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Finding London Bridge an obstacle not roadway of the Strand in bot pursuit. to be surmounted, Wyatt marched his man What course was he to adopt? He re. up Kent Street, and so by St. George's solved upon beating a retreat and cutting Church, entered Southwark without en- his way through the calvary of Pembroke, countering any resistance. Here he was in the hope that he might reach the open joined by several of the volunteers of fields at Knightsbridge. It was a terrible Lord William Howard, who deserting the alternative, and before his men had fought royal cause went over to the side of the their way back to Temple Bar he saw that Kentish men. After three days spent in escape was useless. He was surrounded considering how to effect his entrance by cavalry, and behind the troopers were into London, Wyatt resolved to march the infantry that had marched up from towards Kingston Bridge, there cross the Charing Cross, William Harvey, the river, then retrace his steps and make his herald at arms, came up to him and said : attack upon the capital. Before quitting “ Master Wyatt, you were best by my Southwark he paid his soldiers their counsel to yield. You see this day has wages and issued a proclamation that if gone against you, and in resisting you can any of his men owed anything to any per. | get no good, but be the death of all these son in the borough he would see that it your soldiers, to your great peril of soul. was paid.

we are told, “there Perchance you may find the queen merci. none complained; the inhabitants ful, and the rather if you stint so great a said that there was never men behaved bloodshed as is like here to be." "If I themselves so honestly as his company shall needs yield,” cried Wyatt, alınost did there for the time of their abode.” * cowed by the situation in which he

By nightfall Kingston Bridge was found himself though his men reached. The bridge had been broken ready to fight to the death -“I will yield by the queen's party, and the timbers me to a gentleman.” But before the rewere blocking up the river. Several sol. mark liad well-nigh issued from his lips diers plunged into the stream, and by the he was seized by Sir_Maurice Berkeley aid of the floating rafters swam to the op- and taken prisoner. The capture of their posite side, loosened the boats that were chief led to a brief resistance by the moored there, and before morning Wyatt Kentish men, but the rebels were soon and his troops had been safely rowed overpowered and their ringleaders fell an

Lacking victuals the rebel leader easy prey to the captains of the royal pressed forward the same day and reached forces. · Thus," wrote Renard to his Knightsbridge, where he halted for the master, "the Lord gave the victory to her night. His arrival was anticipated and de- Majesty, with only the loss of two inen and fensive measures had at once been adopt. three wounded, which is evidently a mira. ed. The cavalry were drawn up at St. cle.” On the side of the rebels some James's, the infantry were under arms at forty men were killed. Charing Cross, at Westminster there was At five o'clock in the evening of the a strong guard, whilst St. Paul's Church day which had been so fatal to his interyard was stored with armory ready to be ests, Wyatt, with several of his compan. despatched, if wanted, either to the Tower ions, was brought by water to the Toier. or Charing Cross. Upon the first onset As he passed under the frowning portals success favored the arms of Wyatt. At of Traitor's Gate he was greeted by Sir Charing Cross the royal troops were Philip Deny, who helped the prisoners to forced to fall back before the vigor of his alight, with the words,“ Go, traitor! there charge, and the rebels passed Temple was never such a traitor in England !” Bar and Fleet Street without opposition, Wyatt fiercely turned upon his accuser. until they were checked by the barriers at "I am no traitor," he said; “I would Ludgate. Here for the first time matters thou should well know thou art more looked serious. Lord William Howard traitor than I ; and it is not the part of an refused the rebels admittance, the citi- honest man to call me so." Then he zens, on whom the Kentish men had so walked up the steps and was received by fondly relied, showed no signs of rising, Sir John Bridges, the lieutenant of the and Wyatt, mortified and disheartened, | Tower. His reception foreshadowed the sat him down at the Belle Sauvage gate to treatment that was to follow. “Oh, thou consider his position. He could not ad. villain and unhappy traitor !” cried Sir vance, yet in his rear were the royal troops John, shaking his prisoner by the collar, now galloping along the narrow, uneven and allucing to the fact that Wyatt had



been implicated in the conspiracy to place Jane Grey on the throne but had been

• Ibid.

