them to move on, and threatened them | blood into the bargain; but no one else, with shipwreck. These poor people were except my next-door neighbor to whom I under a spell of stupor, and did not stir a lent the brush, appeared to take the least foot. It rained as heavily as ever, but the precaution. As they were, they composed wind now came in sudden claps and cap- themselves to sleep.

I had seen the fuls, not without danger to a boat so badly lights of Philadelphia, and been twice orballasted as ours; and we crept over the dered to change carriages and twice counriver in the darkness, trailing one paddle termanded, before I allowed myself to in the water like a wounded duck, and follow their example. passed ever and again by huge, illumi. Tuesday. — When I awoke, it was al. nated steamers running many knots, and ready day; the train was standing idle; heralding their approach by strains of I was in the last carriage and, seeing some music. The contrast between these pleas. others strolling to and fro about the lines, ure embarkations and our own grim ves. I opened the door and stepped forth, as sel, with her list to port and her freight of from a caravan by the wayside. We were wet and silent emigrants, was of that near no station, nor even, as far as I could glaring description which we count too see, within sight of any signal. A green, obvious for the purposes of art.

open, undulating country stretched away The landing at Jersey City was done in upon all sides. Locust-trees and a single a stampede. I had a fixed sense of ca- field of Indian corn gave it a foreign grace lamity, and to judge by conduct, the same and interest; but the contours of the land persuasion was common to us all. A were soft and English. It was not quite panic selfishness, like that produced by England, neither was it quite France ; yet fear, presided over the disorder of our like enough either to seem natural in my landing. People pushed, and elbowed, eyes. And it was in the sky, and not and ran, their families following how they upon the earth, that I was surprised to could. Children fell, and were picked up find a change. Explain it how you may, to be rewarded by a blow. One child, and for my part I cannot explain it at all

, who had lost her parents, screamed stead. the sun rises with a different splendor in ily and with increasing shrillness, as America and Europe. There is more though verging towards a fit; an official clear gold and scarlet' in our old-counkept her by him, but no one else seemed try mornings; more purple, brown, and so much as to remark her distress; and I smoky orange, in those of the new. It am ashamed to say that I ran among the may be from habit, but to me the coming rest. I was so weary that I had twice to of day is less fresh and inspiriting in the make a halt and set down my bundles in latter; it has a duskier glory, and more the hundred yards or so between the pier nearly resembles sunset; it seems to fit and the railway station, so that I was some subsequential, evening epoch of the quite wet by the time that I got under world, as though America were in fact,

There was no waiting-room, no and not merely in fancy, farther from the refreshment room; the cars were locked; orient of Aurora and the springs of day, and for at least another hour, or so it I thought so then, by the railroad side in seemed, we had to

camp upon the Pennsylvania, and I have thought so a draughty, gaslit platform. I sat on my dozen times since in far distant parts of valise, too crushed to observe my neigh- the continent. If it be an illusion it is bors; but as they were all cold, and wet, one very deeply rooted, and in which my and weary, and driven stupidly crazy by eyesight is accomplice. the mismanagement to which we had been Soon after a train whisked by, announcsubjected, I believe they can have been ing and accompanying its passage by the no happier than myself. I bought half a swift beating of a sort of chapel bell upon dozen oranges from a boy, for oranges and the engine; and as it was for this we had nuts were the only refection to be had been waiting, we were summoned by the As only two of them had even a pretence cry of “All aboard !” and went on again of juice, I threw the other four under the upon our way. The whole line, it apcars, and beheld, as in a dream, gro peared, was topsy-turvy; an accident at people and children groping on the track inidnight having thrown all the traffic after my leavings.

hours into arrear. We paid for this in At last we were admitted into the cars, the flesh; for we had no meals all that utterly dejected, and far from dry. For my day. Fruit we could buy upon the cars ; own part, I got out a clothes-brush, and and now and then we had a few minutes brushed my trousers as hard as I could at some station with a meagre show of till I had dried them and warmed my rolls and sandwiches for sale ; but we



were so many and so ravenous that, i romantic vocables: Delaware, Ohio, Indi. though I tried at every opportunity, the ana, Florida, Dakota, Iowa, Wyoming, coffee was always exhausted before I Minnesota, and the Carolinas; there are could elbow my way to the counter. few poems with a nobler music for the

