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work shows a great readiness in transfer- exceptional acerbity with which the au. ring himself to an Indian atmosphere, a thor regards all who have in any manner wonderful mastery of the mass of neces- abetted Afghan war. Indeed, with an sary reading, a great power of assimilating Afghan war looming astern and ahead, Indian matter, as well as of realizing the almost from end to end of the history, we men, the moral scenery, and the subjects, feel like the night-passenger in a scantily of which he had to treat. And though the lighted street, who, as he goes on from book contains nearly twelve hundred lamp-post to lamp-post, is chased by the pages, it is marvellously readable; and lengthening shadows from behiod, until one who is neither a lover of contempo. these cross and blend with the deepening rary history, nor tolerant of prolixity, has shadows from before. On this matter we not found, nor has he skipped, a tedious must touch hereafter, however slightly; page. It is not in the nature of things but we would rather expatiate on ground possible, that a work which intersects so less poached by the loof of party, and many fields and touches so many complex treat at greatest length that which is least events, actors in which survive on every familiar in Lawrence's history. side, should fail to call up a hundred We began with Henry. It is indeed questions, and be open to serious correc. hardly possible to speak of one brother tions. These will, we trust, be well without thinking of the other. The bands weighed and profited by. For the book, that united, and the forces that disjoined take it all in all, is a noble one, and we these twin stars, their contrasts and re. believe that it will live. It is not of that semblances, have a strong fascination for easy writing, which makes such hard read. the author; he recurs to the subject again ing to some of us; the style is vivid but and again. To it we also shall necessascholarly, and sparsely gemmed with apt rily recur. and scholarly quotation. It is usually re- Edwardes has told us of the rugged strained even in its fire, when the writer and frugal upbringing of the Lawrences. glows with admiration of his hero or of It would be hard to conceive of a more the faithful lieges, or in wrath against fitting father for such sons than Colonel cruelty, injustice, or insincerity. There Alexander Lawrence, whose youth and is nothing of the mannerism which lat- prime had been full of hard service and terly threatened to swallow up everything gallant deeds, leaving him for memorial else in the lodian histories of Sir John and reward a body worn with wounds and Kaye — nothing save this, that our author toil, the price of his commission, and a has borrowed that writer's fashion of con- pension of 100l.; a pittance, he grimly stantly calling each character in his narra- remarked, that would do little more than tive, unless he be a governor-general, or pay his doctors. The income of this in his estimation a black sheep (or both somewhat wayward and impracticable vetin one) — by his simple baptismal name. eran was, however, augmented more than This jars on our old-fashioned taste, and once, not without importunity on his part, we long for that ancient dignity of history, both by the crown and the Company. which gave men their due style, or dis- The mother, a Knox, claiming collateral pensed with the prænomen altogether. descent from the great John, is less disBut the book, as a whole, does not fail of tinctly brought before us. But, we dignity.
told, she prided berself on her descent; Witnessing its successful achievement, and, simple, thrifty, homely, God-fearing, zad considering how destitute the author as she was, her relation to the reformer was of local “ experience," we are apt to was not that of blood alone. think that he might have been less hard Before Colonel Lawrence left the army, upon Lord Lytton, who, he tells us, threw the household was migratory; and their local experience to the dogs, and would quarters were at Richmond, in Yorkshire, none of it! Lord Lytton's name brings up when John, the sixth son and eighth child, what to many of us detracts most from was born, March 4th, 1811. The elder our enjosment of the book; namely, the boy's had been sent to a school at London
are tears. ...
