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the lack of attractions her sickly face and exchange the gloom and opposition of the lean, angular figure displayed, she, like London he hated for the gaiety of his most women sur le retour, tenaciously beloved Madrid. Therefore when the clung to the lover whom State policy com- marriage settlements were being drawn up pelled to kneel at her feet, and who, she he gave his assent to all the conditions defelt sure, would be the last of his fasci. manded of him, and empowered Renard nating tribe that the matrimonial market to comply with such requests as the could command for her acceptance. The advisers of Mary suggested. The clauses question had been narrowed to this issue: to which the bride and bridegroom put it was to be Philip or it was to be nobody: their hands and seals were just and reaAnd so with the eager longings of an acrid sonable. The abstract of the agreement and hysterical woman whose affections was as follows: * for years had been checked and pent up, First. He to be intituled King during the she yielded all the treasures of her heart matrimony, but she to have the disposition of to the man whom political considerations all benefices, etc. had selected, and vowed that she would Second. She to be intituled to his dominhiave none other. Then, like many women ions during the marriage. who late in life are about to link their Third. Her dowry, if she survives him, to fate with a husband younger than them- be three score thousand pounds, after the value selves, she idealized the man, and painted of forty groats, Flemish money. him in the glowing colors her fond imag- female, shall succeed in her kingdoms accord.

Fourth. The issue of her body, male or ination depicted. To those who knew him, Philip was a prince of a cold and ing to the laws of the same.

Fifth. The Prince to leave to his eldest calculating disposition, utterly wanting in son, the Lord Charles [Don Carlos), and his principle, miserably mean where all ex. heirs all his right; his land notwithstanding to penditure was concerned, and, even in a be liable to the Queen's dowry. And for want lax age and among a loose people, was of issue in the Lord Charles, then the eldest looked upon as notoriously immoral. To son of this matrimony should succeed also in Mary, he was, however, all that a loving all his grandfather's titles woman could desire

Sixth. If the Lord Charles should have

a man of blame. less life, a devoted son of the Church,

issue, yet the Low Countries and Burgundy

are reserved for the heir of this marriage, and endowed with talents which made his

to the other children convenient portions to be judgment conspicuous whenever it was allotted out of this kingdom. exercised, brave, handsome, noble, generTo Renard, the Spanish ambassa: been agreed upon the treaty was de;

When the necessary preliminaries had dor, who knew the full value of an alliance between England and Spain, and who had spatched to Brussels for ratification, and essayed all liis arts to promote the match; celebrated by high mass in the exquisite

the conclusion of the proceedings was she said, placing his hand a small vellum parcel, “ I have signed this parch-Host had been returned to its sacred re.

Norman chapel in the Tower. When the ment, by which I affiance myself in mar. riage to Philip, prince of Spain, son of pository Mary stood up, then walked to his Imperial Majesty, Charles V.' And i the altar and, kneeling down, declared

before all assembled : further give you, as representative of the prince, my irrevocable promise that I will

I take God to witness that I have not conmarry him and none else.”

sented to wed the Prince of Spain from any If the course of true love seldom runs

desire of aggrandisement, or carnal affection; smooth, that of marriages of convenience but solely for the honor and profit of my kingrarely encounters much opposition from dom, and the repose and tranquillity of my the immediate contracting parties. Pbilip, from keeping inviolably the oath I have made

subjects. Nor shall iny marriage prevent nie who was only anxious to avail himself of to the crown on the day of my coronation. the revenues of England, would have married Mary had she been twice her age, tained that the marriage between Philip

No sooner had the outside public ascerand twice as plain. Once the ring placed upon her long, bony finger - how differ. and Mary had been definitively settled ent from the beautiful hand of her sister of the people. In every county and at

than loud and ominous were the murmurs Elizabeth! - and himself controller of the receipts of the Exchequer, it would be a every market-town the subject was angrily matter of no great difficulty to invent discussed, and it was evident from the

comments on these occasions which fell soine excuse which by placing the Pyrenees between him and the charms of bis

* Abstract of the Treaty of Marriage. State Papers. sour-visaged bride, would allow him to Foreign. Mary. Jan.-Mar. 155+

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No. 129.

