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able, but it did not take the shape I ex. recollection cost the major 5,000l., his as. pected. He grew graver and graver; his sistant, my informant, his fee, and the face became a bluish purple, and his eyes musical gentleman bis baronetcy: slowly pushed themselves out of bis head. Judging from my own case, since some Then suddenly it flashed across me that unlooked-for return of this departing atthe hero of this very funny, but not com. tribute always delights my soul, the king plimentary narrative, was his own father. himself must have been pleased.

Well,” he said in an awful voice, as I imagine him saying, “ By jingo! I rememstopped short; "what then?”

bered that, though; "and reflecting that he My brow was bedewed with horror, and was not so very old after all. Unhappily I seemed to see sparks. • My very dear there is little comfort to be drawn from sir," I said, “ I am ashamed to say that I such occasional resuscitations. It is only have drunk a little too much wine. I have that “the shadow feared of man has had clean forgotten how the story ended !” his attention withdrawn from us for the But I have not forgotten how near I was moment (probably to some more advanced to telling it, nor shall I ever forget it. case), and forgets to beckon with that in.

That was an example of memory com- exorable finger. It is no use to fight ing to the rescue indeed; but sometimes against the ebbing wave; yet how some it arrives inopportunely: An old ac- people do fight! quaintance of mine who lived in the day's I was once dining with a friend who had when George the Third was king, and had one other guest, whom I will call B. This not a little to do with him, told me the fol. gentleman, after dinner, became extraor. lowing story. In those good old days a dinarily eloquent upon the agreeable qual. title of nobility was really worth some.ities of a certain Mr. C., who, according thing, and fetched a good round sum. My to his account, had been imported from friend was the youthful assistant of a well- Cornwall to London solely for his converknown gentleman, Major D., who dealt insational qualities. “ His stories,” he said, such things; and an excellent living he "are simply inimitable.” made by them.

"attached to the “I suppose they are Cornish stories,” person of his Majesty” (not without rea. observed our host, who, as a denizen of son), and took advantage of his position Pall Mall, did not much believe, perhaps, to recommend his friends (and clients) to in provincial celebrities. “the fountain of lionor,” who was far from “Not at all,” replied B. indignantly ; being in good condition. He had still his “they are English stories.” This state. wits about him, but not, like his lords,“ in ment, which suggested that we had waiting.” Sometimes he would sign any: thought the stories were in old Cornish tbing in the most obliging manner, and extinct dialect tickled me im. sometimes refuse to stir a finger, and mensely; but, being a very well-behaved make the most embarrassing inquiries. individual, I devoted myself to the bisThe major's business, therefore, though cuits and kept my eyes on the table. very lucrative when all things went right, “And have you heard any of these ad. was a speculative one, and exposed to con- mirable narratives?" inquired our lost. siderable risks. One day there was a “ Yes; lots.” It struck me that the baronetcy “on," for which a celebrated word “lots” sounded suspiciously like maker of musical instruments had under- "lotsh; " but yet it was impossible to im. taken to pay handsomely, and the neces. agine B. intoxicated: he not only looked sary parchment, duly drawn out, was laid as sober as a judge, but he was a judge before the king. His royal eye, wander. (though, it is true, only a colonial one), ing aimlessly down the page, suddenly lit and, though of heavy build and dignitied upon the name of the candidate for great. movement, he seemed the last sort of per. ness — some Erard or Broadwood of that son to be overtaken by liquor. time - and it evoked a flash of memory. I think our host noticed that something “You're sure there's no piano in it?” he was amiss, for he said, “Won't you take exclaimed suddenly. His Majesty, who any more wine?” and half rose from his was a great stickler for birth, and had a chair as if to adjourn to the sm ing: corresponding contempt for those who room. “Let me drink this first,” said B. made their money by trade, was not to be with judicial gravity, “ before we think of trified with in such a matter ; and as there any more. That was a speech,” he add. were a great many pianos in it, the two ed with a confidential smile, that was confederates had to hurriedly murmur, made by the old dean of something or “We will make inquiries, sire,” and roll another to his host when he wanted to up the patent. That little gleam of royal get him away to the ladies.” Our host


