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in the varying tints of sunset. We hear which has its true inner meaning as a the scream of the eagles that still nest in source of impressiveness more strikingly these inaccessible crags ; the hoarse out- revealed, or which bas its ordinary intercry of the heron comes up from the lake ; est more vividly intensified by the light the wbirr of the blackcock re-echoes down which geological history throws upon it. the hill-side. It might seem as if we The most cursory traveller, even as he were here out of sight and hearing of drives rapidly along this valley, can hardly man, save that now and then the low of fail to observe that three distinct rocks cattle, driven home to their stalls, falls enter into the composition of the landfaintly on the ear from the distant hamlet, scape, each differing from the others in which is fading into the gathering twilight form, color, and relative position, and of the glen.
each contributing its own characteristic At such a time and in such a scene the features to the scenery. First of all a past speaks vividly to us, if there be hu- series of curiously hummocky eminences man associations of a bygone time linked of dark gray rock mounts from the edge with the place. Here, in this remote of the lake up the sides of Slioch, formHighland valley, we are led backward in ing a kind of rude and rugged platform imagination through generations of strife on which that mountain stands. Next and rapine, clan warfare and private re- comes a pile of brownish-red sandstone, venge, bravery and treachery, superstition which in parallel and almost horizontal and ignorance, far away to that early time bars, like so many courses of cyclopean when, in the seventh century, Maelrubba, masonry, forms the upper and main mass the red priest from Ireland, preached to of the height. And lastly, there is the the savage Picts, and first brought this bedded white rock which, hanging upon region within the ken of civilized men. the flanks of the red sandstone, lowers in More than twelve hundred years have since the cliffs of Craig Roy on the one side of passed away, but the memory of that early the valley and builds up almost the whole niissionary still lives here among the soli- of Ben Eay on the other side. The differtudes which he chose as the scene of his ences and contrasts between these three labors. The lake yet bears his name, and kinds of material are so marked, and have his favorite island of retirement, embow- obviously played so essential a part in proered in holly, mountain ash, and honey. ducing the special peculiarities of the suckle, contains his holy well, which, even rocky landscape, that even our literary to this day, is visited for the cure of dis- censor himself could hardly, in spite of eases, while offerings are there made to the himself, fail to note them and might vensaint.
ture to ask a question about them. It is just this little touch of “ the still, To answer his question as it might best sad music of humanity” which is needed be answered would be most briefly and to crown the interest and dignity of our vividly done by a true poet. I can only Highland landscape. “What more, then, pretend to present the mere facts, but can we need or desire ?” our literary critic even such a presentation in the driest and may once more demand ;
you may go baldest way cannot conceal their inberent on to elaborate the details of the scene, marvellous interest. for every part of the picture abounds in Those
bosses of rock that rise out the most exquisite detail, beyond the pow- of Loch Maree and form the base and er of pen or almost of pencil adequately outworks of Slioch are portions of the to portray. But what can science do very oldest known land-surface of Europe, here, except to mar wbat already is per- as incalculably inore ancient than the rest fect, or to confuse by contributing what of the Highlands, as the Highlands in is entirely irrelevant ?
turn are more ancient than the Alps or Again I feel the force of the objection, the Apennines. Their heights and holand all the more because to combat it as lows existed before the red sandstones were I should wish to do, would involve me in laid down. To this day, you can walk geological details which would here be along the shore-line of the vanished lake wholly out of place. Let me say, briefly or sea in which these sandstones accumuand decidedly, that after many years of lated, and can mark how hill after bill, experience in every variety of landscape and valley after valley, sank under its in this country, I know nowhere a scene waters, and were buried beneath its quietly
gathering sand and shingle. That pri- into such close and vivid union that while meral land surface, slowly settling down, we gaze at the landscape as it stands now, came at last to lie under several thousand its features seem to melt away into visions feet of such sediinent. Long subsequent- of what it has once been. We can in imly, after the sand, hardened into sandstone agination clothe it with its ancient pineand the gravel, consolidated into con- forests through which the early Celtic glomerate, had been partially raised out colonists hunted the urus, the wild boar, of water, came the time when the white the wolf, the brown bear, and the reinrock of Ben Eay and Craig Roy gathered deer. We can fill up the valley with the as fine white sand on the sea-bottom. stately glacier which once stretched along Some beds of this compacted sand are its hollow and went out to sea. filled with millions of the burrows of sea- dimly conceive the passage of the long worins that lived in it, and higher up come ages of persistent decay by which mounbands of limestone crowded here and there tain and glen, corny and cliff were carved with trilobites, shells, corals, sponges and into the forms wbich now so delight our other organisms belonging to an age an- eye. terior to that of even the very oldest fos
In a memorable and often quoted pas. siliferous rocks of most of the rest of sage, Johnson wrote, “ To abstract the Britaip. These sheets of marine sediment mind from all local emotion would be impoint to a period when there were no hills possible, if it were endeavored, and would in northwest Scotland, for the primeval be foolish if it were possible. Whatever heights still lay deeply buried, and a withdraws us from the power of our senses, shcreless sea spread far and wide over the whatever makes the past, the distant, or region.
