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confinement in the cell of a prison, obtains his discharge as an act of justice, not of mercy. To offer him pardon, after he has suffered the full penalty, is to insult and wrong, him.
The mercy of God saves us from no punishment in this world, according to universalism. From what then does it save us ?
When the force of this representation is felt, the reply usually is, that we are saved from sin.
There is an important sense in which Christ saves his forgiven people from the power of sin. But this is not what the universalist means, when he says that we are saved from sin. If the phrase " to save us from sin” mean any thing, according to his system, it must mean to save us in such a sense from the power of sin, that we do not become sinners. In this sense Christ does not save us from sin. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves. All sin, and all suffer more or less the consequences of sinning. From what then does the Redeemer save us? We are not saved from future punishment, or from punishment in this life, or from our sins. We are saved—from nothing. Does the alleged clemency of God then expend its vast energies in doing nothing? Does prophecy, from the beginning of time, pour its multiplying and brightening rays upon a stupendous effort of divine mercy that is to prove at last nothing but a splendid bubble? Does the projected scheme of man's redemption kindle the piety and animate the lyres of ancient prophets ? Does it awaken thrilling interest among the heavenly hosts ? Does the Son of God, at length, descend to an expecting world ? Is the tragedy of redemption brought to its mournful close? Is it pronounced that the vast and eventful work is finished ? Does the scene excite the most intense interest among angelic spirits ? Does the triumphant Redeemer ascend again to heaven to receive afresh the praises of the universe—and is this all for nothing ? Are the reiterated promises and the glowing appeals of the New Testament grounded upon nothing? Is the extolled clemency of heaven nothing but an empty name? It is, if universalism be true.
It is justice, not goodness, to enforce rigorously the demands of law. According to the tenets of universalism, there is no remission of sin, no expiatory atonement, no grace, no clemency. If men obey, they are rewarded as an act of justice; if they sin, they expiate their own guilt by enduring the full amount of
punishment. And yet this system claims the merit of showing forth to a surpassing extent, the glory of divine benevolence !
The favorite appeals of the friends of this system might be , retorted upon themselves in greater number. We have restricted ourselves to but three points, the justice, the competency, and the benevolence of God. The length of the article admonishes us to bring these remarks to a close. We shall conclude with expressing the hope that the continued existence and spread of universalism will attract more than they have yet done the attention of the friends of truth, and elicit from them such countervailing exertions as will save our flocks through the divine blessing, from the encroachments of this moral gangrene.
By Rev. Rufus Anderson, D. D., one of the Secretaries of the American Board of Com
missioners for Foreign Missions, Boston.
It is thought by some, that modern missionaries among the heathen give too much attention to schools, and that they do this at the expense of time which ought to be devoted to the preaching of the gospel. There may have been something to justify this opinion in a few of the missions, especially in their earlier stages. In general, however, the impression is probably a mistaken one ; at least in respect to the missions with which I am acquainted. The misapprehension may be owing to two causes. First, in the annual reports of missionary societies, the statistics of education are usually given more in detail and with greater precision and prominence, than those of preaching -a result not easily avoided. Secondly, the precise object of education, as a part of the system of modern missionary operations, appears not to have been generally understood hitherto by the community. Perhaps I ought to add, that its proper object has not always been well understood by the directors of missions. What this object is, will be explained in the sequel.
The proportionate attention given by missionaries to schools, is by no means as great as many seem to suppose. Those who attended the last annual meeting of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, will remember the result of inquiries on this subject there proposed to the Rev. William Richards, of the Sandwich Islands mission. It appeared that not only was the average attendance of natives on preaching, at the fifteen stations of that mission, greater than it is in any one considerable district of our own country, but that the missionaries preached oftener than is here customary among the settled pastors. And in general, the missionaries of that board among the heathen will bear comparison, in respect to the frequency of their preaching, with their more zealous brethren in the pastoral office at hoine. And the same is no doubt true of the missionaries of other societies.
Still it is admitted, that schools constitute a prominent part of the system of modern missions, and that there is no evidence. of their having
formed any part of the missions prosecuted by the apostles. The inquiry therefore is very natural and proper. Why this departure from apostolical usage? To this inquiry the present article is designed to furnish a reply.
Our first object will be to ascertain the extent of territory embraced by the apostolical missions.