197 derry (now known as Foyle College), then by the dawk, there was one bearing an Irish under a maternal uncle. The selection post-mark. It was from the old Simpson probably had nothing to do with the stir- brothers at Londonderry. The characters ring associations of Derry, to which the were written in a tremulous hand, and in many biographer more than once refers, but places were almost illegible from the writer's much with the fact that the boys, being but the pen of the old man had afterwards
It began : “My dear, kind boys;" the master's nephews. could remain the been drawn through the word “boys,” and whole year, or, in other words, were to there had been substituted for it the word have no holidays, a state of things which " friends.” It went on to thank the donors, in John Lawrence himself strove to repro- the name of his brother as well as of himself, duce with his Punjab “boys” of after for their most generous gift, which, he said, years.
would go far to keep them from want during At twelve John in turn passed to his the short time that might be left to them; but uncle's at Foyle. And it is worthy of re. far above the actual value of the present, was mark that this small Ulster school should the preciousness of the thought that they had have sent to India, within the limits of not been forgotten by their old pupils, in what one generation, men of such note as Lord seemed to be the very high position to which Gough, Sir Robert Montgomery, and the they had risen. He did not know what the
“ Board of Administration" meant, but he felt three Lawrences (Sir George, Sir Henry,
sure it was something very important; and he and Sir Jolin).
added in a postscript to his letter, with childWe may here appropriately introduce like simplicity, that he had looked out the an anecdote of later days. Two Simpo Punjab in “the old school atlas,” which they sons, twin brothers, in very humble cir- had so often used together, but he could not cumstances, had been ushers at Foyle. find either it or Lahore! “Oh,” said Sir On Christmas-day, 1851,* the three mem- Henry, when he came to this part in the letter, bers of the Punjab Board of Administra. to his friend Dr. Hathaway, “if
could only tion had eaten their dinner together at see, as I can see it now, that grimy old atlas, the old Residency House of Anarkalli. grown still more grimy by its use during the There had been a brief silence, when Sir thirty years which have passed since I knew Henry turned abruptly to John and said: what it does not contain !” (Vol. i., pp. 371,
it, and the poor old fellow trying to find in it "I wonder what the two poor old Simpsons 372.) are doing at this moment, and whether they have had any better dinner than
As regards Lawrence's school expeusual!"
riences, it is recorded that on first going
to school at Bristol he was nicknamed After a few remarks had been made upon “Paddy,” and received many kicks in the the singular coincidence, that the three men character of an Irishman; whilst at Foyle who had been at school together as boys so he was called “ English John,” and re. many years back, now found themselves asso.
ceived ciated together once more as the rulers of the
many (probably many more) as bePunjab, Henry Lawrence, with the impulsive ing an Englishman! Indeed Henry also, generosity which formed so prominent a part writing to Major George Broadfoot in of his character, exclaimed, “I'll tell you what 1845, says: My education consisted in we will do. The Simpsons must be very old, kicks; I was never taught anything, and I should think nearly blind; they cannot no, not even at Addiscombe.” * be well off ; let us each put down gol. and send Hardly as Colonel Lawrence thought it to them to.morrow as a 'Christmas-box from his service's had been requited, it would a far-off land, with the good wishes of three of seem that for a soldier with so numerous a their old pupils, now members of the Punjab family provision came abundantly, though Board of Administration at Lahore.'” “All
the manna did not fall from the expected right,” said John, “I'll give 50l.” “All right,” said Montgomery, “I'll give another !”
Of his seven sons, five, i.e., all The subject was nearly forgotten, when one
who survived the age of eighteen, found morning, amongst the pile of letters brought in careers in the Indian service through the
friendship of one worthy director, Mr. • The book says 1850, but Montgomery was not then
• Life of Sir Henry Lawrence, vol. i., p. 30.
a member of the Board.
John Hudleston, of the Madras Civil Ser: hilla horsemen, or campos and pultuns vice. Whatever arguments may be alleged (battalions) under European adventurers, for the modern competitive system (and Frenchmen, Savoyards, Germans, Neaalter all is said, the great argument lies in politans, English, Scotch, and Irish, usuits being the inevitable companion of de-ally in the service of native princes, but mocracy), it will hardly live to vaunt a sometimes for their own hands, and albetter result than Mr. Hudleston con- ways leaving anarchy behind. But fortu. tributed to the good of his country in the nately, over much of this region, where nomination of those five brothers.
