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2.- Probus : or Rome in the Third Century. In Letters from Lucius
M. Piso from Rome, to Fuusta the daughter of Gracchus at
Francis. 1838. 2 vols. 18mo. pp. 257, 250. These volumes, written, as we learn, by the Rev. William Ware, late of New York city, are a continuation, in some sort, of the Letters from Palmyra, briefly noticed in the Repository Vol. XI. p. 502. The latter describe Palmyra and its fortunes under Zenobia, and the victories of Aurelian which resulted in the eclipse of that splendid star in the east. A great variety of interesting information is com. municated touching contemporaneous manners, customs, arts, sciences, religions, etc., invested in a style of finished elegance. In the character of the Jew, Isaac, the Old Testament faith is attempted to be delineated, and in the character of Probus, the persecuted religion of Jesus. In the volumes before us, we recognize the same graphic powers of description, the same accurate knowledge of classical and ecclesiastical affairs, the same lofty spirit, and the same pure and beautiful style. There are some passages of great power, in which the author succeeds in throwing the deepest interest into his narrative. The characters of Macer, Fronto and Aurelian, are drawn with remarkable distinctness and individuality. The unutterable abominations and the horrible cruelties, which were the sport and the every-day business of the Romans in the decline of the empire, are laid bare by this powerful writer. As in the former case, however, so here, we do not recognize the Christianity of the primitive ages. It is not, if we can judge, the religion which beams on every page of the New Testament. At least, some of the main features of this religion are wanting. The doctrine of the divine unity and of the im. mortality of the soul are fully recognized. But we do not see an atoning and divine Saviour. It is “ Jesus of Nazareth,” “a prophet and messenger of God,” “ a great moral and religious reformer, endowed with the wisdom and power of the supreme God," "an example of what should afterwards happen to all his followers,” etc. It is " the great God our Saviour,” “the God over all blessed for. ever,"
;"°" the true God and eternal life,” that animate and dignify the writings of Paul and of John. It was not by any means the doctrines of natural religion which strengthened the first Christian martyrs to meet calmly the pincers, the wheel, the lions, and the axe. It was faith in a crucified and almighty Redeemer, who had washed them from their sins in his own blood, and who had saved them from eternal perdition, which filled their souls with holy serenity when their limbs were torn asunder. The volumes have great literary merit. We are sorry, that we must consider the Christianity devel. oped in them to be fundamentally defective.
* See the Defence which Probus made before Aurelian, Vol. II. pp. 151–
3.-- Journal of the Statistical Society of London. No. II. June, 1838.
pp. 64. No. III. July, 1838. pp. 70. The first article in the June No. of this work is on the statistics of the copper mines in Cornwall, by sir Charles Lemon. Previously to A. D. 1700, the copper ore produced in Cornwall was principally, if not wholly, from the tin mines, or at least from mines originally worked for tin. The number of persons employed in the mines in 1837, is calculated to have been 28,000. Between one third and one half are women and boys. About 60,000 tons of coal are an. nually consumed at the mines. The wages of the people employed in 1837, in the copper mines and in the tin and copper, (so far as the copper is concer
cerned,) were about £416,000. The annual consumption of gunpowder is about 300 tons. The total ores of the county of Cornwall are, on an average, about 128,000 tons. The number of male deaths, between the ages of ten and sixty, in the three great mining parishes, (Gwennah for 18 months, Redruth for 7 years, Illogan for 5 years,) was 452. Of these, 52 were from mine accidents, and 242 from diseases of the chest; the latter caused almost entirely from the effort of ascending from the greatest depths with exhausted strength. Both these causes of mortality are in the process of being removed.
The sixth article is on the mortality of amputation, by B. Phillips F. R. S. The amputations included in the table below, are those of the arm and leg. The whole of them have been performed within the last four years, in civil hospitals, and in the private practice of hospital surgeons. France,
23.15 Germany, 109 26
23.85 United States, 95 24
25.26 Great Britain, 233 53
22.74 640 150 The ninth article contains some statements derived from the an, nual report of the statistical society of Saxony, presented Dec. 22,1837. The Directory of the society collects, arranges, and enters into journals, registers, and other books for this purpose, all accurate information which would be serviceable to the State. The facts are afterwards methodically transferred to separate ledgers, each appropriated to an especial subject; and those of peculiar importance, which present information directly useful to the public, are extracted and laid before the ministers of the government; while those of more general utility receive publicity in the pages of periodicals.
In a subsequent article, we have some very valuable statistics on the subject of intoxication as the source of crime. Between October, 1832, and July, 1837, just 1000 persons were confined in the jail at Preston for felonies. Of these, 455 or 45 per cent. arose from drunkenness directly connected with crime.
The first article in the July No. is on the sickness and mortality among the British troops in the West Indies. The number of white troops employed on the Leeward command during the 20 years
from 1817 to 1836, has varied from 3265 to 5462, the average being 4333. Of this force there died in 20 years, 7869, being about 85 per 1000 of the strength annually, or nearly six times as many as among the same class of troops in Great Britain, where the mortality is 15 per 1000 annually. Some very valuable remarks are made on the healthfulness of different islands. Tobago is the most remarkable for fever, Dominica for diseases of the bowels and the brain, Barbadoes for those of the lungs, Grenada, for those of the liver, while Trinidad is noted for its dropsies.
