structed by the timber being raised on its and varnished; wainscoting is arranged enùs; the outside was covered with deals in the best rooms, and the walls are cov. to protect the inmates against the greatered with deals, which are painted or cold. The nave was supported by wood.covered with painted canvas. The ornaen pillars, and rose considerably above the mentation and decoration of the houses side aisles. Of these ancient and inter- outside are obtained through the project. esting structures there are still a few ing head-pieces of beams, the projecting preserved, of which the churches in Bor- roofs, and the elegant open verandahs. gund and Hitterdal are well known to the present design of a Norwegian mod. tourists in Norway. At the same time ern timber house presents a large and considerable progress was made in the more than usually comfortably arranged architecture of dwelling-houses, etc. Each residence in the country, One now in building liad its separate use. The num:

course of erection at Osterdalen will form ber of rooms increased, and they were the main building in a large group_of now provided with wooden floors. It is houses. The floor will be fitted with Enonly within the last century or two that glish tiles to harmonize with the high two-storied houses have come into use, wainscoting and the painted ceiling. In and are now rapidly supplanting the old ore of the broken corners of the large

During the last centuries little or parlor is an open fireplace for use in the no attention has been paid to the ancient mild weather in the spring, and in the Norwegian architecture in the construc- other a stove for the severe cold in the tion of new houses; but it is a pleasure winter. Wainscoting of wood is arranged to report that during the last thirty or here as in the other rooms, and the ceil. forty years a great revival has taken ings are of ornamental woodwork. In the place. Many Norwegian architects have dining-room the sideboard is constructed done great service by re-introducing the in the wall, which has a small opening old Norwegian style, in which many new through which the dishes are passed dibuildings have now been built and decorect from the kitchen. The house is enrated, and Norway will again respect and tirely built of seven-inch timber, outside appreciate its old timber architecture. In and inside, covered by deals to resist the considering the later and more modern cold, which a well-built timber house fully architecture, we must strictly distinguish does. The floor-beams of the first floor between the town and the country. In project, after old Norwegian custoin, the town the houses are built on the sys-iwelve inches out over the ground floor, tem of fats, and are usually either three and support the upper walls. Through or four stories high. Brick is now by law this, variation and ornamentation are prothe material for building in town, and duced in the elevation, giving the exte. nearly all the houses are plastered with rior a striking appearance. The high cement as a protection against cold and pointed arches of the verandahs under rain. The last fisty years have also de. the projecting roofs assist also in this, and veloped a stucco architecture, which gives thus depth and a fine variety of light and the broad streets and the houses a bright shade are obtained. As a rule, the Nor. and clean appearance. But in the coun-wegian timber houses are light and ele. try timber architecture is still used for gant, and produce by their warm and churches and dwelling-houses. The plan bright color an attractive appearance. At of the residence is, as a rule, simple. In the same time, they are strong and cheap. the middle of the house a lobby or small | The price of the timber is low, and the hall is arranged, which forms the means rates of wages are low, so it is possible of communication between the rooms ar- even for people not so well off to inbabit ranged around this. As the price of tim- a good and handsome house. “For this ber is cheap, and rates of wages are low, reason," says Mr. Lowzow," I recommend we find, as a rule, that the houses are built these timber houses for use in England, larger than required for actual use. Easy to bave the houses built in Norway and access is obtained between the different sent here by steamer, where they can rooms through doors leading direct from easily be re-erected. The total cost of a one room to another to avoid the cold air timber house will favorably compare with in the lobby. Thus a suite of rooms is the cost of a brick house, besides being a obtained, which is found to be very con- much more healthy and comfortable venient and comfortable. Carpets are abode." seldom used, but the floors are painted


Fifth Series, Volume XLIII.


No. 2041.- August 4, 1883.


From Beginning,


CONTENTS. I. CounT RUMFORD. By J. Tyndall,

Contemporary Review, . II. THE WIZARD's Son. Part XII.,

Macmillan's Magazine,

Nineteenth Century,

Temple Bar,

Longman's Magazine, VI. A LETTER OF LEIGH Hunt's,


259 271 2So

293 305 315

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. Tor Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded Remittances shoulage.

for a year,

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Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents



LEAD thou me, Spirit of the World, and I
Will follow where thou leadest, willingly;
Not with the careless sceptic's idle mood,
Nor blindly seeking some unreal good;

Should 'scape from this poor life to some

mysterious air,
And, dwelling solitary there,
Should feel his yearning father's heart
Thrill with some secret pang and smart ;
And, longing for the dear lost lives again,
Should through his overmastering pain
Break through the awful bounds the Eternal

sets between
That which lives Here, and There, the Seen

and the Unseen;

For I have come, long since, to that full day
Whose morning clouds have curled in mist

away —
That breathless afternoon-tide when the sun
Halts, as it were, before his journey done ;

their way.