pardoned, “how couldst thou find in thy And now, during the next few weeks, heart to work such detestable. treason the axe of the headsman and the ropes of to the Queen's Majesty, who, being thy the gibbets were busy, launching all who most gracious sovereign lady, gave thee were in any way connected with the late thy life and living once already, although rebellion into eternity. “At every corthou didst before this time bear arms in ner,” said the French ambassador, “ the the field against her? And now to make eye meets nothing but the vile sight of such a great and most traitorous stir, giv. | hanging men.”. Wyatt had his execution ing her battle to her marvellous trouble deferred in the hope that certain precious and fright. And if it was not that the State secrets might be drawn from his lips law must justly pass upon thee, I would by the promise of pardon. Renard had strike thee through with my dagger." throughout the rebellion been doing his To whom Wyatt, looking grimly upon the utmost to poison the mind of Mary against lieutenant, thus curtly made answer, It her sister. He had assured the queen is no mystery now. He was then con- that, so long as the princess Elizabeth ducted to the dungeons below the Tower, was at large, agitation and revolt would and was confined, if report speaks cor- ever be making themselves felt. Certain rectly, in the cell called “ Litile Ease," suspicious circumstances had, too, supthere to a wait the masked executioner and ported his arguments. Elizabeth, during the heading-block.

the recent rebellion, had been discovered With the leading rebels safely impris- to be in close communication with France oned the dangers of the revolt were no friend to the cause of Mary. A passed, and Mary was more firmly placed letter written by Wyatt to her had also upon her throne than ever. She at once fallen into the hands of the Council; nay, wrote to the father of her future hus- more, the rebel leader himself, unmanned band, the emperor Charles, who had by the terrors of the scaffold, had sought always taken a keen interest in her af to purchase dear life by implicating the fairs, regretting the basty departure of princess in the late conspiracy. He had those envoys who had come purposely to revealed nothing very definite, it is true, treat of her marriage.

in his forced confessions, but still enough Monseigneur (she wrote), * I am exceedingly to induce a jealous sovereign to issue ordispleased that the rebels of my kingdom ders for the confinement of the suspected should have caused the departure of your am- person. Elizabeth was then at Ashbridge, bassadors accredited to my court in such haste, and Sir Henry Bedingfield was instructed and fear that they can give you but little news to bring her to Whitenall. On her arrival of what has lately passed. But as it lias at the palace Mary refused to see her, and pleased God that the rebels were compelled to the unhappy girl underwent a rigorous discover their traitorous designs before being examination at the hands of the Council. ripe, and that now most of them are in prison She admitted having entered into a prior have fled the kingdom, I hope my affairs will be placed on a firmer footing, and that the

vate correspondence with France, but ex. alliance entered into with his Highness the pressed the utmost abhorrence of Wyatt's Prince, my cousin, may be concluded. The proceedings, and vowed she knew nothing swift punishment which has attended upon this of them. She was ordered to be comrebellion will purge the realm of all such foes, mitted to the Tower. The day before that as your Majesty will hear from my loyal and dread sentence was to be carried out well-loved Lord Fitzwater, the bearer of this for a cell in the Tower was often the half. letter, who will inform you of the victory God way houre to that Tower Green upon has granted me, and why, owing to the hasty which bui three weeks since the lady departure of your ambassadors, no reply has Jane Grey had met her doom – Elizabeth been returned to the letters they delivered me. He is also instructed to inforin your Majesty lantly watched apartment, and wrote to

sat down before ber guards, in her vigiwith what pleasure your correspondence is received by me, and how great is my gratitude her obdurate sister. The letter lies be. for the service and friendship displayed to me fore me, penned in a round, bold, boyish by you. To your ambassador resident here I hand, every stroke firm and distinct – a am under deep obligations; his presence and letter written without hesitation or altera. counsel have been a great consolation to me tion. However humble and piteous are in my late troubles. Praying the Creator to its contents, there is no sign of timidity grant your Majesty a long life and perfect in the drawing up of this pleading epistle. health,

Your very humble daughter, sister, and If any ever did try this olde saying (she cousin,

MARY. wrote] * that a kinge's worde was more than * Transcripts. London. Feb. 11, 155+.