the old village community survived, things A living Church dignitary is said to went on in isolated organisms; the peas. boast that he in truth saved India, though antry continuing to till their fields, and to he never saw it! For Dean Merivale was deposit their quota with the master for offered, and declined, the nomination to the time being, as if it were a natural Haileybury which, on his refusal, fell to secretion. John Lawrence. The latter would have Many whom Lawrence must have known been a soldier, like his three elder broth. well at Delhi had been already grown men
“A soldier I was born, and a soldier when, in the palace there, the treacherous I will be !” said he rebelliously. And ruffian Gholám Kádir gouged out the eyes indeed, twenty-seven years later, Henry of the emperor Shah 'Alam with his dag. Lawrence, when making way for John as ger. Others must have been past middle head of the Punjab Administration, wrote: age when George Thomas, an Irishman “My brother will, I think, do very well, from Tipperary, sought and looted his way but it is because he is in heart and action to an independent principality at Hansi, more of a soldier than half the men who and with his ten battalions and sixty wear red coats."* The calm counsel and pieces of artillery, after repeatedly “batinfluence of their sister Letitia prevailed ing the Sikhs,” (like the "Old Tippe. with John, and he went to Haileybury. rary” of later days *) had got within four That he did not make much impression marches of Lahore, where he intended to on the heads of the college, is clear from plant the capital of his future empire, the recollection of contemporaries. Mr. when he was recalled to defend his nest J. H. Batten tells how in 1857 he visited against Perron's Mahrattas, and to termi. old Dr. Le Bas, who had been dean in nate his brief career of power. Hansi in their time, and having enabled him to Lawrence's own day was the headquarters identify the John Lawrence, then so much of the gallant James Skinner, Sikander in the mouths of men, with the tall Irish- Sahib as the natives called him the man who had distinguished himself by half.caste son of a Scotch subaltern and making Orange bonfires on the grassplot, a Rajpoot girl (the captive of his spear) – the venerable man drily asked, " But what who had himself fought for years in the has become of all our good students ?” Mahratta ranks, but was now the trusted
In September, 1829, John Lawrence and honored commander of a brigade of sailed for India, in company with his “irregular horse," which formed the orig. brother Henry, five years bis senior, who inal pattern of those famed Indian cavalry was returning from sick-leave. Friendly of our own day, whose sabres have flashed prophets had predicted distinction for to good purpose from “ Cambalu, seat of Henry, none for John. After a time of Cathayan Can,” to “great Alcairo.” Such illness, home-sickness, and depression, in memories, and the close neighborhood of Calcuita, he was posted to Delhi at his quasi-independent States, with the pres. own request, and thenceforward we hearence of the mogul's court and the great no more of depression.
city, all tended to produce a variety of life The “Delhi Territory," as it was called, and of lawlessness, far beyond what was came into our hands after Lord Lake's to be found nearer the leart of British victories in 1803. It was up to 1832 a rule. The assistants of the resident were “non-regulation province,” and formed the liable to be employed on any kind of duty extreme north-west “march” of British within the great frontier province, and India. In condition, memories, and sur. their experience was apt to be of a vivals, no province remained within such a strangely varied and invigorating kind. measurable distance of the India of 1783- Alter a longish apprenticeship at Delhi, 1803, when its unhappy plains were swept Lawrence was placed in acting charge of over, this way and that way, by the cavalry the district of Paniput, forming that northof rival Mahratta powers, Mogul and Ro- ern part of the territory, on the plains of
* Life of Sir Henry Lawrence, vol. ii., p. 202.
* Lord Gough was so called.
which the fate of upper India has often | Paniput. It shows both his prompt acbeen fought out, from the mythic war of tion and his ready wit, but it is too Pandus and Kurus down to the crushing long for abridgement. Another remark. Mahratta defeat by the Afghans in 1761. able story, which must also be read in
The three or four years that Lawrence the original, is that of his tracking the passed at Paniput, almost constantly in murderer of his friend William Fraser, solitude as regards European companion- commissioner of Delhi, who was shot, one ship, were probably the most important of evening whilst riding home, by an emis. his life in the making of the man, His sary of the Nawab Shamsuddin of Feroze. work there is admirably depicted in a pore (south of Delhi), in March, 1835. contribution too terse for abridgement, William Fraser, a younger brother of made by Mr. Charles Raikes to the pages the well-known traveller James Baillie of his friend's “Life."