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from the lips of both speakers and by- | only man who had boldly shown his hand, standers, that there only wanted opportu- who had permitted no timorous resist. nity and organization for the agitation to ance, who had suffered no delay, and who break out in open rebellion. These soon was resolved if the country was only waitpresented themselves. The leaders of ing for a leader to come himself to the the disaffected formed themselves into a front, was the impetuous Wyatt. Dealconfederacy, the object of which was to ing with an excitable and impulsive peocreate a revolt throughout the country, ple be had unfurled his standard at Maid. depose the unpopular Mary, and place in stone, and the inflammable Kentish men her stead the popular Princess Elizabeth. bad come up from their farms in hunThe Earl of Courtenay, who was to wed dreds, crying, “A Wyatt! a Wyatt!” Elizabeth, was to travel west, where his “ Down with the Spaniard !” “ No forname and influence were all-potent, and eigner!” and “Long life to the Princess rally the counties of Cornwall and Devon. Elizabeth !" Quitting Maidstone with shire to the cause of Protestantism, and some two thousand men, Wyatt marched England for the English. The Duke of to Rochester, where, through bis ranks Suffolk, with his three brothers, Lord being swelled by deserters from the royal Thomas, Lord John, and Lord Leonard cause, the castle easily fell into his hands, Grey, were to sow sedition in the midland and he at once made himself master of counties, Sir James Crofts, who had the Medway: deputy of Ireland, and was accustomed Meanwhile Mary had not been idle. to the ways of agitation, was to stimulate Lack of courage had never been attrib. revolt in the district of the Severn. Last. uted to those in whose veins ran the hot, ly, Sir Thomas Wyatt, the son of the arrogant Tudor blood, and the queen, poet, a bold soldier, who had seen much whatever her faults, did not belie the bold service in the recent wars with France, race from which she sprang. Foiled in but whose courage and ability were se her attempt to obtain regular troops by verely handicapped by his rash and head- ber suspicious advisers, who did not know strong disposition, was to raise Kent. to what end she might apply the services These arrangements completed, the forces of a trained soldiery, she appealed to the assembled at Exeter, Bristol, Warwick, city of London, which answered her and Maidstone were to march upon Lon. prayer by sending five hundred men, un. don, then as disaffected as the other parts der the command of one Captain Bret, to of the country; the citizens and soldiery her assistance. These levies would declare for the good cause, the once marched to Rochester by the Duke Tower would fall an easy prey to the in- of Norfolk, who enjoyed the fullest confivaders, and Mary would either Ay the dence of his sovereign, and who had been realm, or of her own will transfer the appointed generalissimo of the forces to crown to the head of her sister. “It resist the rebels. On arriving at Graves. would be,” said Wyatt, "a bloodless re. end the duke resolved not to delay his volt.”

attack, but forth with to lay siege to RochSuch was the plan on paper. When it ester Castle, and deal out to its traitorous began to be put into execution obstacles defenders the punishment they so richly occurred which, as is always the case, had deserved. Limbering up his artillery, he not been anticipated. Courtenay was a gave orders for the city bands to advance craven, and at the last moment declined upon the bridge. No sooner bad the word to go west to raise the standard of rebel- of command issued from his lips than lion. Deprived of his inspiring presence, Captain Bret drew his sword, and placing Devonshire and Cornwall, though sullen himself in front of the London volunand seditious, yet refused to move or to teers, cried out, “ Masters, we go about take any active steps without orders from to fight against our native countrymen of their acknowledged leader.. The Duke of England and our friends in a quarrel unSuffolk had ridden down into Warwick rightfud and partly wicked, for they, conshire, and had met with a reception which, sidering the great and manifold mysteries if not enthusiastic, was at least encourag. which are like to fall upon us if we shall ing; but the midland farmers and their be under the rule of the proud Spaniards hinds were prudent men; they would take or strangers, are here assembled to make part in a general insurrection when it resistance of the coming in of himn or bis once openly declared itself, but they would favorers; and for that they know right not be the first to revolt and lead ihe van well that if we should be under their sub. of rebellion. Sir James Crofts, busy in jection they would, as slaves and villains, Wales, met with the same difficulty. The spoil us of our goods and lands, ravisha