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hastened to explain that he had no such any other person ever evoked such rap. end in view; nor indeed was it possible, turous delight in his hearers as that story since we were dining at a club, which twice begun and never finished. The does not admit the other sex; and, since judge is knighted and sitting thousands he found himself in for it, returned, rather of miles away presiding over his dusky wickedly, as I thought, to the Cornish- court; but I seem to see him now, imper. man and his stories.

turbable, bland, and inodestly pleading, Perhaps, my dear B., you will be so “Give me one more chance." He had good as to tell us one.”

confidence in his memory, though it was • By all means; I will. It is not the misplaced. best of them perhaps; but it will give you I remember an equally droll example of an idea of his style.” Then he began. I a gentleman who knew himself better. say he began; but in point of fact he His name was O'Halleron, the greatest never left off beginning. There was an talker I ever knew, and with an earnestinnkeeper, and a smuggler, and a miner, ness and vigor in his tones which, unless and the first hint of a wreck, but they you knew him, you would have thought were mere skeletons. The Cornish gen- must needs be accompanied by truth. tleman's style, if it was his style, was Our host had started some subject on certainly tedious. It was like drawing an which the other at once became amazimmense map of an unknown country for ingly eloquent. It reminded him, he said, our instruction, without so much as a post of an anecdote that had occurred to him town in it. I did not dare look up from in Paris (with ever so many r's) and my plate.

I felt myself on the verge which was calculated to make us die of of an apoplectic fit through suppressed laughing; yet after a burst of about laughter, and I knew that my host was twenty minutes he seemed just as far off suffering the same inconvenience; he was the anecdote as when he began. Of much fatter, and of necessity touched the course I was all attention and politeness table, which gently shook in sympathy -a circumstance which, though I hope with his inward agonies. Suddenly the not uncommon, appeared to tickle my

host judge ceased in the middle of a sentence, extremely. and then, as ill luck would have it, my “You amuse me immensely," he said, host's foot (he was stretching his legs for cutting off the other's flow of talk at the a momentary relief to the mental tension) very main, as it were, by addressing me touched my own. Then we both burst with grave directness. si You don't know out into inextinguishable mirth. For my my friend here, or you would not be in part I could not have avoided it had B. such a creditable state of expectation. been the pope. What added to my hilar. O'Halleron begins all right, you know – ity was the desperate efforts of our host to his intentions are honorable enough — but apologize, which, themselves interrupted after the first few minutes he altogether by spasms of laughter on his own part, forgets what it was he purposed to talk were received by B. with imperturbable about. At this very moment he has not gravity. He did not give one the impreso the faintest idea where he started from, sion of being annoyed at all, but merely as or where he is going to.” biding his time for some full and complete As there was an awkward pause, during explanation. At last his opportunity ar- which the conversationalist turned exceed. rived. "I am aware,” he said, “ my good ingly red, I lastened to interpose. friends, that I have somehow forgotten "I'm quite sure," I said with a courte. the point of what I give you my honor is ous air, that Mr. O'Halleron knows pera most interesting story, but give me one fectly well what anecdote he was inore chance."

tell us." Anything more pathetic I never heard. Begad, I don't, though,” said O'Hal. It reduced our mirth to sober limits at leron ; “ I've forgotten all about it.” once, and then he began again. As I live He was, it seemed, perfectly aware of by bread (and little else) the innkeeper, the loss of his memory, and had learned, the smuggler, the miner, and the first hint not indeed to do without it, but to use of the wreck that never was to come off, some substitute of imagination or fancy, were all planned out again, and he came just as, when one has but one ley, one gets to a full stop precisely and exactly at the a thing of cork and wires, instead of flesh same moment as before. I don't know and blood, to supply its place. what powers of narration the Cornish gen. In the scientific treatises on the failure tleman really did possess, but I am quite of memory, some very curious specific ex. certain that no “twice-told tale" of his or | amples are given. Thus one gentleman


could never retain any conception of words formation respecting Grecian wealth and beginning with the letter d (such as his civilization. The digging out of Grecian debts for instance); while with another terra cotta has most assuredly thrown the figure 5 had utterly lost its signifi- light upon the history of that country. cance.*