Fraser, was a remarkable person. DurWhen he came to England on furlough, ing the settlement of the bill provinces, still a young man, it is said that he used taken from the Goorkhas in 1815, Fraser to pour forth a continuous Aow of stories was commissioner in charge. By nature of his hairbreadth escapes and adventures a soldier of the most chivalrous stamp, during those early years; and in later he had been twice wounded in the assaults days, at Southgate or Brocket Hall, it of Kalanga (where Sir R. Gillespie fell), was the Sunday evening's treat of his and he succeeded in persuading Lord children to hear one of those stirring Hastings to give him military rank. The stories. The mention of them would have rank of major was conferred upon him, been tantalizing if left thus vague. But, in Skinner's Horse, with which corps he as the author says, appropriately to his had been much associated, and the eponyformer character of biographer of Mo. mus of which was his bosom friend. And bammed : *
from 1816 to his death we find in the
Bengal Army List the name of the civilian When, after the death of the Arabian
William Fraser as “major with local prophet, disputes arose as to the meaning of a Sura, recourse was had to the breasts of the rank,” in Skinner's corps ; the only examfaithful,” and there a satisfactory answer or
ple probably of such a position in the explanation was often found. From “ the annals of British India. Fraser's was breasts of the faithful” scattered everywhere no nominal soldiering; whenever the yel. ... I have gathered up such fragments as I low brigade took the field, their major could of the history of his earlier and more ad- went with them; thus he was present, venturous career; and from these, as well as and again wounded, before Bhurtpore in from my own recollections of his conversation, 1825–26. He was probably the most faand from five or six stories, which, shortly after mous sportsman of upper India; and was bis marriage, with the aid of his ever-ready noted for repeatedly engaging the lion and faithful helper, he himself committed to writing, I am able to give some slight idea of (which then still survived in the western the dauntless tracker of criminals, of the parts of the Delhi territory) or the tiger, "mighty hunter before the Lord,” of the giant on borseback with spear and sword only: in strength and in courage, in roughness and Skinner erected a grandiose marble monin kindliness, in sport and in work, which Johnument to bis friend in Delhi church, after. Lawrence then was. (Vol. i., pp. 65, 66.) wards destroyed by the mutineers. On
it were carved two lions couchant, and Fortunate above all has been the pres- some Persian verses, with these English ervation of those stories which he com- lines: mitted to writing, not merely for their substantial interest (and such illustrations Deep beneath this marble stone of the real peasant lite of India are very A spirit kindred to our own rare), but as showing how admirably this
Sleeps in Death's profound repose, man could write when he braced himself
Freed from human cares and woes : to do it, and did not dash off his say
Like us his heart, like ours his fame;
He bore on earth a gallant name. "in shirt sleeves” as to expression and
Friendship gives to us the trust grammar. One most striking story told
To guard the hero's honored dust. here is that of his arresting “ red-hand" a murderer whose crime had been com. Had the sentiment of these lines, as. mitted at the magistrate's own gate at cribed to Skinner himself, been graven in
Greek beside a Thessalian fountain, in. • We may note that Mr. Bosworth Smith's " Mo- stead of simple English rudely carved by Quarterly Review for January, 1877, by the lamented a Delhi stone.cutter, they would have Prof E. H. Palmer.
been prized as the gem of an anthology.