The inspired history gives no information that the apostles and their companions extended their personal labors beyond the Roman empire. Fabricius has collected from the New Testament the names of all the places there mentioned, at which they planted churches, some sorty or fifty in number; and also the names of the different countries which they are said to have visited.* These countries were Judea, Syria, Asia Minor, Macedonia, Illyricum, Greece, Italy, and the islands of Cyprus and Crete, with several others of less note. Mesopotamia should probably be added, on the strength of 1 Pet. 5: 13. All the principal districts or provinces of Asia Minor are named in the Acts of the Apostles. The parts of Arabia in which Paul spent several years, are supposed to have been adjacent to Damascus, and within the modern Syria ; and there is no evidence in Scripture that this apostle actually made his contemplated journey into Spain. The whole territory, therefore, traversed by the apostolical missionaries, so far as the Scriptures inform us, was within the Roman empire, and formed but a part of it; and, so far as territory is concerned, but little more than
* Fabricii Lux Evan, exoriens, etc. p. 83.
was afterwards governed by the eastern or Byzantine emperors.*
If we inquire what further light ecclesiastical history throws on this subject, we shall not be able greatly to extend the travels and labors of the apostles. Mosheim gives it as the result of his researches, that "the stories often told respecting their travels among the Gauls, the Britons, the Spaniards, the Germans, the Americans, the Chinese, the Indians, and the Russians, are too recent and fantastic to be received by an inquisitive lover of the truth.” “A great part of these fabulous stories,” he continues, “were got up after the days of Charlemagne; when most of the christian churches contended as vehemently about the antiquity of their origin, as ever the Arcadians, Egyptians and Greeks did.” Dr. Murdock, the American translator of Mosheim, believes—chiefly in view of the authorities quoted by Fabricius—that Peter, after preaching long in Judea and other parts of Syria, probably visited Babylon, Asia Minor, and finally Rome; that Paul, after his captivity, visited Judea, Asia Minor and Greece, and returned to Rome, but did not proceed further westward than Italy; that John, after remaining many years in Judea, removed to Ephesus, where, excepting the time of his banishment to Patmos, he remained till his death ; that James the younger (the elder James was put to death by Herod) spent his life in Judea ; and that Andrew probably labored on the shores of the Black Sea near the modern Constantinople, and perhaps in Greece. “Philip,” he adds, “either the apostle or the evangelist, is reported to have ended his days at Hierapolis, in Phrygia. Thomas seems to have travelled eastward, to Parthia, Media, Persia and India. Bartholomew took perhaps a more southern course, and preached in Arabia. Matthew is also reported to have travelled east, in the Modern Persia. Of Simon the Canaanite, nothing to be relied on can be said. Thaddeus, Lebbeus, or Jude the brother of James, the author of an epistle, is reputed to have preached at Edessa, in the north of Syria. Of the companions of the apostles— Timothy, after accompanying Paul many years, is said to have been stationed at Ephesus, where he suffered martyrdom under Domitian or Nerva. Titus, another companion of Paul, is reported to have been stationed in Crete, where he died. , Mark, or John surnamed Mark, at
The countries mentioned Acts 2:9-11; add Media and Parthia to the above named.
VOL. XII. No. 31.
tended Paul and afterwards Peter, and probably preached the gospel in Egypt. Of Luke, little can be said, except that he accompanied Paul, and wrote the book of Acts and a Gospel. Of Barnabas, nothing can be said worth relating, except what is learned from the New Testament.–From this account, imperfect as it is, we may conclude that the apostles and their companions scarcely extended their labors beyond the boundaries of the present Turkish empire."*
To the countries, then, which are mentioned in the New Testament as favored with the missionary labors of the apostles and their companions, ecclesiastical history adds Egypt, Southern Arabia, Persia, Media, Parthia, and India. But we have nothing that throws light on their manner of proceeding in these countries. For information of this kind, we must look solely to the missions described in the New Testament. These were in Syria, Asia Minor, Macedonia, Greece, Italy, and the islands of Cyprus and Crete. I say Crete, for although we have no account of the labors of the apostle Paul in that island, we have his epistle to Titus, instructing him how to proceed in his mission to the Cretans.—I omit Judea, as being the source of the missions, and not a heathen country.
Our next inquiry relates to the state of education in these countries.
The mere mention of Syria, Asia Minor, Macedonia, Greece and Italy, is enough for the reader of history. What were they in those times but the very foci of civilization ? Where were other countries in the wide world, to be compared with them in this respect? And the time, too, in which the apostolical missions were performed, was it not in the palmy age of Roman literature ? But though the evidence of the high state of general civilization and individual intelligence in those countries at that period, is unquestionable, it is not easy to show precisely what means of education were possessed by the people at large, nor to what extent the multitude was actually educated.
Two events must have exerted a powerful influence on the minds of men and on the tone of education throughout the field traversed by the apostles ;-viz. the general dispersion of the Greeks, with their language and philosophy; and the general dispersion of the Jews, with their inspired books and their religion.
* Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. vol. I. p. 55, 56-Note.