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tioned. The women generally engage in the wool and fax, leaving the ruder trades to the men. One trade is generally followed by father and son, their inclinations often agreeing. But if any man's genius pointeth another way, he is adopted into a family professing the trade he prefers, and care is taken by his father and by the magistrate that his master be a proper person. If, when one hath learned a certain trade, he desire to acquire another, that is also allowed, and is managed as before. And when he hath learned both, he follows that which he prefers, unless the public, hath more occasion for one than the other.

The chief and almost only business of the syphogrants, is to take care that no man liveth idly, but that every one followeth his trade diligently. Yet they exhaust not themselves with perpetual toil from morning to night, as if they were beasts of burden ; which is indeed a heavy slavery, yet the common course of life among all mechanics save the Utopians. But, dividing the day and night into twentyfour hours, they appoint six for work, three before and three after dinner. They then sup, and at eight o'clock, reckoning from noon, they go to bed and sleep eight hours. The rest of his time is left to every man's discretion. Yet they are not to dissipate the interval in luxury and idleness, but must employ it in some proper exercise, according to their various inclinations, which is generally reading..

They have public lectures every morning before day

break. None are obliged to attend, except those who are appointed to literary professions; yet many women as well as men go to hear lectures of one sort or other, according to their inclinations. If others, not formed for contemplation, prefer employing themselves at that time in their trades, as many of them do, they are not hindered, but are commended as subjects desirous of serving their country.

After supper, they spend an hour in some diversion, in summer in the garden, and in winter in their halls, entertaining each other with music or discourse. They have no idea of dice, or of any foolish and mischievous game. They have, however, two games not unlike our chess. The one, a battle of numbers, in which number consumes number. The other, a contest between the virtues and vices, in which the discord among the vices themselves and their union against virtue is not unpleasantly represented ; together with the particular opposition between certain virtues and vices, and the methods in which vice openly assaults, or secretly undermines virtue, and virtue resists.

The time appointed for labour must be narrowly examined, or, as you may conceive, since only six hours are ap- . propriated thereto, a scarcity of the necessaries of life might ensue. But this time is so far from being insufficient for supplying them with necessaries and conveniencies, that part of it is superfluous, as you may apprehend by considering how large a proportion of all other nations is total. ly idle. Vol. II.

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In the first place, women generally do little, and they are half of mankind ; and if a few women be diligent, their husbands are idle. Then consider the great number of idle priests, and what are called religious persons. Add to these the rich, those chiefly who have landed property, called noblemen and gentlemen, with their families of idle persons, kept for show rather than use. Then add those strong and lusty beggars who go about pretending disease in extenuation of begging. On the whole, you will find that the number of those, by whose labour mankind is supplied, is much smaller than you imagine.

Next, consider how few of those who work are employed in labours of real utility. For we, who measure all things by money, give rise to many trades which are vain and superfluous, and which serve only to support riot and luxury. If the labouring part of mankind were employed only on the necessaries of life, these would so abound, that their price would fall, and the tradesman could not be maintained. But if all they who labour in useless avocations were more profitably employed, and all they who languish out their lives in idleness and sloth (each of whom consumeth as much as two of the laborious), were compelled to labour, you may readily conceive, that little time would accomplish all that is necessary, profitable, or agreeable to mankind, especially while pleasure is kept within due bounds.

This is proved in Utopia. For there, in a large city, and in all the territory about it, you can scarcely find 500 either men or women, who, from their age and strength, are capable of labour, and are not engaged in it. The very syphogrants, though excused by law, excuse not themselves, but work that their example may incite the industry of the rest. A similar exemption is allowed to those who are recommended to the people by the priests, and privi. leged from labour by the private suffrages of the syphogrants, that they may devote themselves wholly to study. But if any of them fall short of the hopes they seemed to give, they are obliged to return to manual labour. And sometimes a mechanic, who so employs his leisure as to advance considerably in learning, is raised to the rank of one of their learned. From these they choose their ambassadors, priests, tranibors, and the prince himself, formerly called their Barzanes, but of late their Ademus.

Thus, from the number among them who are neither suffered to be idle nor to be uselessly employed, you may estimate how much may be done in their few hours of labour. But beside this, we are to remember that the useful arts are managed with less labour among them than elsewhere. The building or repair of houses employeth many hands with us. For a thriftless heir often suffers the house bis father built to fall into decay, and his successor is at great cost to repair what might have been kept up at small expence. It often happens too, that the house which one person built at a great expence, is neglected by another who thinks he hath better taste in architecture, and, let. In the first place, women generally do little, and they are half of mankind; and if a few women be diligent, their husbands are idle. Then consider the great number of idle priests, and what are called religious persons. Add to these the rich, those chiefly who have landed property, called noblemen and gentlemen, with their families of idle persons, kept for show rather than use. Then add those strong and lusty beggars who go about pretending disease in extenuation of begging. On the whole, you will find that the number of those, by whose labour mankind is supplied, is much smaller than you imagine.

Next, consider how few of those who work are employed in labours of real utility. For we, who measure all things by money, give rise to many trades which are vain and superfluous, and which serve only to support riot and luxury. If the labouring part of mankind were employed only on the necessaries of life, these would so abound, that their price would fall, and the tradesman could not be maintained. But if all they who labour in useless avocations were more profitably employed, and all they who languish out their lives in idleness and sloth (each of whom consumeth as much as two of the laborious), were compelled to labour, you may readily conceive, that little time would accomplish all that is necessary, profitable, or agreeable to mankind, especially while pleasure is kept within due bounds.

This is proved in Utopia. For there, in a large city, and

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