* State Papers Domestic. Mary. Mar. 16, 1554

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another man's othe [oath] I most humbly be- wiche I wolde not be so bold to desier if I seche your Majestie to verefie it in me, and to knewe not my selfe most clere as I knowe my remember your last promis, and my last de- selfe most tru. And as for the traitor Wiat, maunde, that I be not condemned without he migth [might) paraventur [peradventure] answer and due proof; wiche it.semes that now writ me a lettar, but on my faithe I never reI am.

For that without cause provid, am, ceved any from him; and as for the copie of by your counsel, from you commanded to go my lettar sent to the Frenche kinge I pray unto the Tower, a place more wonted for a God confound me eternally if ever I sent him false traitor than a tru subject, wiche thogth word, message, token, or settar by any menes, [though] I knowe I deserve it not, yet in the and to this my truith I wil stande in to my face of al this realme aperes that it is provid; dethe. wiche I pray God I may dy the shamefullist I humbly crave but only one worde of andethe that ever any died, afore I may mene swer from your selfe. (mean] any suche thinge. And to this present Your Highness most faithful subject that hower I protest afor God (who shal juge my hath bine from the beginninge and wyl be to trueth) whatsoever malice shal devis, that I my end,

ELIZABETH never practised, conciled [concealed) nor con

To this letter no answer was vouchsented to any thinge that migth (might] be prejudicial to your parson (person] any way, safed. The next morning Elizabeth was or daungerous to the State by any mene. And lodged in the Tower. _As the barge rested therefor I humbly beseche your Majestie to let against the steps of Traitor's Gate for its me answer afore your selfe and not suffer me unhappy passenger to alight, she cried to to trust your counselors; yea, and that afore I the soldiers who were on guard at the engo to the Tower (if it be possible), if not, afor trance of the Tower, “ Good people, bear I be further condemned. Howbeit I trust

me witness! I come in as no traitor, but assuredly your Highness wyl give me leve to

as true a woman to the queen's majesty do it afore I go ; for that thus shamfully I may as any is now living; and thereon will í not be cried out on as now I shal be, yea, and

take without cause. Let consciens move your High

death.” Her imprisonment was

The eviness to take some bettar way with me than to but of a few weeks' duration. make me be condemned in all men's sigth dence proffered by Wyatt against her had (sight) afor my desert knowen. Also I must been withdrawn by the terrified rebel as humbly beseche your Highness to pardon this soon as his manhood had been restored my:boldnes wiche innocencey procures me to bim, and he fully acquitted her of any do, together with hope of your natural kindnis, participation in the late insurrection. It wiche I trust wyl not se (see) me cast away was in vain that Renard, who was ever without desert, wiche, what it is, I wold desier assuring Mary that as long as the head of no more of God but that you truly knewe; Elizabeth was spared, treason and heresy wiche thinge I thinke and beleve you shal never would be rife within the kingdom, himself by report knowe unles by yourself you bire [hear). I have harde [heard] in my time of visited the dungeons of the Tower and many cast away for want of comminge to the promised the rebel that if be confessed presence of ther Prince; and in late days I matters sufficiently compromising to the harde my lord of Somerset say that if his princess his life would be spared. Wyatt brother had bin sufferd to speke with him he surlily replied that he had nothing to rehad never sufferd; but the perswasions werveal, and that the lady Elizabeth was made to him so gret [great) that he was brogth guiltless of all connection with his rising. [brought] in belefe that he coulde not live His life had been spared by the Council safely if the Admiral lived, and that made him give his consent to his dethe.* Thoght

so long as it had been hoped that damag(though) thes parsons ar not to be compared ing statements might be wrung from him; to your Majestie yet I pray God as ivel (evil] now that he had nothing to disclose, or perswasions perswade not one sistar again the was resolved upon disclosing nothing, other, and al for that she have harde false re- there was no reason, ministers said, why port and not harkene [hearkened] to the trueth the wretch should not be sent to share knowen. Therefor ons Conce] again kniling the same fate as his followers. The lieu[kneeling) with humblenes of my hart, bicause tenant of the Tower was ordered to have I am not sufferd to bow the knees of my body, hiin carried to the Tower Hill, and there I humbly crave to speke with your Highness, to see him beheaded on the ensuing

Wednesday, April 11, 1554. Romance (lodorsed by Lord Coke, “ Queen Elizabeth, my dear Sovereign's, letter to Queen Mary in vinculis.”] The las asserted that Wyatt was put to the letter is written without any stops, but, to assist the rack, and when in the Tower was reader, I have punctuated it.


fronted with Elizabeth, before whom, awed My lord of Somerset was protector and lord treasurer in the reign of Edward VI., to whom he was by her majestic air of indignation, he maternal uncle; "The Admiral” was Lord Seymour withdrew all his damaging charges. His. of Sudleve, his younger brother, who was beheaded for aiming at the protectorate and for aspiring to the tory possesses no evidence for either of

these assertions. VOL. XLIII.


hand of Elizabeth.


