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not, is among them), when one literary gentleman, even after collecting materials and making some progress in editing a classic, has declined proceeding, on learning that another had commenced before him, and advanced still further in the same work; and that, too, when neither had as yet announced their intentions to the public. We repeat, then, that there should be strong reasons in justification of the mere fact of the appearance of the second work, so directly after the publication of the other; even had there been none of those other grounds of complaint to which we shall soon advert. The mere publication of the second, under such circumstances, is an implied censure of the first. It indirectly charges it with being deficient in regard to the purposes for which it was alleged to be produced, and assumes that the public good requires its place to be supplied by something else. The very fact that, in cases like these, such motives are often alleged in prefaces and introductions, shows a deference to that moral sense of the community, which demands a reason, and which will not weil endure the notion that literary works should be undertaken on no higher grounds than those which might influence the proprietors of rival omnibuses. Hence we so frequently find authors of this class telling us that their work was intended to supply a great “ 'desideratum," and attempting to show how much the public was suffering for the want of their philanthropic labors.
We do not, therefore, hesitate to say that, in the higher courts of literary and Christian morals, Professor Anthon was wrong in publishing such a work, unless he could assigo some such strong justifying reasons as have been mentioned. He perhaps thought that such existed. We will not charge that he did not honestly entertain such an opinion. Others, however, may think differently on this question of fact. It is not the arrival of a new Commentary from Germany, which, after all, may be much inferior in true value to an American edition, or a few corrections on a map, that can justify the attempt to supplant a standard work which bas cost another great labor, or can authorize us impliedly to pronounce it unadapted to the wants of the age. These accruing corrections, whether of much or little value, might easily be made in subsequent editions by the editor, who had first fairly occupied the ground. A pure honor, and a pure morality, it may likewise be said, would both require that such ground should be quietly lett to him, unless serious defects, about which there could be no doubt, and the imperative wants of classical education demanded that another more learned, and better qualified, should address himself to the needed work. It will not do simply to say, I have a right to offer for sale in the literary market what work I please, and others may do the same. Certainly some higher principles should prevail here than those which govern the transfer of stocks, or the purchase and sale of cotton.
But there are more serious grounds of complaint in this case, which we would present with as little offence as possible. In the preface to Dr. Anthon's edition of the Anabasis, there is something more than a negative or implied injustice to Mr. Owen. We maintain with all confidence, and with a knowledge of the coinciding opinions of some of the best scholars in the land, that this gentleman's edition was a highly valuable school book, admirably adapted to the purposes for which it was designed'; and that no reasons arising from deficiency, or the public wants, required that is should be superseded. If, however, notwithstanding all this, Professor Anthon insists upon his abstract right to publish what book he pleases, he should at least,--with that courtesy which every literary gentleman owes to another of acknowledged standing engaged in the same work, have mentioned him, or made some honorable allusion to him in that part of his preface in which he speaks of other editions. But Prof. Anthon, on the contrary, has seen fit to express himself in a manner, that on reading what he has written, one unacquainted with the facts could hardly fail to get the impression that there had been no American edition of any standing, or which deserved at all to be taken into the account in the introductory history of the work. Now when we bear in mind the high reputation which Mr. Owen's book had obtained, such a contemptuous undervaluing must appear not only very unjust, but exceedingly absurd and ridiculous. If the competition was regarded as lawful, and as demanded on high grounds of public good, it would have been far better to have made honorable mention of the competitor. Such a studied silence, we say, is very absurd and ridiculous, because there is intrinsic, as well as extrinsic evidence, that Mr. Owen's book must have been well known to the subsequent editor, and that it was in all probability lying by him on his table, during the time he was compiling his own.
Dr. Anthon, in his preface, gives us a list of the authorities and sources from which bis notes were drawn. His alleged reasons for this procedure (so common and so
proper in itself, even had no special reasons been assigned for it) are not a little cu. rious; and betray a misgiving which could hardly be conceived of as having any consistent existence, unless he had had some acquaintance with Owen's Anabasis, an acquaintance too great to justify the studied silence and implied contempt, or too little to render at all reasonable, the sensitive apprehension in which he indulges. "I have been thus particular," (he tells us) “ in enumerating the sources from which the notes have been drawn, as it is possible that other editions of this work may, in part at least, have been indebted to the same; and in consequence, similarities in the language or substance of the notes may occasionally occur, which may lead to the sup position that I have been appropriating to myself the labors of others.” Now why this fear of the charge of plagiarism ? It is we believe, pretty generally admitted among scholars, that in editing editions of the classics, the ordinary remarks of commentators or scholiasts are regarded as common property, on the ground that any competent scholar might and would have made the same, and that they had lost all their originality if they ever had any, centuries ago. A remark about a pev and a de, for example, or about the construction of the infinitive with an accusative or a nominative, or about the connexion and dependence of the subjunctive and optative moods,-however useful and necessary such observations may be for the student does not require that there should be formally paraded a long catalogue of authori. ties who have employed the same or similar remarks in reference to the same author. Special or extraordinary observations, which are indeed original, should always be clearly and explicitly credited to their proper sources. A mere general acknowledgment here, such as is often put into some unnoticed corner of a preface, with nothing else to direct the reader to the originals, will not do. Whether, however, they are of the extraordinary kind, requiring such acknowledgment, every editor's own critical skill and well cultivated sense of literary honor must enable him to judge for himself, suo periculo. Dr. Anthon's strong common sense must show him the propriety of this, and no man understands the reasonableness of such a rule beiter than himself.