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our wives before our faces, and deflower | could do nothing to help her, for when a our daughters in our presence, have now sovereign set the wishes of a nation at for the avoiding of so great mischiefs defiance, of what avail, they asked, was and inconveniences likely to light not only the help of a few individuals? It was upon themselves but on every one of us useless again to appeal to the city, for it and the whole realm, taken upon them was evident that the Londoners sympanow, in time before his coming, this their thized with the revolt; she had no money, enterprise, against which I think no En- she had no troops. She had, they sug. glish heart ought to say, much less by gested, only two courses open before her. fighting to withstand them. Wherefore She could abandon all idea of the Span. I and these [his troops) will spend our ish marriage, and thus reconcile herself blood in the quarrel of this worthy cap. with her subjects, or she could carry out tain Master Wyatt and other gentlemen her resolve to marry Philip of Spain, and here assembled.” *

have to look to Flemings and a Spanish At the conclusion of this speech loud soldiery to support her determination. If were the cries of "A Wyatt! a Wyatt !” Wyatt marched upon London and the city and the Londoners waved their caps in declared in his favor, she would have to the air as a signal to the rebels in the beat a hasty retreat and her life even castle. Hereupon. Wyatt, accompanied would be in jeopardy, In reply, Mary, by several of his partisans, rode out on with all the tenacity of an enamored elthe bridge and cried aloud, “So many as derly spinster, vowed that nothing would will come and tarry with us shall be wel-induce her to throw over the man of her come.” In reply to this invitation, “all choice. She would be dethroned first; the Londoners, part of the guard, and ay, she would rather prefer death than more than three parts of the retinue, went such an ignoble repudiation. Still she into the camp of the Kentishi men." Nor- thought a third course presented itself, folk had no alternative but to hurry back and she hastened to avail herself of it. to London with the news of the desertion She was ignorant of what might be in of his men. At this discomfiture,” we store for. her in the future, but in her are told,t "the duke lost eight pieces of present hour of difficulty she wanted time brass, with all other munition and ord above all things. She wanted time to nance, and himself, with the Earl of Or- plan, to organize, to scheme for succor, mond and others, Aed to London. You and at all hazards she wanted time to linshould have seen some of the guard come der Wyatt from marching upon London. home, their coats turned, all ruined, with. She summoned Sir Edward Hastings, out arrows or string in their bows, or the master of the horse, and Sir Thomas swords, in very strange wise, which dis-Cornwallis to her presence, and bade them comfiture, like as it was a heartsore and hasten with all speed to Dartford to hold very displeasing to the queen and Coun- an interview with Wyatt. She wished to cil, even so it was almost no less joyous know, she said, of what grievances he to the Londoners and most part of all complained, and if it were in her power others."

she would have them redressed. To preThis unexpected addition to his ranks vent mistakes she drew up, in her own encouraged Wyatt to further efforts. hand, full instructions as to the course to Cowling Castle, the seat of Lord Cobbam, be adopted in dealing with Wyatt. They who was hesitating between the royal rán thus: cause and rebellion, was stormed and taken, and its owner carried off prison. Wyatt with others be assembled.

First, they shall repair to the place where

At their This feat accomplished, the rebels coming they shall say to the said Wyatt aloud, marched to Gravesend; there they halted to him and such other gentlemen as be with the night, and on the following day reached him, in such wise as follows:Dartford.

First, that we do not a little marvel that The situation of Mary was now fraught they, being born our subjects, and bound to with no little danger. She saw that she the laws of this our realm, have, contrary to was practically deserted, and had to main the same, enterprised to raise our people and

We do un tain her cause alone. Her advisers, who levy war without our commission. had strenuously opposed her marriage, derstand that they pretend to be and continue now coldly told her that the evils they

our true subjects, and that they have assembled

our people for the empechement of the marhad predicted had come to pass. They riage concluded between us and our dear cousin

* The Chronicle of Queen Jane, edited by J. G. the Prince of Spain, alleging the same to tend Nichols, F.S.A. Cainden Society.

to the prejudice of the commonwealth of this The Chronicle of Queen Jane.