the future predominate over the present, At length after a vast interval of time advances us in the dignity of thinking came an epoch of gigantic terrestrial dis- beings."* If this be a just judgment, turbance, when northwestern Europe, surely we may finther maintain that whatfrom the North Cape to the south of Ire- ever heightens our interest in the landland, was convulsed ; when the solid crust scapes around us, whatever quickeps the of the earth was folded, crumpled, and imagination by presenting new views of fractured, until its shattered rocks, crushed what has long been familiar, whatever and kneaded together, acquired the crys- deepens our reverence by teaching us to talline characters which they now display. recognize the proofs of that long orderly In the course of these tremendous dis- progress through which the land has been placements (to which there is no parallel fashioned for our use, not only raises us in the later geological history of this coun- in the dignity of thinking beings but stimtry) huge slices of the earth's crust, many ulates the emotional side of our nature and hundreds of feet thick and many iniles furnishes abundant material for the exerlung, were wrenched asunder and pushed cise of the literary and artistic faculties. hodily westward, sometimes for a distance Science even in her noblest inspirations, of ten miles. By this means portions of is never poetry, but she offers thoughts of the oldest rocks of the region were torn man and Nature which the poet, in the off and planted on the top of the young- alernbic of bis genius, may transmute into est. The whole country thus broken up purest poetic gold. underwent many subsequent mutations But we have lingered by the side of this and was finally left to be gradually worn northern lake, with its noble curtain of down by the various agents that have mountains, and the sun meanwhile has carved the surface of the land into its sunk in a glory of flame beneath the faint present shape.
ontline of the Hebrides ; the last tlusb of Our three groups of rock, so distinctly crimson has faded from the sky and the marked out in the landscape, thus record twilight is deepening into night adown the three successive and early chapters in the valley. In leaving the scene, if I have long history by which the topography of succeeded in showing how we have it in the Scottish Highlands has been brought our own power to quicken the influence into its existing form. Knowing wbat is of scenery on the imagination, we may I their story, we find that every crag and trust take with us the full conviction that scar acquires a new meaning and interest. Past and present are once more brought
* Tour in the Hebrides, p. 346.
there is no landscape so fair which may abroad, we are gifted, as it were, with an not be endued with fresh interest if the added sense and an increased power of light of scientific discovery be allowed gathering some of the purest enjoyment to fall upon it. Bearing this light with which the face of Nature can yield.us in our wanderings, whether at home or Fortnightly Review.
THE PEDIGREE OF THE MUSIC-HALL.
BY ELIZABETH ROBINS PENNELL.
Of late the degeneracy of the English gramine and freedom for the audience. Drama has been a good deal talked about In the castle-ball, at evening, when the
papers and reviews. It has been made tuns of mead were broached and the hords the text for miles of copy,” both clever filled and borne round by young maidens, and doll. Some ascribe the evil to the and men ate and drank and were merry, pernicious influence of Ibsenism ; others, then the minstrels came and sang their to the iniquity of the actor-manager : all ballads, acrobats tumbled and wrestled, agree there is reason to lament.
dancers twirled and pironetted, jugglers But if the Drama be “in the dol. threw balls and swallowed swords, trained drums, on the other hand the Variety beasts
beasts were pnt through their paces. Entertainment has triumphed. Theatres Then, as now, the audience were free to may close their doors in despair, but go and come ; likely enough, free to keep music-halls multiply and pay bigger divi- on their hats or helmets, if they chose; dends as their numbers increase. Rumor to join in the chorus, to throw things at may whisper low of the bankrupt hopes the performer who failed to please. But and finances of the once prosperous actor, it is the very essence of our inodern musicbut personal paragraphs proclaim aloud ball that it shall not bore ; to avoid monotthe princely income of the newest artiste. ony—the unpardonable sin—the system of And the minor poet with a mission turns, ” each short, and one following preaches Beauty in the Ballet and Salva- the other without delay, has been devised. iion in the Skit Dance ; and the Lion Now, already in feudal days, the idea of Comiqne, interviewed, declares the Mil- "tums" bad been developed : the minJennium come, now that even aristocratic strel gave place to the acrobat, the acrobat ladies crowd to hear him, or exbibit him, to the dancer, ibe dancer to the clever in their homes, as the latest rival to the dog. But where the modern artiste jumps notorious painter or the literary swell— into his brougham, and rolls over asphalt nor does ever song of his bring a blush to or wood, from the Paragon to the Pavilnoble cheek; and youthful royalty sits en- ion, from the Met. to the Middlesex, the tranced through an Aquarium programme ; old favorite trainped it over execrable and he who does not know what a music- roads, from Surrey hills to Lincoln fens, ball is like is scored as a “jolly old jug- from Norfolk broads to Lancashire Jakes. gins," with the Dook of Mr. Anstey's The former calculates to a minute the time
Little Crossing-Sweeper." For if legit- of his arrival; the latter risked being imate Drama be dead in England, the days, and weeks, and months late. In reign of Tit Bits has been inaugurated on bad seasons the comic singer may bare the stage as in literature, and, at last, the sung from Lady Day to Michaelmas, the theatrical ideals of the great English pub- juggler thrown his balls from Michaelmas lic have been adequately realized.