Calm as a river broadening through the plain, And having gained once more
Which never plunges down the rocks again, Our little earth should find the scarce-left
But, clearly mirrored in its tranquil deep,

place Holds tower and spire and forest as in sleep.

Which greets him with unchanged familiar

faceOld and yet new the metaphor appears, The well-remembered door, Old as the tale of passing hopes and fears, The rose he gathered blooming yet, New as the springtide air, which day by day Nought to remember or forget, Breathes on young lives, and speeds them on No change in all the world except in him,

Nor there save in some sense, already dim

Before the unchanged past, so that he seem This knew the Roman, and the Hellene too; A mortal spirit still, and what was since, a Assyrian and Egyptian proved it true;

dream; Who found, for youth's young glory and its

glow, Serener life and calmer tides run slow.

And in the well-known room

Beholds the blithe remembered faces And these oblivion takes, and those before,

Grown sad and blurred by recent traces Whose very name and race we know no more,

Of a new sorrow and gloom,

And when his soul to comfort them is fain To whom, o Spirit of the World and Man, Thou didst reveal thyself when time began.

Finds his voice mute, his form unknown, un


And thinks with irrepressible pain They felt, as I, what none may understand; They touched through darkness on a hidden And feels his being's deep abysses stirred,

Of all the happy days which late have been,

If only of his own he might be seen or heard ; They marked their hopes, their faiths, their

longings fade, And found a solitude themselves had made.

Then if, at length,

The father's yearning and o'erburdened soul They came, as I, to hope which conquers Bursts into shape and voice which scorn con. doubt,

trol Though sun and moon and every star go out; Of its despairing strength, They ceased, while at their side a still voice Ah Heaven ! ah pity for the new-born dread said,

Which rising strikes the old affection dead ! “Fear not, have courage; blessed are the Ab, better were it far than this thing to redead.”


Voiceless, unseen, unloved, forever and in They were my brothers - of one blood with

pain ! As with the unborn myriads who shall be : I am content to rise and fall as they ;

So when a finer mind, I watch the rising of the Perfect Day.

Knowing its old self swept by some weird

change Lead thou me, Spirit, willing and content To be as thou wouldst have me, wholly spent.

And the old thought deceased, or else grown I am thine own, I neither strive nor cry:


Turns to those left behind, Stretch forth thy hand, I follow, silently.

With passionate stress and mighty yearning


It strives to stand revealed in shape and word If any tender sire,

In vain ; or by strong travail visible grown, Who'sits girt round by loving faces,

Finds but a world estranged, and lives and And happy childhood's thousand graces,

dies alone! Through sudden crash or fire

Contemporary Review. LEWIS MORRIS.


From The Contemporary Review. American trees, is nine miles distant from COUNT RUMFORD.

the city of Boston. In North Woburn, a On a bright, calm day in the autumn of little way off, on March 26, 1753, Rum1872 — that portion of the year called, Iford was born. He came of people who believe, in America the Indian summer had to labor for their livelihood, who I made a pilgrimage to the modest birth-tilled their own fields, cut their own timplace of Count Rumford, the originator ber and fuel, worked at their varied trades, of the Royal Institution. My guide on and thus maintained the independence of the occasion was Dr. George Ellis of New England yeomen. Thompson's faBoston, and a more competent guide Ither died before he was two years old. could not have had. To Dr. Ellis the His mother married again, changing her American Academy of Arts and Sciences name to Pierce, and had children by her had committed the task of writing a life second husband; but the affection beof Rumford, and this labor of love had tween her and her firstborn remained been accomplished in 1871, a year prior strong and unbroken to the end of her to my visit to the United States. The life. The boy was placed under the care name of Rumford was Benjamin Thomp- of guardians, from whom bis stepfather, son. For thirty years he was the conten- Josiah Pierce, received a weekly allowporary of another Benjamin, who reached ance of two shillings and fivepence for a level of fame as high as his own. Ben- the child's maintenance. Young Thompjamin Franklin and Benjamin Thompson son received his first education from Mr. were born within twelve miles of each John Fowle, graduate of Harvard college, other, and for six of the thirty years just "an accomplished and faithful man.” He referred to, the one lived in England and also went to a school at Byfield, kept by the other in France. Yet, Dr. Ellis in a relation of his own.