hammed and Mohammedanism” was reviewed in the
All the stories told do not pertain to right mind, and actually casting up his settlePaniput. Lawrence had been only “act. ment accounts ! ing" there; a term which has suggested
The author adduces the story of the to the minds of the natives, in accord- dying emperor, who, when he felt the ance with their pronunciation of it, and approaching end, bade his servant set with that striving after meaning in sylla: him on his feet, "for an emperor ought to bles which leads to so many etymological leave the world standing," and standing fallacies, the interpretation ek-lăng, “one: died. That was a nearer parallel to the leg," as if the temporary incumbent had dying act of Vespasian, which occurred but one leg in the official stirrup. One in our own day and our own city, in the leg only had John Lawrence in Paniput, case of a gallant and good old soldier who and when the post became permanently was certainly thinking of no imperial vacant he was displaced by a senior but parallels, and aiming at no sensational less competent man. Three succeeding effects we mean the last governor of years were spent at Gurgaon and at Etá: Chelsea, Sir Sidney Cotton (he too one of
The former district lay. south of another quintet of brethren sent into the Delhi, on the border of the Rajput states public service in India, whom a competiand of the dry regions inhabited by sonstive system will not easily match). The of robbers, themselves robbers but half brave old man, when he knew his last reclaimed." They used to talk freely with morning had come, bade them dress him him, and express their regrets of the in full uniform — as if he were going to a palmy days departed, when "the good old levee. He judged that it so became one rule and simple plan” prevailed, which who was altogether a soldier to meet the they expressed in the pithy adage, “Jiskt summons into the presence of the King látht úsíka bhains” (this might be ren- of kings. dered pretty closely, “Horum vaccula
Lawrence was sent home; a joyous quorum bacula”).
At Etawa, S.E. of holiday it seems to have been; but the Agra, a dismal monotony of dust, his du: distinctest fragment of it surviving is preties were those of "settlement,” i.e., of served in the amber of that deliglitful fixing the land assessment for a term of book, “ Caroline Fox's Journals;" a book years; a subject on which Mr. Bosworth of which the most disparaging criticism Smith gives the needful explanations with we have heard is, that it resembles one of a brevity and lucidity which do him great those Scotch cakes that are all plums. credit, and almost fit him to play that part
What the furlough gave him
besides which (according to a story he quotes) health and holiday was a wife. Two tes. Victor Jacquemont desired from Holt timonies of Lord Lawrence's own as to Mackenzie, viz., to explain in five minutes what his wife had been to him are quoted; the various systems of Indian land reve. nue. In Etawa, as at Paniput and Gur- almost unconscious, we copy:
one of these, wholly unpremeditated and gáon, Lawrence was storing up that honey of experience, on which the ruler of after One evening, in his drawing-room at Southdays was nourished and fed others; but gate, looking up from his book, in which he he loved it not, and rather shocks his had been engrossed, he discovered, to his biographer by calling it, in a letter of later surprise, that his wife had left the room.
“ Where's mother?” said he to one of his days, "that hole!”
daughters. “She's up-stairs,” replied the girl. In the end of 1839 Lawrence had a bad He returned to his book, and, looking up again attack of jungle-sever, and for some time a few minutes later, put the same question to his life was despaired of.
his daughter, and received the same answer. He had often been heard to say that many a
Once more he returned to his reading, and man need not die if he made up his mind not tion on his lips. His sister Letitia here broke
once more he looked up with the same ques. to do so. One day the doctor who had been attending him told him that he feared he could in, “Why, really, John, it would seem as if you hardly live till the following morning, and took could not get on for five minutes without your
wife.” “That's why I married her,” replied leave of him accordingly. No sooner was he
he. (Vol. i., pp. 143-44.) gone than his patient roused himself to the emergency. Now was the chance of putting his favorite maxim to the test. He determined was the daughter of a clergy man in Don.
The lady, Miss Harriette Hamilton, not to die, and bade his servant give him a bottle of burgundy which lay in a box beneath egal, who had previously held a living in his bed. He drank it off, and next day when County Meaih; a district much disturbed the doctor called, by way of form, expecting by agrarian conspirators, exercising the to find that all was over, he found John Law- savage cruelties that still disgrace parts rence sitting up at his desk, clothed and in his of Ireland. Lady Lawrence's brother,