Our American sunrise had ushered in ear: a songful, tuneful land; and if the a noble summer's day. There was not a new Homer shall arise from the western cloud; the sunshine was baking; yet in continent, his verse will be enriched, his the woody river valleys among which we pages sing spontaneously, with the names wound our way, the atmosphere preserved of states and cities that would strike the a sparkling freshness till late in the after- fancy in a business circular. noon. It had an inland sweetness and Late in the evening we were landed in variety to one newly from the sea; it a waiting-room at Pittsburg. I had now smelt of woods, rivers, and the delved under my charge a young and sprightly earth. These, though in so far a country, Dutch widow with her children; these Í were airs from home. I stood on the was to watch over providentially for a platform by the hour; and as I saw, one certain distance further on the way; but after another, pleasant villages, carts upon as I found she was furnished with a basthe highway and fishers by the stream, ket of eatables, I left her in the waitingand heard cockcrows and cheery voices room to seek a dinner for myself. in the distance, and beheld the sun, no I mention this meal, not only because longer shining blankly on the plains of it was the first of which I had partaken ocean, but striking among shapely hills for about thirty hours, but because it was and his light dispersed and colored by a the means of my first introduction to a thousand accidents of form and surface, colored gentleman. He did me the honor I began to exult with myself upon this to wait upon me after a fashion, while I rise in life like a man who had come into was eating; and with every word, look, a rich estate. And when I had asked the and gesture marched me farther into the name of a river from the brakesman, and country of surprise. He was indeed heard that it was called the Susquehanna, strikingly unlike the negroes of Mrs. the beauty of the name seemed to be part Beecher Stowe, or the Christy Minstrels and parcel of the beauty of the land. As of my youth. Imagine a gentleman, cerwhen Adam with divine fitness named tainly somewhat dark, but of a pleasant, the creatures, so this word Susquehanna warm hue, speaking English with a slight was at once accepted by the fancy. That and rather odd foreign accent, every inch was the name, as no other could be, for a man of the world, and armed with manthat shining river and desirable valley. ners so patronizingly superior that I am

None can care for literature in itself at a loss to name their parallel in En. who do not take a special pleasure in the gland. A butler perhaps rides as high sound of names; and there is no part of over the unbutlered, but then he sets you the world where nomenclature is so rich, right with a reserve and a sort of sighing poetical, humorous, and picturesque, as patience, which one is often moved to the United States of America. All times, admire. And again, the abstract butler races, and languages have brought their never stoops to familiarity. But the colcontribution. Pekin is in the same state ored gentleman will pass you a wink at a with Euclid, with Bellefontaine, and with time; he is familiar like an upper-form Sandusky. Chelsea, with its London as: boy to a fag; he unbends to you like sociations of red-brick, Sloane Square and Prince Hal with Poins and Falstaff. He the King's Road, is own suburb to stately makes himself at home and welcome. and primeval Memphis; there they have Indeed, I may say, this waiter bebaved their seat, translated names of cities, himself to me throughout that supper where the Mississippi runs by Tennessee much as, with us, a young, free, and not and Arkansas ; * and both, while I was very self-respecting master might behave crossing the continent, lay, watched by to a good-looking chambermaid. I had armed men, in the horror and isolation of come prepared to pity the poor negro, to a plague. Old, red Manhattan lies, like put him at his ease, to prove in a thouan Indian arrowhead under a steam fac. sand condescensions that I was no sharer tory, below anglified New York. The in the prejudice of race; but I assure you names of the States and Territories them. I put my patronage away for another selves form a chorus of sweet and most occasion, and had the grace to be pleased

with that result. • Please pronounce Arkansaw, with the accent on Seeing he was a very honest fellow, I