The second article is on the relative frequency of pulmonary consumption and diseases of the heart in Great Britain, by John Clendinning M. D., a hospital surgeon in London. Out of a lotal of 520 to 530 cases examined, from 170 10 180, or about 33 per cent. were cases of disease of the heart. The doctor is inclined to think that there may be considerable exaggeration in respect to the opinion of the number of deaths by pulmonary consumption.--Among the other important articles in this number are observations on emigration from the United Kingdom, on schools in Massachusetts, on the poorest class in Glasgow, etc.
4.—Meditations on the Last Days of Christ, consisting of ten ser
mons, preached at Constantinople and Odessa. By William G. Schauffler, Missionary of the A. B. C.F. M. Boston: Wil
liam Pierce, 1837. pp. 380. The subjects of these Meditations are, Christ's entrance into Jerusalem; Father, glorify thy name; the great passover; Christ in Gethsemane; capture, arraignment and condemnation of Christ ; behold your king; the scene of Golgotha; the penitent thief on the cross; the burial of Christ; the great morning; the walk to Emmaus; the great evening; Thomas's conversion ; meeting at the sea of Tiberias; meeting of the five hundred brethren ; and the ascen. sion of our Lord.
We ought to ask pardon of our readers for not recommending to them this unassuming volume before. Our attention has been drawn to it by reading a well-written review of it in the Christian Spectator. It came into the world rather as an orphan. He who would naturally have cared for it was several thousand miles off. As for the proof-man, it either had none at all, or a very careless one. Still, all gentle readers will overlook such blemishes for the sake of the golden fruit. The author writes ex corde. He looks upon rhetorical rules as the Turk looks upon the infidel, with orthodox contempt. Blair, Campbell, Jameson and other Scotch worthies, we suppose, he never heard of, or at least, he keeps them at a respecto ful distance. His own cousin-Germans, the methodological, ency. clopaedical race meet with as little quarter at his hands. Now, if all writers had as bright parts as Mr. Schauffer, we should have no objection to the extermination of rhetoric. We would ourselves help to its dethronization, as the coronation people say. But while men are, as they are, Campbell must be re-printed, and we must not let any Peter the Hermit preach up a crusade against the schools.'
All those who love unstudied nature, the outbursts of genuine religious feeling, an unfettered style, graphic delineation, fine religious sensibilities, with no contemptible exegetical talent, will certainly possess themselves of these Meditations. They invest the last days of the Redeemer with a new interest. They lead us back to the Pietists of the Halle school, to the days of Ambrose and Cyprian, or rather to the blessed company who listened to him who spake as never man spake.
5.-Cursory Views of the State of Religion in France, occasioned
by a Journey in 1837. With Thoughts on the means of communicating spiritual good generally. In twelve letters. By John Sheppard, author of Thoughts on Devotion,” etc. London: William Ball, 1838.
148. The very copious correspondence of the New York Observer, the communications of our countryman, the Rev. Robert Baird, and the increasing amount of intercourse between this country and France render the re-publication of such volumes as this of Mr. Sheppard unnecessary. The book is, however, characterized by good sense, and serious practical views. The author seems to have travelled in the less frequented parts of the country, and gives us considerable insight into the habits and feelings of the people of the provinces. The letters are on the subject of irreligion, superstitions, efforts of societies, private endeavors, good tokens, various facilities, aid to societies, hints to travellers, motives and objections, additional arguments, the French confessors, and influence of France. Under the last head, there are some striking remarks on the nature of the influence which is exerted by Frenchmen, and of the importance of its being pervaded by the Spirit of Christ. VOL. XII. No. 32.
6.–First Annual Report of the Morrison Education Society, and
Catalogue of books in its library. Canton: Office of the Chi
nese Repository, 1838. pp. 136. The Constitution of the Morrison Education Society was adopted November 9, 1836. Its object is to improve and promote education in China by schools and other means.
Chinese youth of any age, of either sex, and in or out of China, may be received under the patronage of the Society. The Report contains some highly valuable remarks on the population of the empire, different classes of people, population of males and females, different kinds of schools, number of scholars, age, books, methods of teaching, hours of study, school-rooms, examinations, rewards and punishments, etc. In Nanhae, a large district of Canton, two or three tenths of the people devote their lives entirely to literary pursuits. In other districts, not more than four or five tenths can read; and only one or twc in a hundred are devoted to literary pursuits for life. The number of Chinese females able to read is very small, probably not more than one in a hundred. Among the most opulent people in Canton, a few female schools have been opened. In respect to the number of years spent at school, there is great diversity. The better course of common education occupies the student five, six, or seven years. The rich generally give their sons the advantage of a full course in the study of the classics, with the opportunity, if they wish it, to compete for literary honors. In common schools, the number varies from ten to forty. Various other interesting particulars respecting the Chinese schools are added. The books belonging to the library of the Morrison Education Society amount to 2,310 volumes; the whole were presented to the Society unsolicited. Thomas R. Col. ledge, Esq. gave 685 volumes ; J. R. Reeves, Esq. 655, and John R. Morrison, Esq. 709. The object of the Society is worthy of all encouragement, and it seems to be prosecuted with praiseworthy energy:
7.- Assemblée Générale de la Société Evangélique de Genéve.
Sixième Anniversaire. Genéve, 1837. The president of this society is M. Henri Tronchin de Lavigny. The Secretary is M. Ch. Gautier-Boissier. The treasurer is M. A. G. Vieusseux. The professors of the theological school are MM. A. G. L. Galland, S. R. L. Gaussen, and H. Merle-d'Aubigne. The objects of the society, and which were supported by its funds last year, are the theological school at Geneva, home and foreign missions, the system of colportage, religious libraries, tracts, sacred music, construction of chapels in the departments of the Saône and Loire, etc. Towards all these objects, there were contributed