to Lady Day again. An effort was made Before the first Miracle Play had been to mend matters. Acrobats and minstiels invented, the people of England had clam- travelled together, an innovation which ored for the variety entertainment, and M. Jusserand thinks the beginning of the been given it. There was not a castle end of minstrelsy, but which was really throughout the land that had not its own the beginning of the triumph of the varispecial London Pavilion or Alhambra in etr entertainment. miniature. The two main characteristics There was then no paternal County of the modern hall are variety in the pro- Council ; but there was a Church. The faithful loved songs and tales and specta- startling as the acrobatic death of Paul cles : why, asked the priest, why should Martinetti. Mind and Will, Knowledge not Christ and saiots and angels make a and Science, might grow dull beyond en. sacred pageant, why not recite stories of durance, but the Fool was at hand, with Holy Writ, sing hymns for ballads? his “bunch of ballets and songs all an. Why not elevate the masses by exchang- cient.” And when Circumspection could ing the frivolity of
not restrain Perseverance on the road to " Maie games and maskes with mirthe and boredom, Fancy and Folly could crack minstrelsie,
their joke about a flea with as pretty a Pageants and school-feastes, beares and pup. wit as any White-eyed Kaffir. The moral pet plaies,"
play might have been omitted, and a prefor the solemnity of the Mysteries ? But sentable music-hall programme would have he bad not reckoned with the full force still remained. of the people's love for the old amuse
The wheel of fasbion, or cultme, or ment; he had not gauged the depth to civilization, turned again, and the Moraliwbich it had sunk its roots into the na- ties went the way of the Mysteries. At tional life. No sooner bad he offered his last it dawned upon the dramatist that it substitute than he was compelled to com- was not the only object of a play to inpromise. If he would retain his audience struct or edify, and the artist succeeded in gloomy church or gloomier graveyard, the priest and the moralist. It was now he, too, bad to cater for them with vari- not so simple a matter to compromise. eties. When his stage version of Cain's Art is a more inexorable mistress than recrime and punishment palled upon the ligion or ethics. At first there were conplaygoers, be summoned the minstrel to cessions ; the Devil and Vice disappeared, relieve its tediousness, even as Marie Lloyd but the Fool survived to jest and tumble might be invited to sing her“ O Mr. Por- and sing. The interlude, the jig at the ter” between the acts of “ The Master end of the piece, forerunners of the triple Builder.” When the tyranny of Herod bill, were additional allowances made 10 got upon the people's nerves, in came a
meet the public taste. The genius of boy with a bladder to buffet him, as Mr. Elizabethan dramatists might not soar to Irving's “King Lear" might be spurred Jonesian heights, where ** art-pleasure” into intelligibility by the antics of the and “ ainusement pleasure" become irieTwo Macs. If the virtues of Queen Hes- concilable. But they were artists, to ter grew intolerable, Hardy-Dardy stepped whom the medley of Mysteries and Moin to "stoppe the gappe," a suggestion alities was impossible. The earlier bufthat inight prove useful to Mr. Beerbohm foonery of the Fool developed into the Tree. And, at all times, and in all places, connedy of Dogberry and Verges, of there was Satan, the fool, to do an Touchstone and of Puck ; the inconsetra turn."
The miracle play was trans- quent interlude giew into the play within formed into the variety show against which the play, as in “ A Midsummer Night's its existence, at first, had been a protest. Dreau," and Hamlet.”