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At the appointed day Wyatt was led up like. And whereas it is said abroad that. the steps of his dungeon and, for the first I should accuse my lady Elizabeth's time since bis capture at Temple Bar, grace, it is not so. Good people, I assure breathed the fresh air of heaven. He you I have confessed before the queen's was dressed in the same clothes which he majesty's honorable Council all those that wore on his first passing under the spokes took part with me and were privy of the of Traitor's Gate — "a shirt with sleeves conspiracy; but as for my lady Elizavery fair, and thereon a velvet cassock beth, here I take it apon my death that and a yellow lace, with the windlass of she never knew of the conspiracy nor of his dag hanging thereon, and a pair of my first rising; and, as touching any fault boots on his legs: on his head he had a that is laid to her charge, I cannot accuse fair hat of velvet with broad lace about her. God I take in witness, and this is it.” In his hands he held a book. At most true.” the garden pale, hard by the lieutenant's Then, without more talk he turned him lodgings, which separated Tower Green and put off his doublet and untrussed his

from the ominous hill, he took leave of points. Stripped to his shirt he knelt : the secretary, one Master Bourne. “I down on the straw, prayed silently for a

pray you, sir," said the condemned, “pray brief space, then with his own hands for me, and be a mean to the queen for doubled the handkerchief around his eyes my poor wife and children; and if it and placed his head on the block. He might have pleased her grace to have gave the signal by lifting up his hands, granted me my life, I would have trusted and at one stroke his head was severed to have done her such good service as from his body. “Then,” writes should have well recompensed mine of chronicler, “was he forth with quartered fence: but since not, I beseech God have upon the scaffold, and the next day his mercy on me.” To the which Bourne quarters set at divers places, and his head made no answer. Supported by two at- upon a stake upon the gallows beyond St. tendants, Wyatt then walked towards the James's. Which his head, as is reporthill, which, save the guarded place where ed, remained not there ten days unstolen stood the heading.block and the upright away." form of the masked executioner, was A few weeks after this execution Elizthronged with spectators. Not a cheer abeth was released from the Tower, and or a prayer, such is the fickleness of mob placed under the surveillance of Sir Henpopularity, in his behalf rent the air; the ry Bedingfield at Woodstock. only cry that arose was “ Long live Queen

A. C. EWALD. Mary!” Six weeks ago

it was att ! a Wyatt !” “ Down with the bas. tard !” “ Away with the foreigner!” and the rest of it. But treason to be popular must at least be successful; at the first

From Temple Bar.

GENERAL CHANZY. sign of failure, loyalty, or in other words self-interest, revives. On ascending the The premature deatlı of the one great scaffold Wyatt faced the crowd and spoke soldier produced by France, in 1870-1, as follows: “Good people, I am come induces us briefly to review his exploits. presently here to die, being thereunto From the moment when he attained comlawfully and worthily condemned, for I mand, intelligent observers of the fierce have sorely offended against God and the contest which was being waged in the queen’s majesty, and am sorry therefore. region of the Loire, perceived that Chanzy I trust God bath forgiven and taken bis was no ordinary man; and as the strife mercy upon me. I beseech the queen's deepened, the magnificent stand he made majesty also of forgiveness." “She bath against the huge German hosts, gained forgiven you already,” said Weston, the the respect, nay, the admiration of Eupriest appointed to attend upon the pris. rope. The knowledge acquired since the oner at his last hour. “Glad I am of it," war ended has elevated him even more in said Wyatt. “And now,” he continued, opinion, and it is now acknowledged that “let every man beware how he taketh this eminent man had many of the gifts anything in hand against the higher pow- of a great commander. It is not only,

Unless God be prosperable to his though that is much, that Chanzy thorpurpose it will never take good effect or oughly understood his profession, and success, and thereof ye may now learn of comprehended in its various details the