our realm,


If this be the cause and none other, our course of events from his palace at Brussels) counsellors shall reply that, albeit it were their was that he desired to be entrusted with the and every good subject's part, rather by humble command of the Tower of London, and at the petition to make suit unto us for the obtaining same time with the person of the Queen, in of any their reasonable desires than by force order to furnish her with better counsel than of arms to stir our people against us, yet, for that which was supplied her by her present asmuch as we have bitherto always preferred advisers. Three members of the Council were the benefit of our commonwealth before any also to be placed in his hands as hostages, and our own cause, and being first married to our as a pledge that the Protestant religion would realm do not mean by our second marriage be restored. These conditions were discussed anyways to hinder or prejudice the state of our by the Council, and the Queen was advised to said realm, or the commonwealth of our sub appeal to the people. Last Thursday, at two jects of the same, we will be content to appoint o'clock of the afternoon, her Majesty, escorted such personages as shall be fit for the purpose by the members of her Council, her guards, to cominune with them upon their device and and several gentlemen, among whom was meaning. And if, thereupon, it shall by any Courtenay, came to the spot where the people probable reason appear unto us that the said were assembled [it was at the Guildhall]. There marriage, which we take to be both honorable she declared to her subjects that the ends she and beneficial to us and our said realm, be had always put before her ever since her acceseither not fit to go forwards or else to be other-sion to the throne, had been to administer wise provided for than is already ordered, we justice and to keep the country in unity, peace, will not refuse to give ear unto any such rea- and liberty. But the rebel Wyatt, under presonable motion in this part as may be to the text that she has married his Highness of benefit and surety of our said realm and loving Spain, had taken up arms against her and subjects.

created disaffection throughout the country. Finally, because the said Wyatt or others His reply, however, had clearly showed that he with him may perchance pretend other reasons aimed at obtaining the crown and tyrannizing or arguments for the maintenance of this un- over the people. As to her marriage [con. natural stir and commotion than may be well tinued Renard, indulging in one of the most remembered by us, our pleasure is that our | unblushing of diplomatic lies) it had been ensaid counsellors, both in their answer to them tered into by the advice of her Council for the and in their persuasion, use their accustomed good and safety of the realm, and not to gratify wisdom and discretion, travailing by the best any particular affection on her part. The ways they may to dissuade and stay their fur- rebel Wyatt was now nearing London, and she ther proceedings in this sort.*

wished to know if her people would act as Wyatt was, however, too wary a soldier lend her against such a rebel. She was pre

good subjects and maintain her cause and deto be easily entrapped. He received the pared to live and die amongst them, and to envoys of his sovereign with all courtesy, preserve their rights with all her force. The and patiently listened to the remarks they rebellion did not merely affect her but them. had to offer. Then he replied. He de selves — their fortunes, honor, and the safe nied that he had acted the part of a traitor. keeping of their wives and children. Let them He had gathered his men together in order act as good subjects and she would act as a to prevent the kingdom from being over- good Queen. Thus she spoke, and her words run with strangers, which would inevitably

were so winning that all the people cried out happen if the Spanish match were to take with a loud voice that they would die in her place. Most gladly would he confer with in token of their loyalty, groaned at Wyatt as

service, and throwing up their caps in the air the Council on the matter, but he would

a traitor. be trusted rather than trust. “I will treat with whomsoever her Majesty de:

Mary had certainly proved herself a sires,” he said, “but in surety of good match for her foe. She had thrown her. faith I must have delivered to me the self upon the sympathies of her people, custody of the Tower of London, and the and the innate loyalty of the English had person of the queen; also three members at once responded to her appeal. She of the Council must place themselves in was helpless and unprotected, her enemy iny hands, as hostages.”

was marching upon her capital, surely, she The Spanish ambassador informs us said, ber subjects would not now desert how these demands were received.

her! She was their lawful queen, and The reply of Wyatt (writes Renard † to the laws to his will and suffer rascals and for

would they allow a rebel to subdue the Emperor Charles V., anxiously watching the lorn persons to make general havoc and State Papers. Domestic. Mary. Jan. 1554.

spoil? As to her contemplated marriage, “A memorial given to our trusty and well-beloved she would summon a Parliament and the counsellors Sir Edward Hastings, Knight, Master of matter would be considered in all its bear. our Horse, and Sir Thomas Cornwallys, Knight." Transcripts. At the Record Office.