consulted him upon a point of etiquette : if one should offer to tip the American persed and drunk them up, leaving an waiter? Certainly not, he told me. Nev- atmosphere of fever heat and crystal pureer. It would not do. They considered ness from horizon to horizon, the mists themselves too highly to accept. They had still been there, and we knew that would even resent the offer. As for him this paradise was haunted_by killing and me, we had enjoyed a very pleasant damps and foul malaria. The fences conversation; he, in particular, had found along the line bore but two descriptions much pleasure in my society; I was a of advertisement; one to recommend tostranger; this was exactly one of those baccos, and the other to vaunt remedies rare conjunctures Without being against the ague. At the point of day, very clear.seeing, I can still perceive the and while we were all in the grasp of that sun at noonday; and the colored gentle. first chill, a native of the State, who had man deftly pocketed a quarter.

the first


got in at some way station, pronounced it, Wednesday. A little after midnight I with a doctoral air, “a fever and ague convoyed my widow and orphans on morning." board the train; and morning found us The Dutch widow was a person of some far into Ohio. This had early been a character. She had conceived at first favorite home of my inagination; I have sight a great aversion for the present played at being in Ohio by the week, and writer, which she was at no pains to conenjoyed some capital sport there with a ceal. But being a woman of a practical dummy gun, my person being still un. spirit, she made no difficulty about ac. breeched. My preference was founded cepting my attentions, and encouraged on a work which appeared in Cassell's me to buy her children fruits and canFirmily Paper, and was read aloud to me dies, to carry all her parcels, and even to by my nurse. It narrated the doings of sleep upon the floor that she might one Custaloga, an Indian brave, who, in profit by my empty seat. Nay, she was the last chapter, very obligingly washed such a rattle by nature, and so powerfully the paint off his face and became Sir Reg- moved to autobiographical talk, that she inald Somebody-or-other; a trick I never was forced, for want of a better, to take me forgave him. The idea of a man being into confidence and tell me the story of an Indian brave, and then giving that up her life. I heard about her late husband, to be a baronet, was one which my mind who seemed to have made his chief im. rejected. It offended verisimilitude like pression by taking her out pleasuring on the pretended anxiety of Robinson Cru: Sundays. I could tell you her prospects, soe and others to escape from uninhabited ber hopes, the amount of her fortune, the islands.

cost of her housekeeping by the week, and But Ohio was not at all as I had pic- a variety of particular matters that are tured it. We were now on those great not usually disclosed except to friends. plains which stretch unbroken to the At one station, she shook up her children Rocky Mountains. The country was flat to look at a man on the platform and say like Holland, but far from being dull, if he were not like Mr. z, ; while to me All through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and she explained how she had been keeping Iowa, or for as much as I saw of them company with this Mr. Z., how far maiters from the train and in my waking moments, bad proceeded, and how it was because of it was rich and various, and breathed an his desistance that she was now travelling elegance peculiar to itself. The tall corn to the West. Then, when I was thus put pleased the eye; the trees were graceful in possession of the facts, she asked my in themselves, and framed the plain into judgment on that type of manly beauty. Í long, aërial vistas; and the clean, bright, admired it to her heart's content. She gardened townships spoke of country fare was not, I think, remarkably veracious in and pleasant summer evenings on the talk, but broidered as fancy prompted, stoop. It was a sort of flat paradise; but, and built castles in the air out of her past; I am afraid, not unfrequented by the yet she had that sort of candor, to keep Devil. That morning dawned with such me, in spite of all these confidences, a freezing chill as I have rarely felt; a steadily aware of her aversion. Her partchill that was not perhaps so measurable ing words were ingeniously lionest. “I by instrument, as it struck home upon am sure," said she, " we all ought to be the heart and seemed to travel with the very much obliged to you.” I cannot blood. Day came in with a shudder. pretend that she put me at my ease; but White mists lay thinly over the surface of I had a certain respect for such a genthe plain, as we see them more often on a uine dislike. A poor nature would have lake; and though the sun had soon dis. | slipped, in the course of these familiar.