This latter catastrophe would be Homer, in his Iliad, sings of the pottery serious to a whist player, since he would shown during the Trojan war, ending never know when he had won a game; with the final destruction of Troy; and but otherwise the blank seems endura. Dr. Schliemann, in his wonderful narra. ble. What would be much more curious tive, testifies to the fact that the terra would be the losing sight of number one, cotta ornaments found upon the Hill of which, however, up to our last moments Hissarlik must have formed some part of (and indeed in those especially) is never the pottery collection of King Priai, so forgotten.

that we have every reason to believe that Of course there are exceptions as re. terra cotta flourished fully three thousand gards this first bint of mental decay. It is years ago. In fact, the history of terra even stoutly asserted by some persons that cotta is lost in remote antiquity. In Egypt the loss of memory arises merely from dis. we find an old legend that Hun, the Great

It is only, they argue, in youth, in Spirit, formed the heavens and the earth, most cases, that we attempt to learn things and then, with his pottery wheel, brought "by heart” at all, while, when we grow old, into shape a man. Numerous legends we delegate the duty of remembrance to and antiquarian discoveries prove that others. If we kept it up, the faculty would the origin of the art is prehistoric. Mr. not desert us. A corroboration of this Leonard Horner discovered fragments of pleasant theory is found in Mr. Samuel terra cotta in good preservation in his exBrandram, who, though not apparently in cavations at Memphis, so deep below the his première jeunesse, exhibits a stupeno deposits of the Nile that he gives them an dousness of recollection infinitely more age of thirteen thousand years. Sucla marvellous, because accompanied by the dates of course are open to objection; but acutest perception, than that of the most we have in the British Museum various Calculating Boy. One of my favorite relics of Egyptian art of the third or fourth nightmares — I'have a whole stud of them dynasties, two and three thousand years - is to dream that I am standing before before Christ vases and tablets in. a distinguished audience, including her scribed with records of the age. These Majesty and the royal family, who are were introduced into the graves as bise: awaiting a reading from Shakespeare toric links between the dead and future without book; the indispensable glass of generations. The early Egyptian potters water is on the table with which I just were slaves, and their skill was rude; but moisten my lips, and then when I attempt the clay was very good, dark red or yellow to open them I find it has been a draught in color, and must have been well preof Lethe. Every word of what I came to pared and fired, as its nature remains unsay has fied from my mind. I gasp and changed to the present day. The most tremble; everybody becomes excited and interesting remnants of these remote pe. impatient: in vain I attempt to conciliate riods come, as stated before, from Greece ; them by offering to state accurately and but Assyria also contributes most interoffhand the date of the Battle of Hastings. esting examples, where terra cotta tablets There is a sort of O. P. riot, the distin. were used for all the purposes for which guished audience rise en masse, tear up we should use paper, cards, and books. the benches, and make for me in the Some twenty thousand of these tablets order of precedence; I wake in a par. exist in the museums of Europe, inscribed oxysm of ierror, and — instantly forget all with the annals of passing events, titleabout it.

deeds, almanacs, letters, inedical recipes,

and admission tickets to the play and fives,” the meaning of which I could never understand. of the finest clay, and mark the Assyrian Hence, perhaps, the origin of the term "spoilt other public exhibitions. These are made

pottery as superior to the Egyptian. The dates are often indistinct, but probably they belong to periods anterior to the fall

of Nineveh. We have also many fine samFrom The Novelty Magazine.

ples of early Babylonish terra cotta, prin

cipally coffins and sarcophagi, with figures TERRA COTTA has been the means, and in bas relief, always of a pale straw color. singularly the only means, of giving us in- Biblical history and mythology furnish