There was, then, no just ground for any of this unusual sensitiveness in respect to the charge of plagiarism. He might have had, wittingly or unwittingly, the substance of one half of all Mr. Owen’s notes without being liable to the inputation. Instead of furnishing a reason for this over-caution against being judged from “similarities that might occasimally occur,” such resemblances might exist on every page without giving any just cause of suspicion, or any ground, to one who had confidence in his own candor, for even fearing the charge. He must, then, have had some apprehension, not so much of being accused of having directly taken “ the substance of Mr. Owen’s notes, with which no one would ever think of charging Dr. Anthon, as of its being thought that he had employed this work, on which so much time and labor had been bestowed, as a guide in the easier perfecting of his own more rapid compiJation. By this we mean, a guide as to the difficulties needing elucidation for the scholar, and the special places which might need remark. So far he might lawfully have employed Mr. Owen's book, and thereby have abridged his own labor. Such a conclusion, too, will seem reasonable to any one who will take the pains to collate carefully the two editions. Throughout the entire work, there are pages continuously, and to a considerable extent, with few exceptions, where the same words, phrases, and passages are selected for remark in both. The substance of the notes, too, is very much the same; the new edition being sometimes more full, and in other places more concise than its predecessor, but in a great number of instances, alike to all intents and purposes. This is a coincidence, which, it would seem, could only have its explanation in the supposition previously suggested, that the subsequent editor made his own task easier by using the previous edition as a guide in determining what parts most needed special annotation—instead of carefully and experimentally reading the author through with an eye to that particular purpose, aside from that general perusal which a scholar of Dr. Anthon's standing must be supposed to have bestowed upon it. Now for this, as has been remarked, he had some show of right to use Mr. Owen's edi. tion; that is, on the supposition that the other objections are obviated, and he could, fairly and honorably, under the circumstances, edit the work at all. If this can be admitted, then he not only had a right, but it was his duty, as a faithful editor, to make use of a book of such deservedly high standing. For on what ground should an excellent American edition be shunned, when so much importance is attached to the most trilling aid from Germany ? Is it because whatever comes over the Atlantic mist necessarily be more learned ?
The whole matter, then, is reduced to the most simple statement: If he did not use the book at all, he neglected his duty as a faithful editor, and betrays an unworthy jealousy ; if he did use it, he should have made honorable mention of his fellow countryman and fellow laborer in the same literary brotherhood ;-especially as he has taken so much pains to parade his list of other authorities, and tell us how much he was indebted to them. Such a course would have conferred more true honor on Dr. Anthon than any he will ever obtain from his edition of the Anabasis, with all the merits which we most willingly and cheerfully concede to it. In marked contrast, however, with such a procedure, he speaks of the bare possibility of some other American edition presenting some similarity to his own (See page xii of Preface), as though he could not at any time have ascertained that tact in five minutes, even had it possibly been unknown to him. He also expresses his absolute certainty (page ix) that any other American edition-admitting the possibility that there may be some such-must of course be inferior to one which has had the aid of the very latest European authorities-a conclusion which many very good scholars will doubtless regard as being possibly" a non sequitur.
Among the peculiar advantages of his own work, Dr. Anthon reckons the new geographical knowledge obtained from " Ainsworth's Travels.” In reference to this, we simply say, that it is greatly overrated. However valuable and interesting it may be to the general reader, there are but very few passages whose accurate translation into correct English it at all facilitates ;--the principal aid which the school-boy needs, and which school commentaries are designed to give him. Every scholar who carefully reads the Anabasis will readily judge of this himself. In respect to the map, of which so much is said, and which is claimed as being so peculiar an advantage, it is the very same with that prefixed to Mr. Owen's subsequent edition; only that the latter is executed with much more beauty and precision. Such aids, however, as this, do not at all create a necessity for new and elaborate commentaries. It is expected, of course, that former editors will avail themselves of them as they come out, and will incorporate them into subsequent editions of their own works.