She trusted, she cried, amid the Renard to the Emperor."

cheers of the crowd, her people, and she


Brussels, ings.

Feb. 5, 15541


sure her confidence would not be citizens. The queen was in the Tower, misplaced.

anxious, but calin and collected. Several Her hopes were realized. Men were members of the Council entered her apartfreely enlisted to protect the crown; there ment, and implored her before it was too was no lack of money; and the city again late to take boat and fly. She sent for came forward with volunteers and sup. Renard and asked for his advice. He plies. At the same time Mary took every bade her, unless she wished to lose her precaution to avoid hurting the feelings crown, not to stir from London. Her deof her subjects. She avoided the society parture would lead at once to a revolt in of Renard, and she advised several of the her capital, the Tower would be attacked Spaniards who were attached to the em- and captured, the vile heretics would fall bassy to quit the kingdom. Towards the upon the priests, and Elizabeth would beginning of the last year certain ambas. to a certainty be proclaimed queen.

. sadors Egmont, De Lalaing, De Couri. Things,” he said, “must come to a worse ères, De Montmorency, and Philip Nigri pass before she resolved upon abandoning

- had been despatched by Charles V. as her position." * Pembroke and Clinton, special envoys to treat of the approaching who commanded the royal troops, were of marriage. These high personages Mary the same opinion, and assured their sov. now recommended to return to Flanders ; ereign that in the forthcoming struggle their numbers, she wisely remarked, were God would give her the victory. Their too small to be of service in the hour of advice was accepted, and every precaution danger, yet large enough to irritate her adopted to oppose the advance of the rebsubjects by their presence; she would els. Pembroke and Clinton drew up their only be content when they had exchanged cavalry and infantry on the fields in front the Thames for the Scheldt. Meanwhile of St. James's, infantry were massed toshe stationed before the doors of the Imogether at Finsbury, the guns of the Tower perial envoys a guard of thirty men. Nor were loaded and were prepared to open were these distinguished diplomatists loth upon Southwark. Wyatt was proclaimed to take their departure. They feared that a traitor, and a large reward offered for if Wyatt were victorious, London, which his capture dead or alive. A free pardon was full of “ une infinité de bannis, héré was also granted to all who would desert tiques, homicides, et autres malfacteurs his cause. de toutes nations y. refugiés," would rise These measures failed to deter the against the inhabitants and a general Kentish leader from his purpose. As he massacre ensue.* Finding some Flemish came up on the Surrey side intending to shipping at anchor below London Bridge, march his men over London Bridge, the they went on board and were soon safely guns from the White Tower opened fire at rest in the port of Antwerp.

upon him, but without effect. London In spite, however, of the revived loyalty Bridge was, however, impassable. At of the English people, the situation to the approach of Wyatt orders had been Mary was still full of danger. Wyatt had issued by the mayor and sheriffs for the quitted Dartford with two thousand men drawbridge which was in the middle of and was marching straight upon London. the bridge to be cut down, the bridge Before he halted his troops upon the gates to be closed, and every man to shut broken ground which intervenes between in his shop. (which in those days lined Woolwich and Blackheath, his ranks had London Bridge on either side), to put on been swelled by a large following drawn his harness, and to stand at his door ready from the yeomen of Kent, Surrey, and to resist any attack that might be made. Middlesex, who were anxious to come to

Then [writes the chronicler]t should ye close quarters with the hated Spaniard, have seen taking in wares of the stalls in most and whose cries of " A Wyatt! a Wyatt !” hasty manner; there was running up and down and “Out with the foreigner!” were taken in every place for weapons and harness; aged up by the sailors at Greenwich and re. men were astonished, many women wept for echoed by the shipping up the river till fear; children and maids ran into their houses they burst forth in ominous cheers and shutting the doors for fear; much noise and groans below London Bridge. Wyatt tumult was everywhere ; so terrible and fearful was now but six miles from Westminster, at the first was Wyatt and his army's coming and it was feared that his nearer approach dom or never wont before to hear or have any

to the most part of the citizens, who were sel. to the capital would be the signal for a such invasions to their city. general rising of the disaffected London

Ibid. Renard to the Emperor, Feb. 8, 1554. • Transcripts, Feb. 5, 1554.

The Chronicle of Queen Jane.


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