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that race bas produced the greatest accu- been received, as if they were in some mulators of money, and also, no doubt, sense a vindication of Christianity. Of the greatest musicians, in Europe ; but of course, they are a vindication of Chrisintellectual and spiritual idi alism, and tianity from the coarse attacks of those especially of anything like the sentimen- who regarded Christ and his followers as tal idealisin of which the French nation a group of impostors. But that is so inand M. Renan are the great representa- trinsically absurd a view that it never tives, there has hardly been a trace. And could have endured carefal criticism, or even so far as the Jews were the deposi- even any rational handling. Of course, taries of a religious revelation, they were too, M. Renan was himself enamored of the most realistic of religious teachers. his own picture of our Lord, and was deTheir faith in a divine will, in a divine lighted with himself for making so graomnipotence, and a divine providence, cious and tender a miniature of that bewas immutable ; but it never even oc- nignant countenance. But it was a minia. curred to them that this was a subjective ture with the most characteristic lines careconviction which depended upon an im. fully effaced. It was a Frenchified counaginative temperament or a poetical fancy tenance with manifold signs of weakness of their own.
The chief characterisiic of as well as tenderness in it, with a genius the Hebrew teaching from Abraham to for self-deception written in the wavering Christ was profound belief in the “core- expression of the eyes, and inability to renant'' of God with their race. You could sist the pressure of others betraying itself hardly find a less subjective word than in all the lines about the mouth. " covenant” to express that the initiative not the likeness of him who, when told was divine, and that nothing but the con- that he should not suffer shame and death, sent and submission of man was required said to his most loyal and devoted followto fulfil its conditions. Even the rite of er,“ Get thee behind me, Satan : thou circumcision which sealed the covenant, art an offence unto nie ; for thou savorest scems to have been carefully chosen to not the things that be of God, but those separate it from any sentimental or ideal that be of men.” It was not the likeness origin. Nothing can be more evident of him who, when struck by the officer of than that all the aspects of the Jewish the high priest, said calmly, “ If I have revelation were distasteful to M. Renan. done evil, bear witness of the evil ; but if He was eager to evaporate this carnal and well, why sinitest thon me ?" It was not objective character of the Jewish revela- the likeness of him who, when invited 10 tion, and to dissipate it in clouds of French make some statement that might warrant sentiment. He delighted, most of all, in his release, quietly told his Roman judge contrasting what he regarded as the genius that he couli have no power against him of Jesus Christ with the hard genius of “except it were given him from above," the Semitic literature, and in ignoring, and kept the silence wbich he knew that what he certainly did ignore, that Jesus it would be mere weakness to break. M. Christ founded his teaching entirely on Renan's miniature was painted to please the great and solid substance of the Jew. the sentimental sceptics who rejected a ish revelation, though he softened and re- master and a saviour, but were perfectly Sned and irradiated it with the tenderer willing and even pleased to acknowledge and happier spirit of a divine bumanity. with effusion one whose weaknesses and M. Renan, in endeavoring to reduce Chris- evasions of the strict truth seemed to tianity to a human sentiment, has been make him in a sense their comiade. The compelled to eradicate its very essence-- astonishing thing to me is that French the steady recognition that the whole dıift culture should find in M. Renan's critiof the teaching which led up to it, and cisms anything that could by any stretch the teaching which it embodied, was re- of imagination be called even a remnant ceived directly from above, and only hum- or vestige of the Christian faith. It tried bly accepted by the race to which espe- to reduce Christianity from a revelation to cially its propagation was for a time con- an aspiration, from that which controls fided.
and binds and rescues man, to the vain Perhaps the most puzzling feature of sigh of an overburdened heart. In the M. Renan's popularity in France is the place of a saviour it places one who himself eagerness with which his criticisms have needed to be saved from illusions, from
insincerities, from his own weakness. I private romance of the infinite" was excannot belp thinking that even a Chris- tremely pliant to the sins to which French tianity against which the nations rage and society is most lenient. His otherwise the people iinagine a vain thing, is more charming reminiscences of youth are Jikely to conquer those who denounce it blotted with laxity of expression on subthan a Christianity which has become the jects of this kind, and, indeed, the whole subject of sentimental patronage and sci- drift of his criticisms goes to show that entific condescension. The French peo- be attached no more authority of any kind ple, no more than any other people, can to Christian ethics than he attached to get any good out of a religion which, like Christian faith and hope.