for me.



ities, into a sort of worthless toleration like one who has conceived a doubt; next,

he tried me in German, supposing perWe reached Chicago in the evening. I haps that I was unfamiliar with the En. was turned out of the cars, bundled into glish tongue; and finally, in despair, he an omnibus, and driven off through the rose and left me. I felt chagrined; but streets to the station of a different rail- my fatigue was too crushing for delay, and, road. Chicago seemed a great and stretching myself as far as that was possigloomy city. I remember having sub- ble upon the bench, I was received at once scribed, let us say sixpence, towards its into a dreamless stupor. restoration at the period of the fire; and The little German gentleman was only now when I beheld street after street of going a little way into the suburbs after a ponderous houses and crowds of comfort-diner fin, and was bent on entertainment able burghers, I thought it would be a while the journey lasted. Having failed graceful act for the corporation to refund with me, he pitched next upon another that sixpence, or, at the least, to enter- emigrant, who had come through from tain me to a cheerful dinner. But there Canada, and was not one jot less weary was no word of restitution. I was that than myself. Nay, even in a natural city's benefactor, yet I was received in a state, as I found next morning when we third-class waiting-room, and the best din-scraped acquaintance, he was a beavy, ner I could get was a dish of ham and eggs uncommunicative man. After trying hiin at my own expense.

on different topics, it appears that the I can safely say, I have never been little German gentleman Aounced into a so dog.tired as that night in Chicago. temper, swore an oath or two, and de. When it was time to start, I descended the parted from that car in quest of livelier soplatform like a man in a dream. It was ciety. Poor little gentleman! I suppose a long train, lighted from end to end; and he thought an einigrant should be a rol. car after car, as I came up with it, was not licking, free-hearted blade, with a flask of only full but overflowing. My valise, my foreign brandy and a long, comical story knapsack, my rug, with those six ponder- to beguile the moments of digestion.

tomes of Bancroft, weighed Thursday. - I suppose there must be double ; I was hot, feverish, painfully a cycle in the fatigue of travelling, for athirst; and there was a great darkness when I awoke next morning, I was enover me, an internal darkness, not to be tirely renewed in spirits and ate a hearty dispelled by gas. When at last I found breakfast of porridge, with sweet milk, an empty bench, I sank into it like a bun. and coffee and hot cakes, at Burlington dle of rags, the world seemed to swim upon the Mississippi. Another long away into the distance, and my conscious day's ride followed, with but one feature ness dwindled within me to a mere pin's worthy of remark. At a place called head, like a taper on a foggy night. Creston, a drunken man got in. He was

When I came a little more to myself, I aggressively friendly, but, according to found that there had sat down beside me English notions, not at all unpresentable a very cheerful, rosy little German gentle upon a train. For one stage he eluded man, somewhat gone in drink, who was the notice of the officials; but just as we talking away to me, nineteen to the doz. were beginning to move out of the next en, as they say. I did my best to keep up station, Cromwell by name, by came the the conversation ; for it seemed to me conductor. There was a word or two of dimly as if something depended upon talk; and then the official had the man by that. I heard him relate, among many the shoulders, twitched him from his seat, other things, that there were pickpockets marched him through the car, and sent on the train, who had already robbed a bim flying on to the track. It was done man of forty dollars and a reiurn ticket; in three motions, as exact as a piece of but though I caught the words, I do not drill. The train was still moving slowly, think I properly understood the sense although beginning to mend her pace, and until next morning; and I believe I 're. the drunkard got his feet without a fall. plied at the time that I was very glad to He carried a red bundle, though not so hear it. What else he talked about I havered as his cheeks; and he shook this no guess; I remember a gabbling sound menacingly in the air with one hand, of words, his profuse gesticulation, and while the other stole behind him to the his smile, wbich was highly explanatory; region of the kidneys. It was the first but no more. And I suppose I must indication that I had come among revolve have shown my confusion very plainly;sers, and I observed it with some emotion. for, first, I saw him knit his brows at me | The conductor stood on the steps with