At the age of forms us, there is nothing to show that eleven, he was placed for a time under the they ever saw each other, or were in any tuition of Mr. Hill, “ an able teacher in way acquainted with each other, or, in Medford,” adjoining Woburn. The lad's deed, felt the least interest in each other. mind was ever active, and his invention The name and fame of Rumsord, which incessantly exercised, but for the most were resonant in Europe at the beginning part on subjects beside his daily work. of this century, have fallen in England into In relation to that work, he came to be general oblivion. To scientific men, how. regarded as “indolent, fighty, and unever, his figure presents itself with singu- promising." His guardians, at length lar impressiveness at the present day. thinking it advisable to change his vocaThis result is mainly due to the establish- tion, apprenticed him in October, 1776, to ment, in recent times, of the grand scien- Mr. John Appleton, of Salem, an importer tific generalization known as the mechan- of British goods. Here, however, instead ical theory of beat. Boyle, and Hooke, of wooing customers to his master's and Locke, and Leibnitz, had already counter, be occupied himself with tools ranged themselves on the side of this and implements hidden beneath it. He theory. But by experiments conducted is reported to have been a skilful musion a scale unexampled at the time, and cian, passionately fond of music of every by reasonings, founded on these experi- kind; and during his stay with Mr. Apmeots, of singular force and penetration, pleton, whenever he could do so without Rumford has made himself a conspicuous being heard, he solaced his leisure by landmark in the history of the theory. performan

ances on the violin. His inference from his experiments was By the Rev. Thomas Barnard, minister scored in favor of those philosophers who of Salem, and his son, young Thompson held that heat is a form of motion. was taught algebra, geometry, and astron

omy. By self-practice, he became an able The town of Woburn, connected in my and accurate draughtsman. He did not memory with a cultivated companion, with escape that last infirmity of ingenious genial sunshine and the bright coloring ofl minds, the desire to construct a perpetual

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motion. He breaks grouod in physics, | leads me to; whether it be to go abroad, by questioning his friend Mr. Baldwin as or stay at home and read either anatomy, to the direction pursued by rays of light physic, or chemistry, or any other book I under certain conditions; he desires to want to peruse.” know the cause of the change of color which fire produces in clay. “Please,” In 1771 he managed, by walking daily he adds, "to give the nature, essence, from Woburn to Cambridge, and back, a beginning of existence, and rise of the distance of some sixtee: miles, to attend wind in general, with the whole theory the lectures on natural philosophy, delivthereof, so as to be able to answer allered by Professor Winthrop in Harvard questions relative thereto." One might College. He taught school for a short suppose him to be preparing for a com. time at Wilmington, and afterwards for petitive examination. He grew expert in six weeks and three days at Bradford, drawing caricatures, a spirited group of where his repute rose so high that he which has been reproduced by Dr. Ellis. received a call to Concord, a town of New It is called " A Council of State," and em. Hampshire, situated higher up than Bradbraces a jackass with twelve human heads. ford on the river Merrimac. The Indian In 1769, he changed his place in Salem name of Concord was, according to Dr. for a situation in a dry-goods store in Ellis, Penacook, but Appleton's “CycloBoston, and soon afterwards began the pædia” states it to have been Musquetastudy of medicine under Dr. John Hay, quid. Emerson's poem of this title is in of Woburn.

harmony with the “ Cyclopædia.” In 1733 Thompson keeps a strict account of his it had been incorporated as a town in debts to Dr. Hay; credits him with a pair Essex County, Massachusetts. Some of of leather gloves; credits Mrs. Hay with the early settlers in that county had come knitting him a pair of stockings. These from our own Essex; and, as regards items he tacks on to the more serious cost pronunciation, they carried with them the of his board from December, 1770, to June, name of the English Essex town, Rom1772, at forty shillings, old currency, per ford, of brewery celebrity. They, howweek, amounting to £156. The specie pay- ever, changed the first o into 1, calling ments of Thompson were infinitesimal, the American town Rumford. Strife bad eight of them amounting in the aggregate occurred as to the county or state to which 10 £2. His further forms of payment illus. Rumford belonged. But the matter was trate the habits of the community in which amicably settled at last; and to denote he dwelt. Want of money caused them the subsequent harmony, the name was to fall back upon barter. He debits Dr. changed from Rumford to Concord. This Hay with an amusing and diversified list sweetly quiet spot is historically famous of articles the value of which no doubt from its being the place where British had been previously agreed upon between soldiers first fell in the American War; them. The love of order which after. and within the present century its same wards ruled the actions of the man, was has been enhanced by the life and death incipient in the boy. At seventeen, he of Ralph Waldo Emerson. In later thus spaced out the four and twenty hours years, when honors fell thick upon him, of a single day: “From eleven to six, | Thompson was made a count of the Holy sleep. Get up at six o'clock and wash Roman Empire. He chose for his title my hands and face. From six to eight, Count Rumford, in memory of his early exercise one-half, and study one-half. association with Concord.* From eight to ten, breakfast, attend * In the autumn of 1872, accompanied by my highprayers, etc.

From ten to twelve, study minded friend and relative, General Hector Tyndale, I ail the time. From twelve to one, dine, time previously his house had been destroyed by fre,

spent a charming day with Emerson at Concord. From one to four, study constantly. and while it was rebuilding he occupied the old Manse From four to five, relieve my mind by rendered famous by Hawthorne. some diversion or exercise. From five spot beside the Merrimac, where the first two English

soldiers fell, on the oth of April, 1775. till bedtime, follow what my inclination there the Concord obelisk, marking the ground



He showed us the

We also saw

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