He thought music or poetry or art, merely expresses Christ's a nature of rare beauty, wbich themselves, their weakness as well as their contact with practical life to some extent strength, their lassitude as well as their sullied and spoiled ; he thought Chrisfortitude, their capricious desires as well tianity a very mucb diluted and perverted as their faithfulness and constancy. It is product of the teaching of Christ. He to govern and subdue us to the severe iaught Frencbmen to admire and ignore it purity, the strenuous purpose, the un- much as they might have admired and shrinking love of a nature infinitely higher ignored mediæral chivalry or the stoic than our own, that religious truth is re- piety of Marcus Aurelius. In other words, vealed to us ; and nothing that is as pliant he taught them that Christianity was not as wax to the will and wantonness of hu- a revelation, but a sigh from the heart of man nature, can possibly stand in the Sighs from the beait of man do place of a religion. M. Renan has him- not change man ; they leave him to sigh self shown us, by various remarks excus. on, or else to drown sighs in the burry of ing wbat Matthew Arnold called the “lu- more absorbing and impetuous interests. bricity" of French sentiment, that his National Review.
HORACE, BOOK III., ODE 11.
BY SIR STEPHEN E. DE VERE.
Mercury, by whose magic song
Uphecded once, or mute,
Ixion's self forgot his toil,
The Danaids stood beside their empty urn
Sing ye to Lydè ! Bid her know
Tell ber that torments sure, though late,
Impious! they dared to stain
Amid the faithless inany, one,
Worthy the puptial torch, betrayed
Nobly untrue, & glorious maid,
By hand of mine thou shalt not die,
father load with chains,
Stern parent to a weeping bride
The conservation of energy and the mal and the vegetable world. The carbon economy of natural effects are very ap- absorbed as animal food is oxidized. parent in the boundaries between the ani- Then it is evolved from the lungs as carbon dioxide, and is in a perfect condition weak organisms they cause a loss of vital for reabsorption by the leaves of vegeta- heat that frequently ends in death. The bles. The oxygen of the compound car- effect of smoke fogon vegetables may be bon dioxide has been set free for renewed properly taken as an index of its effect on reoxidation. The carbon thus absorbed animals. Horticulturists in and around by vegetables may be transformed into London tell us that whenever the fog apfruit or other food for animals. Thus we pears buds drop and many flowers are dehave, if the conditions are not interfered stroyed. Country horticulturists, on the with by man, a continuous exchange be- other hand, say that the white fogs do not tween animal and vegetable life. The injure even conservatory plants. The cycle of natural actions, and their sequence, fogs of 1890, 1891, and 1892, were unis regular and perfect. Interference is usually serious in their effects on flowers dangerous. Our methods of using car and foliage. During recent years the bonaceous fuel are particularly so. In blight caused by London fog extended to the flame combustion of coal the oxidation Maidstone, 30 miles away.