If on every such occurrence, we must suppose that the public demand a new school book from the beginning, of a much larger size and a much greater cost, and that, on this ground, the latest editor has a right to disparage all previous efforts, our academical text books must all be converted into annuals, or be regarded as utterly unfit for the uses for which they were designed.
In these remarks we are certainly very far from any wish or purpose to disparage the valuable literary labors of Professor Anthon. All success to him as an indefati. gable writer, and as a ripe scholar who has conferred honor upon his native land, We have simply aimed to discharge the duty of a faithful reviewer-not so much to defend the reputation of a most deserving scholar who has been unjustly treated (for that we are confident will take care of itselt), as to express the regret which we think all scholars must experience at an act so little in accordance with literary honor and jus. tice. To Professor Anthon's work itself, and in regard to its own intrinsic merits, we would, and do, cheerfully award that commendation which it deserves; although after the long course of these remarks on the Preface we cannot speak more in detail, It gives the teacher and the student all the aid they can desire; yet is it in no respect, to say the least, superior to the faithful, learned, elaborate, and well-appreciated work of Mr. Owen. 2. Shakspeare's Plays: With his Life. Ilustrated with many hundred Wood Cuts, ere
cuted by H. W. Howet, after designs by Kenny Meadows, Harvey, and others. Edited by Gulian C. VER PLANCK, LL.D. With critical Introductions, Notes, foco, original and selected. Harper and Brothers. 3 vols. 8vo.
The editorial talent, the artistic skill, and the business enterprise which have combined to produce an edition of the great Poet of such high literary value, and such elegance of appearance, are more than creditable ; they are worthy of special notice and commendation. A more able, or more beautiful work of any kind has seldom been issued from the American press; and to announce it as the most complete and elaborate edition of Shakspeare among us, would not define its merits or its pretensions. Mr. Verplanck's services as editor, have been performed with a fidelity and talent which entitle him to a higher character, and which render the work in no unimportant sense, a new one. It is not only a pa instaking collection of the best annotations, suggestions, and expositions which have been, from the earliest times, displayed upon Shakspeare, but embodies much criticism that is original, and we think will be
esteemed learned, acute, and judicious. The editor has evidently spared no research nor labor in performing his functions; and possessing, as he is known to, peculiar aptitude for the work, in his scholarship and talents, his cultivated taste and ardent admiration for his author; and having, moreover, the advantage of the labors of all preceding critics, antiquarians, and artists, it may be fairly taken for granted that the present is a more complete edition of the great Dramatist, both in respect to accuracy of text, and critical and artistic illustration, than any other extant. Ji would certain. ly seem, that the stores of antiquarian research, critical expositions, and emendations and illustrative learning could hardly be added to.
A striking and most beautiful feature of the present edition is its profuse pictorial embellishments. Here, the editor has enjoyed peculiar advantages. The labors of all the artists who have lavished their genius to illustrate the general favorite, including particularly those pre-eminent ones, Kenny Meadows and Harvey, were before him, from which to choose the most beautiful and appropriate. The variety, genius, aptness, and artistic elegance of these designs, it would be impossible to describe. They range from grave to gay, from the broadest caricature to the most exquisite conceptions of delicacy and beauty; and executed as they generally are, in a very careful style of wood-engraving, and thrust in at every niche and corner, they add inexpressibly to the real value, as well as to the appearance of the work. Many a thought of the poet finds its best exponent in the artist's happy conception, deepening its impression and illustrating its meaning.
Of Shakspeare's immortal dramas, there never can be but one estimate among all capable of forming one. The greatest of poets in the poet's highest attributes, his transcendant genius will never lose its lustre, nor cease to be worthy of the homage which it has ever received—the spots and blemishes to be detected on its surface, notwithstanding; and it is among the greatest of literary luxuries, that his shining thoughts and exquisite beauties can be studied on pages so fair and attractive as these. 3. Historical and crilical Review of the Speculative Philosopky of Europe in the Nine.
teenth Century, 2d edition. By J. D. MORELL, A. M. 2 vols. 8vo., Robert Carter.
To Mr. Morell's work is due the rare praise of performing well a much needed and very difficult office. The history of modern philosophy,-a clear and methodical analysis of the different and conflicting systems into which philosophers and thinkers are divided, there is scarcely a man of reading or thought that does not need. Philosophy has entered so largely into our literature, our language, our moral systems, and into religion itself, that to be ignorant of its different phases is to fail to catch the very spirit of the age. Mr. Morell has presented this history with a completeness and conciseness which indicate entire familiarity with the leading speculative systems of the age, as well as admirable analytic faculties, and a refined and cultivated taste. He first took the time and pains necessary to understand the various schools of philosophy-studying, Reid, and the Scotch philosophy at Glasgow, the systems of Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel in Germany, and that of the Eclectic Sehool in France. Thoroughly comprehending them, he has not only fairly presented these systems, but has compared and adjudicated upon them, with the candor of a Christian, and the comprehensiveness and ability of a philosopher. Whether the reader can always sympathize with his own sentiments or not, he will not fail to receive a great benefit from his impartial analyses and his accurate estimates, nor to admire the philanthropic spirit in which both his statements and his criticisms are conceived. The style in which the work is composed, is remarkably pure and beautiful-expressing the thoughts, in the nicest shades, with singular precision, and clothing the dry features of abstract speculations with grace.