The Mysteries went out of fashion, and The drama freed itself of tbe old elethe Moralities became the thing. Angels ments of variety, but, at the same time, and saints gave way to Virtues and Vices. the variety show was emancipated from But the element of variety survived un
its dramatic fetters. Heretofore the peochanged. Reason and Innocence might ple bad been compelled to enjoy drama be as prosy as Christ and the Virgin, but and varieties together ; now they revelled the Devil, at the head of his seven deadly in each separately. One night they wept sins, or Vice,
King Lear” or “ Oihello" at the “ In his long coat, shaking his wooden dag- baiting, fencing-matches, puppet playe,
Globe, the next they chuckled over bearger,"
and interludes at Paris Garden ; much as could convulse the audience with jests as Londoners now divide their emotions berare as those of the "
very peculiar Ameri- tween the Lyceum and the Pavilion. And can comedian," with buffoonery as wild the music-hall programme, to-day the as the pranks of the Blondin donkey, or, monopoly of the multitude, was then the when the Devil carried Vice over his relaxation of royalty. Leicester, welcomshoulders to Hell, with gymnastics as ing Elizabeth to Kenilworth, was but the
Sir Augustus Harris of his generation. difficult to follow. It was in the latest And, as now ’Arry in the pit, Tommy stages of its development, before its final Atkins in the gallery, and gilded Johnny triumph, that it found the greatest numin the stalls, join in popular chorus, so, ber of asylums. It took refuge not only at the old court pageants or varieties, in the royal playhouses, but in the caves kings and princes, nights and ladies, when of harmony of Colonel Newcome's day, the dancing “turn” began, performed the coal holes of Mr. Fardell's tender their own pas de quatre.
memories, the stage of the Poses PlasDuring the Commonwealth, the legiti- tiques, where the Empire now stands, the mate stage succumbed before the Puritan, circus ring from which it has not yet been but the variety entertainment, with the banished, the public-house saloon which,
turns”' long since out of date, and with already in George II.'s time, had taken that scattering of its component parts out its license for the purpose. It is small which would be intolerable to the modern wonder that Mr. Hollingshead had no man, defied the preacher, as it had already sooner informed the Commission that the challenged the artist, to do his worst. variety entertainment came from the patWhy, asked the actors, in the famous ent theatres than he explained that from “Remonstrance,” why are we beggared taverns sprang the music-hall. The truth and dishonored when“ other recreations is, such" close competition had arisen of farre more harmfull consequences are among providers of public amusement that permitted still to stand, viz., that nurse all, saloon-keepers and theatre-managers of barbarism and beastliness"—the variety alike, sought to draw the public by addshow then in vogue ? All else might ing varieties to their entertainment. The perish, but not the music hall of the day. immediate consequence was the destruc
After the Restoration, the people flocked tive division of variety talent. But the back to the theatre with appetite sharpened evil righted itself. Forces were gradually by long unwilling abstinence. But the concentrated and programmes lengthened. fury of the reaction could not sweep away
Where there was greatest variety the the drama's more vigorous rival. The largest audience assembled, until the mugayest comedy had to vie with puppets sic-ball was evolved. It sprang neither and acrobats ; from the King's Servants, from patent theatre nor tavern, from coaland the Duke's Company iu Drury Lane hole nor cave of harmony ; it was simply and Dorset Gardens, the crowds hurried the supreme development, on a stage of to the dancers and mountebanks in Lin- its own, of that ever popular form of encoln's Inn Fields.
tertainment wbich for a while had made The Restoration comedy began to lan- its home in each. guish ; the variety entertainment was as This was some twenty or thirty years fresh as if born but yesterday. It was ago. But even to-day there is doubt as again everywhere, as in Elizabethan days. to what really constitutes a music-ball. If Now it made its headquarters at Sadler's the Pavilion, the Gaiety Restaurant, Wil. Wells, where the tumbling and dancing lis's Rooms flourish under the same license, on wires sent many a Winifred Jenkins confusion is inevitable. For all practical into fils ; now it was so scattered that purposes, however, the music-hall means Spectator's friend proposed one great the headquarters of the variety entertainwhole which would embrace “ all the re- ment-only that, and nothing more. The markable shows about town.' Even fact that smoking is allowed in the musicthe legitimate drama, though housed at hall, while pipe or cigarette must not be Drury Lane and Covent Garden, was not lit in the auditoriuin of the theatre, is sugsecure against encroachments. There gested as its special distinction. But the were tight-rope dancers at the one and Varieties at Hoxton, with its two pertrick elephants at the other, and a hundred formances every evening, the Gaiety, with compromises besides. Indeed, Mr. John its songs and dances, are the most popuHollingshead was not far wrong when he lar variety entertainments in the East and assured the Commission that our variety West of London, and yet both have but entertainment originated in the patent the theatre license, which probibits smoktheatres.
ing. This whole smoke and drink quesWithin the last hundred years, the tion is strangely subtle. There are plays, progress of the variety entertainment is like “ The Bells,” that call for endless