAND COTTON,

Chambers' Journal,
VIII. CAVE TOMBS IN GALILEE,

Fortnightly Review, IX. GRACE DARLING,

Leisure Hour,

412 420

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