Though full of interest and instruction to the student of philosophy, the chief excellence, as well as main design of the work, is the clearness with which it explains the great speculative systems of the age in the language, and to the comprehension of the popular reader. Its publication cannot fail to be useful, and to a large and increasing circle, suffieiently interesting to entitle the enterprise of the publisher to praise. 4. Webster's Dictimary of the English Language, thoroughly rerised, and considerably
enlarged. By Prof. Cuauncey A. Goodrich, of Yale College. Harper & Brothers,
The modifications of Dr. Webster's original work, made by Dr. Goodrich, his sonin-law, as well as the additional matter introduced into this edition, not only enhance its practical value, but will tend to obviate some of the objections which tay against it in the opinions of not a few scholars and literary men. We have not time to specify all these; but we perceive that most of the innovations upon our established orthography proposed in the earlier editions, are here abandoned. All those changes which Dr. Webster made on etymological grounds, are removed; and the most of those made on analogical grounds also. There will now be found but little difference between this system of orthography and the standard methods; and where there is any, the arguments of analogy and reason, as well as advancing usage, are so strongly in their favor, that they will probably carry the day. The removal of objections on this score, leaves the unrivalled excellences of Dr. Webster's dictionary almost without a blemish. In the multiplicity of its words; the clearness, copiousness, and accuracy of its definitions; its reference to the sources of words, and its rational, and on the whole, excellent system of orthoëpy, render Dr. Webster's the greatest and best lexicon of our language extant.
The additions to the present edition are considerable. New words are added, where sustained by reputable usage; and, what is certainly a very great convenience, whether justifiable on lexical principles or not, all the current and important terms in the arts, sciences, and professions, have been incorporated. Prof. Goodrich has had the assistance of his very competent colleagues in Yale College, in almost every department of learning, to assist him in this particular; and the result is that it is one of the most concise and complete technological dictionaries extant At the close of the definition of each principal word, synonyms of the word have been added, which is also a great and peculiar excellence. The work is printed in a clear and open type, and will unquestionably be considered the most complete and ample dictionary in the market. 5. Louis the Fourteenth, and the Court of France in the Seventeenth Century. By Miss
PARDOE. 2 vols. 12mo.: Harper & Brothers.
Though this is but the picture of the in-door life of the period of the Grand Monarque, it comes nearer to the philosophical and complete history of that brilliant era than would be suppased. The springs and sources of the great outward events, with which history busies itself, are here laid open ; and standing at the central point of the very household of the despot, who asserted with as much truth as impudence, I am the State, the whole circle of events are not only perceived, but more accurately comprehended than by a mere study of the events theinselves. The Court of Louis XIV. was France itself; and the radiating point of all the splendor and brilliancy of that most eventful of all the periods of the French history. Miss Pardoe has evidently been in her element, in sketching characters, describing female intrigues and Court gossip; and the spirit and grace with which the narrative is composed adds much to the interest of even these interesting events. Those who would know the real character, as well as the memorable deeds, of this reign, and at the same time be highly entertained with secret histories, private gossip, and personal anecdote, will find Miss Pardoe's work at once full of instruction and interest, and an admirable preparative for graver histories of the same era. The work is published in parts, in a very beautiful style, and illustrated with numerous engravings. 6. A History of Rome, from the earliest times to the Death of Commodus. By Dr.
LEONHARD SCHMITZ, F. R. S. E. W. H. Newman & Co.
This is an edition of a work which we commended in our last issue, and are very willing to commend again, and contains in its preface, a kind of complaint against its predecessor, which we cannot adjudicate upon. We are sure thai if the merits of the work are properly appreciated, both editions will be demanded. So trustworthy and scholarly a work on Roman history has never before been made accessible to the student.
7. The Miscellaneous Works of Henry Mackenzie, Esq. 3d edition. Harper & Bra
So fine an edition of this admirable and graceful writer, the memory of whose gentle touches of feeling, and kindly benevolence, no reader of his can have lost, is entitled to a cordial welcome. It is rarely indeed, that his "Man of Feeling" and “Julia Roubigné," and other sketches, have been excelled in the highest qualities of literary excellence and genuine poesy of feeling.