And I pray God I may be the last difficult practice of modern war; in these example in this place for that or any other respects he was perhaps equalled by the


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skilful Faidherbe, and the well-read Tro. shall not affirm that his resistance would chu. Nor was it only that he possessed not have worn the invaders out and have the faculty of directing operations in the at least gained better terms for France field ably, nor yet that he made himself than those imposed on her by the Peace conspicuous in organizing and preparing of Frankfort. armies; Macmahon could fight an excel. Though long known as a soldier of lent battle, and D'Aurelle was capable in promise, Chanzy was passed over by Naforming troops; yet neither chief could poleon III., and had only a brigade when be compared with him. The qualities the war began. When France rose to that distinguished Chanzy raised him high arms, after the disaster of Sedan, he was above generals of these types; and we given a division of the 16th Corps, one of feel assured that had he had the re- those improvised bodies with which Gamsources, and the opportunity of more for- betta hoped to stem the tide of the Gertunate men, he would have ranked among man invasion. This promotion, it is said, the masters of war. His strategic con- was due to a letter from Macmahon, then ceptions, we see, were equal to combina- a prisoner of war, who had formed a high tions on the largest scale, and were bril. estimate of Chanzy's powers; and in this, liant and sound alike; and had he been as in other instances, the Duke of Maallowed to carry out his plans, nay, had genta showed that he had the interests of his advice been' even followed, the efforts his country at heart. Within a few weeks of France, on two occasions at least, Chanzy was placed at the head of the 16th might not improbably have been crowned Corps, now north of the Loire; the qualwith success, with ultimate consequences ity of his troops, and their fitness for the perhaps momentous. How adınirable was field, may be estimated from the following his conduct in the field, was made evident passage : “ Discipline scarcely existed; in his memorable campaign between the the soldiers had fallen into the habit of Loire, the Sarthe, and the Mayenne, when doing as they pleased, without minding at the head of a defeated army, composed their orders. . . . Drunkenness, too, had largely of young levies, and suffering from made great progress; obscene songs, and every kind of privations, he more than the • Marseillaise' resounded in the ranks. once baffled the German legions, fought, . . Some of the regiments are in a state and all but won one great pitched battle, of extreme want.” and finally drew off in a masterly retreat Under the admirable direction of Gen. a force still unbroken and even formida- eral D'Aurelle, but with Chanzy in imme. ble; and it may fairly be said that this diate command, a new spirit was breathed grand resistance, described by Von Moltke into this mass; and before long, so re. himself as “amazing,” and which utterly markable are the instincts of the French disconcerted the German chiefs, was the race for war, it became a far from conmost perfect specimen of tactical skill temptible force. The 16th joined with the shown on either side in the war of 1870. 15th Corps, was now given the name of the Chanzy, too, possessed in no ordinary de. Army of the Loire; and by the first week gree one of the finest qualities of a true of November, 1870, it held the country to warrior - he inspired confidence and won he north of the river, between Beauthe hearts of his troops; it was observed gency, Blois, and Marchenoir. D'Aurelle of him that he could obtain more from now resolved to march on Orleans, which his improvised army than any one else; had been captured by a raid from Paris, and though he was strict, nay severe, in and if possible, to cut off a Bavarian discipline, his officers and men were de. detachment, which was the only hostile voted to him. Yet we have still to notice body in his path ; and for this purpose he the most distinctive and noblest feature of advanced his two_corps, combining his this great character. Alone of all the operations with a French division, which soldiers of France, Chanzy remained was to descend on Orleans froin the upsuperior to adverse fortune, after the per Loire. These movements led to the catastrophe of Bourbaki's army, and the battle of Coulmiers, the one French viccalamitous end of the seige of Paris; and tory gained in the war; and though owing alone he declared that it was still possi- to the delay of the distant French wing, ble, were but the nation to be true to the Bavarians contrived to effect their itself, to maintain a contest that seemed escape, they were rudely handled and to others hopeless. Nor was this heroic badly beaten. Chanzy was in command constancy foolhardiness; the plans of of the French left, but through the misClianzy were deeply laid, and had he beer take of a cavalry leader his operations invested with the supreme command, we were not brilliant. His troops, however,

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