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one hand on his hip, looking back at him ; I was nettled by the colored gentle. and perhaps this attitude imposed upon man's' refusal, and unbuttoned my wrath the creature, for he turned without furiher under the similitude of ironical submis. ado, and went off staggering along the sion. I knew nothing, I said, of the ways track towards Cromwell, followed by a of American hotels ; but I had no desire peal of laughter from the cars. They to give trouble. If there was nothiog for were speaking English all about me, but I it but to get to bed immediately, let him knew I was in a foreign land.

say the word, and though it was not my Twenty minutes before nine that night, habit, I should cheerfully obey. we were deposited at the Pacific Transfer He burst into a shout of laughter. station near Council Bluffs, on the east. “Ah!" said he, "you do not know about era bank of the Missouri River. Here we America. They are fine people in Amerwere to stay the night at a kind of cara. ica. Oh! you will like them very well. vanserai, set apart for emigrants. But But you mustn't get mad. I know what I gave way to a thirst for luxury, sepa. you want. You come along with me." rated myself from my companions, and And issuing from behind the counter, marched with my effects into the Union and taking me by the arm like an old acPacific Hotel. A white clerk and a col- quaintance, he led me to the bar of the ored gentleman whom, in my plain Euro- hotel. pean way, I should call the boots, were “There," said he, pushing me from him installed behind a counter like bank-tell- by the shoulder, "go and have a drink !” ers. They took my name, assigned me a number, and proceeded to deal with my

THE EMIGRANT TRAIN. packages. And bere came the tug of All this while I had been travelling by

I wished to give up my packages mixed trains, where I might meet with into safe keeping; but I did not wish to Dutch widows and little German gentry go to bed. And this, it appeared, was im- fresh from table. I had been but a latent possible in an American hotel.

emigrant; now I was to be branded once It was, of course, some inane misun- more, and put apart with my fellows. It derstanding, and sprang from my unfamil. was about two in the afternoon of Friday iarity with the language. For although that I found myself in front of the Emitwo nations use the same words, and read grant House, with more than a hundred the same books, intercourse is not con others, to be sorted and boxed for the ducted by the dictionary. The business journey. A white-haired official, with a of life is not carried on by words, but in stick under one arm, and a list in the set phrases, each with a special and al- other hand, stood apart in front of us, and most a slang signification. Some interna called name after name in the tone of a tional obscurity prevailed between me and command. At each name you would see the colored gentleman at Council Bluffs; a family gather up its brats and bundles so that what I was asking, which seemed and run for the hindmost of the three cars very natural to me, appeared to him a that stood awaiting us, and I soon conmonstrous exigency. He refused, and cluded that this was to be set apart for the that with the plainness of the West. women and children. The second or cen. This American manner of conducting tral car, it turned out, was devoted to men matters of business is, at first, highly un- travelling alone, and the third to the Chipalatable to the European. When we ap. nese. The official was easily moved to proach a man in the way of his calling, anger at the least delay; but the emi. and for those services by which he earns grants were both quick at answering their his bread, we consider him for the time names, and speedy in getting themselves being our hired servant. But in the and their effects on board. American opinion, two gentlemen meet The families once housed, we men carand have a friendly talk with a view to ex- ried the second car without ceremony by changing favors if they shall agree to simultaneous assault. I suppose the please. I know not which is the more reader has some notion of an American convenient, nor even which is the more railroad car, that long, narrow wooden truly courteous. The English stiffness box, like a flat-roofed Noah's ark, with a upfortunately tends to be continued after stove and a convenience, one at either end, the particular transaction is at an end, a passage down the middle, and transverse and thus favors class separations. But benches upon either hand. Thiose des. on the other hand, these equalitariao tined for emigrants on the Union Pacific plainnesses leave an open field for the in- are only remarkable for their extreme solence of Jack-in-office.

plainness, nothing but wood entering in

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