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well built. Their laws, manners, and customs, are the same, and they resemble each other as nearly as the ground they stand on will allow. The nearest to each other are at least 24 miles asunder; and the most remote, not above a day's journey on foot. Every city sendeth three of her wisest senators ouce a-year to Amaurot (the capital of the island, and situate in the center), to consult on their common interests. The jurisdiction of every city extendeth at least 20 miles, and farther where they lie wider asunder. No one desireth to enlarge her boundary, for the people consider themselves in the light of good husbands, rather than owners, of their lands.
They have built farm-houses over the whole country, which are well contrived and furnished with every necessary. Inhabitants for them are sent in rotation from the cities. No family in the country hath fewer than forty men and women in it, beside two slaves. A master and mistress preside over every family, and over thirty families a magistrate. Every year twenty of the family return to town after having been two years in the country, and in their place other twenty are sent to learn country business of those who have been there only one year, and must, in their turn, teach the next comers. Thus, those who live on the farms are never ignorant of agriculture, and commit no fatal errors, such as causing a scarcity of corn.
But, notwithstanding these yearly changes, to prevent any from being compelled against inclination to follow that
hard course of life too long, many of them take such pleasure in it, that they ask leave to continue therein many years. These husbandmen till the ground, breed cattle, hew wood, and send it to the towns by land or water, as is most convenient. They breed an infinity of chickens in a very curious manner. They are not hatched by hens, but a vast number of eggs are hatched together by means of an equable artificial warmth ; and no sooner do the young quit the shell, than they consider their feeder as their dam, and follow man as other chickens do the hen.
They breed few horses, but those they have are high-mettled, and employed in exercising their youth in horsemanship. In the cart and plough they use oxen. For, though their horses be stronger, they find their oxen more patient of labour, subject to fewer disorders, and maintained at less charge and trouble; and when no longer fit for labour, they are good meat at last. .
They sow no more. corn than they want for their bread, for they drink wine, cider, or perry, and often water, sometimes boiled with honey or liquorice, in which they abound. And though they know exactly how much corn every city and the tract belonging to it require, they sow much more, and breed more cattle than are necessary for their consumption, giving the overplus to their neighbours. When they want any thing in the country which it doth not pro'duce, they fetch it from the city without carrying any thing in exchange, and the city magistrates take care to see them
supplied. At harvest time, the country magistrates inform those in the city how many reapers they want, which number being supplied, they commonly dispatch the work in a day. He who knows one of their towns, knows them all, they are so much alike unless their situations differ. I will therefore describe one of them; and none is so proper as Amaurot: for all the rest yield to it in precedence (it being the seat of supreme council), and I have lived in it five years.
It lieth on the side of a hill, or rather a rising ground. Its figure is nearly a square. For one side, which beginneth a little below the top of the hill, runneth two miles, until it come to the river Anider; but the side which runneth along the bank of that river is a little broader. The Anider riseth about 80 miles above the city, in a small spring, but is afterward joined by other streams, of which two are more considerable than the rest. At Amaurot it is half a mile broad, but still increases, till, after a course of 60 miles below it, it loses itself in the ocean. Between the town and the sea, and for some miles above the town, it ebbs and flows every six hours with a strong current. The tide cometh up so full for about 30 miles, that the water is salt, and some miles above that it is brackish ; but a little higher, as it runneth past the town, it is quite fresh, and at the ebb it continueth fresh to the sea.
A stone bridge is thrown over the river, consisting of many stately arches. It is situate at the part of the town which
is farthest from the sea, that ships may lie along side of the town. There is also another pleasant small river, rising in the same hill on which the town standeth, which runs down through it and falls into Anider. The inhabitants have fortified the fountain-head of this river (which springeth a little without the town), that if they be besieged, the enemy may not be able to stop, divert, or poison the water. It is carried thence in earthen pipes to the lower streets. And for those parts of the town to which this water cannot be conveyed, they have large cisterns for receiving rain water, which supplieth its place.
The city is compassed with a high thick wall, in which are many forts and towers. A broad and deep dry ditch, set thickly with thorns, guardeth three sides of it, and the river the fourth. The streets are conveniently contrived for carriages, and are well sheltered from the winds. Their buildings are good, and so uniform, that the side of a street looketh like one large house. The streets are twenty feet broad. Behind every house is a garden, large, but inclosed by buildings, which face the back part of the street; and every house hath a door to the street and a back door to the garden. They use folding doors, which open with the utmost ease, and shut themselves; and there being no property among them, any person may enter wherever he pleases—they change their very houses by lot every ten years.
They cultivate their gardens with much care, and have
vines, fruits, herbs, and flowers. All is so well ordered and so finely kept, that I never saw gardens so uniting beauty with fertility. This cometh, not only from the pleasure their gardens afford them, but also from an emulation among the inhabitants of different streets, who vie with each other. Nothing belonging to the town is more usetul and pleasant, and the founder of the city seems to have had a particular eye to these gardens.
Report saith, the first design of the town was by L'topus. But he left ornament and improvement to his successors, that being more than one man could accomplish. The records of the town and state are preserved with great care, and extend 1760 years backward. By these it appears, that their houses were at first low and mean, like cottages, with mud walls, any kind of limber, and thatched with straw. At present their houses are three storys high, faced with stone, plaster, or brick, and in the intervals is thrown the rubbish. Their roofs are flat, and they lay on them a kind of cheap plaster, which will not take fire, yet resists weather better than lead. Abounding in glass, they glaze their windows; and use also a thin linen cloth, so oiled or gummed, that it excludes wind while it freely admits light.
Thirty families choose yearly a magistrate, who was formerly called the syphogrant, but now the philarch. Over every ten syphogrants, with these their families each, is an. other magistrate, formerly called tranibor, now protophi