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repeated records of the antiquity of this works of Naples, Nuremburg, Dresden, art, and prove that the mode of production Sèvres, Chelsea, and Worcester, present at its origin has been handed down and is to us clay in its new combinations, having still preserved in our own days. The pot. lost all its natural characteristics and its tery of China is a striking evidence of original type. These are all beautiful, this. There factories are now at work very useful; all have their page in his. which date back two thousand years, and tory, their place in art, their own especial where the present appliances are but little value and merit — only let us understand, altered from those illustrated in their early they are no longer“ burnt earth.” They rude sketches. The art and its simple are not terra cotta, and should not, there. appliances have been taught by the never fore, be classed with samples of our mandying voice of tradition. Time will not ufactory. The two should not be com. permit us to dwell on the various develop- pared, to the detriment or advantage of ments of the ceramic art made by the either. Each has had, and has still, its Greeks, the Romans, and the Etruscans, use and its beauties. Terra cotta has all of whom have left us vast and valued played an important part in the world's samples for our instruction and admira. history. By its help we learn much of tion, showing a great improvement in ages that are gone, and of dynasties that artistic skill over the earlier nations, but have been swept away. On tablets of maintaining the previous modes of work. terra cotta we find inscribed details that ing. One important step is claimed by happened thousands of years ago, and the Corinthians, viz., the art of modelling these tablets have withstood, without figures. · Greeks and Romans lay claim change, the wear and tear of ages, and to the invention, but the evidence is not being of small intrinsic value, have es. clear. Figures have mostly been de. caped the destructive hands of war. The stroyed by the barbaric races, and so we more we know of this simple substance, cannot trace their origin as we can with the more we dwell on its hidden merits vases and tablets. The life-sized figure and its unfolding secrets of the past, the of Mercury in the Vatican Museum and more we must admit its claim on our adsome large statues in the museum at Na. miration. Dr. Gilloi, in his admirable ples are all of terra cotta, and are prob- address delivered some years since at ably Grecian. Also the famous torso in Torquay, describes terra cotta as a comthe British Museum is a fine sample of pound Italian word meaning literally earth early modelling in terra cotta. The burnt or baked. The writer, however, Greeks had no red clay, and most of their ventures to think that the word is derived works are colored. The ancient statues from the Spanish, for this reason — that used by the Romans to adorn their tem- the ancient Spanish writers use the word ples were made of terra cotta ; but it is exactly as spelt in describing the magnifisaid that many of these were purchased cent spoils of pottery captured from the from the Greeks and Etruscans. Proba- Moors when driven out of Spain. Howbly this is true in the days of the repub. ever, in its generic sense it might be lic, as art then fell to a low ebb. The translated into the English term “earthen. Romans kept up, however, a very large ware.” Clay is certainly the one condition manufactory of ierra cotta at Samos until of earth able to hear hard firing. Clay is the fall of the republic. We may con- one of the results of the disintegration clude this part of our subject by giving to and attrition of the various primary rocks. Egypt and Assyria the credit of ceramic Chemically it is a hydrated silicate of birthright, and to Greece, Etruria, and alumina, containing in its purest form Rome the credit of educating and culti- nearly fifty per cent. of silica, forty of vating the art. Greece seems to have alumina, and the rest of water. Natural made the greatest developments in mod clay is plastic from the combined water, elling in statues and in bas reliefs. The but produces no change chemically. This Etruscans stand the highest in beauty of brings us to the true definition and explashape and forin. With the fall of these nation of our subject. Terra cotta comnations, terra cotta degenerated rapidly, prises all clay productions, whether for and during the Middle Ages was every useful, artistic, or decorative purposes, where at its lowest ebb. From the four. where the original nature of the clay is teenth century various new industries preserved - consolidated, but not inirin. sprang up and came into fashion, taking sically altered, by fire, save in the loss of the place of the older production. The its combined water. Here rests its spe. Della Robbia ware of Italy, the Faïence cial characteristic, its correct definition, of Palissy, and the subsequent porcelain lits essential difference, from the many forms of stoneware and from porcelain, but can still supply, all mankind with all of which have clay for their basis, but what is useful and also beautiful. But in which, from various chemical combina lhe vase, the urn, or the tablet, once called tions, the natural condition is lost at a into life by the potter's whecl, and stamped high temperature, and the result is a with its own parentage, can live to tell its vitrified body. The clay becomes more own story until the end of time. Since or less converted into glass. These in the days of our great Wedgwood there troductory remarks will remove several has been a revival in this country and popular errors. Two points, however, through all Europe of terra cotta art; still require special comment. Many people the results have not been thoroughly sat. ask, In what does terra cotta differ from isfactory. The reason probably is that, common flower-pots, bricks, or tiles? The clay being found everywhere, inferior difference is rather imaginary than real- clays are used, and so the productions are one of degree only. The finest clay, inferior. Only very pure, fine, and perwhere the silica is in perfect combination fectly plastic clay is suited for this art, with the alumina, and where the combined and such is still, and ever will be rare, water secures a complete plastic mass, is and only found in local deposits. most suited for terra cotta productions, whereas coarser clay, with free silica in the form of sand, does better for brickworks. The purest clay is absolutely

From The Builder. necessary for the former, whereas the

NORWEGIAN BUILDING. impurity of lime, etc., does not injure the latter productions. Many people suppose

HAVING seen other countries of a more that terra cotta must be more or less red advanced culture than their own, the laste in color. They call a vase, a jug, etc., for the beautiful was comparatively early terra cotta, because it is red, and any awakened, resulting in a desire to give work of art not of this tint they would shape and form to their thoughts and hesitate to designate. This is a fallacy. ideas, which was most successfully car. The color is an accident, and not a con. ried out in the well-known and character. dition of terra cotta clay. It depends istic art of Norwegian wood-carving, only on a stain caused by the presence of Owing to the imperfect implements and oxide of iron, which in some localities, as tools of that age, the granite was too hard in Devonshire, gives a charm and charac. and difficult a material for building and ter not only to the clay, but to the earth ornamental purposes, and the large forgenerally. The largest terra cotta and ests had to render the necessary material brick works are found in the coal districts, instead. In the time of the vikings, Nor. notably in the County of Durham, where way could scarcely boast of any archiextensive clay deposits exist between the tecture. Their dwellings were plain, gencoal measures. Here the color varies erally consisting of but one large room from every shade of gray, buff, green, with an earthen floor, in the middle of blue, to brown and black. The purest which they built a rude fireplace, and made clay known is the white china clay of a hole in the roof to allow the smoke to Cornwall and some parts of Devonshire. escape. It was their ships that they first In most countries of Europe the clay attempted to beautify with ornaments, and used for terra cotta manufactures is buff. here their fancy had free scope. After colored; but this is often stained by artifi. the introduction of Christianity, about the cial means to some tinge of red, to meet year 1000, a more developed state of so. popular prejudice. In no part of the ciety was established. The first church world is natural clay found with the deli- was built in A.D. 996 of timber, on the cate red shade of our Devonshire deposits. same spot where now stands the cele. Marble (to quote Dr. Gillow again) is one brated Trondhjems Cathedral. During of the choicest efforts of nature's power; the long struggle between Christianity but marble is scarce, is only suited for and heathenism, no progress was made in few purposes, is beyond the reach of the the building of churches, and the second many, and can only be worked by the church was not finished until 1050. This exceptional artist. Durable as marble is, church was, however, built of stone. still it crumbles and decays with the lapse About this time Norwegian wood-carving of ages, and the fragments that remain to made considerable progress, and many of us of the past are mute, or at best in the timber churches were decorated with distinct, in the history of their origin; ornaments of this kind. In these early whereas terra cotta not only has supplied, I wooden churches the walls were con.

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