* This article, though nominally purely for- away when he who continues to burn coal eign and local, concerns itself mɔstly with a for heating or cooking purposes will be conproblem of great interest and importance no sidered as much of a barbarian as the man less in America than in England. The econ. who uses a pine torch or a tallow dip for lightomy and scientific convenience in utilizing ing. The transformation of coal into gas, be. coal constitute a question to which the world fore it is utilized for the household, is sure to is becoming thoroughly alive. That the pres- arrive among the impending reforins. The ent method is wasteful, troublesome, disagree article by Mr. Thwaite presents the facts in. able, and primitivo no one who has studied volred with force and brevity.-Editor ECLECthe matter can doubt. Tho time is not far
It would of the carbon goes on just as if the material scem, then, that the area of the smoke in its vegetable form had been consumed fog is 60 miles in diameter. Thus, it is by animals. If in our use of coal the oxi- not London only that is concerned in our dation of the carbon were as perfect as the subject. oxidation of the carbon by animal action, Let us trace the genesis of the evil. In the carbon dioxide produced would be the year 1259 King Henry III. granted available for absorption by vegetables ; to certain persons in Newcastle the right but our methods are so imperfect that, in- of winning?' coal, which was shipped stead of producing carbon dioxide, we to the port of London. Within half a send into the pure air volumes of sooty century coal was in wide use. In 1306 particles which are poisonous to animals Parliament complained to the King of the and to vegetables alike.
Our error is par
noxious pors with which coal fires polticularly objectionable in Greater London. luted the atmosphere. The use of coal Over that mighty City, amid certain at- was forbidden, and a man suffered death mospheric conditions, the particles form for having disobeyed the proclamation. & canopy that obstructs the passage of The Royal edict, unhappily, gradually fell heat and of chemical rays from the centre into abeyance. The matter, however, of life, the sun. There is a lowering of has had the consideration of Parliament the temperature, and animal vitality is within recent times : in 1829, in 1843, in diininished. Pure fog mist, such as we 1853, in 1875, and in 1887. Commissee in the country, does not seriously in- sions inquired into the evil, and sought terfere with solar chemical energy. Mist means to abolish it. The efforts of Paris simply condensed vapor. When it is liament have had no effect.
The damage frozen the particles form storage for the wrought by fog increases year by year. deposition of particles of carbon or of sul- In criticising the Bill brought forward last phur ; if the vapor is merely in condensed Session by Lord Campbell, Lord Salisbury watery particles
, it absorbs the hydrocar- spoke of gas as a substitute for coal. In bons and the sulphurous acid produced by doing so, he indicated, I think, the only imperfect combustion of bituminous coals.
It has been shown that the obThe innocent mist is thus converted into noxious characteristics of the smoke fog the yellow-black fog known to the dwells are essentially due to the presence of the ers in London.
hydrocarbon and the sulphurous constituThe fog that enshrouded the town from ents of the coal generally used. ThereNovember 1879 to the beginning of 1880 fore, if the solid coal is to be used, withbad serious results. The deaths from out production of smoke, it must be as bronchitis increased to 331 per cent. above free as possible from the constituents the average ; those from whooping-cough, named. The solid fuels, having the specito 231 per cent. During the fog of 1891- fied quality, and composed of pure
carbon 1892, mortality increased almost as much and ash or clinker, are (1) the non-sulThe particles prevent the perfect aëration phurous anthracite, (2) the non-sulphurous of the blood. `Interfering with the inter- charcoal, and (3) the non-sulphurous diffusion of gases in the lungs, they im- coke. Anthracite, unfortunately, is not pede the oxidation of the carbon, and in favored by householders. Being very
dense, it is difficult to light and to keep grates. Each ton contains sufficient amburning, and it produces no cheery flame. monia to produce, if treated with sulphuric The Englishman's theory of what a house. acid, 22 to 28 lbs. of sulphate of amhold fire should be was casually set forth monia. The total loss of this fertilizing by Dr. Johnson on bis return from the agent is, therefore, say, 9,990 tons. As Hebrides. “ Here am I," said he," an the price of sulphate of ammonia is £9 Englishman, sitting by a coal fire." *
10s, the ton, the monetary loss is £94,905 Coke makes a more cheery fire than an- every year. If we were less wasteful, we thracite. It is cleaner to carry and to should not be so much obliged to ransack store than either anthracite or coal ; but Chili and Peru for artificial manures. It it requires more storage room, and is more is agreeable to learn that the nitrogenous difficult to light. Charcoal is the ideal matter in the 4,000,000 tons of coal which smokeless fuel. Its general use in Paris are used every year by the gas-manufacexplains the beauty of that town. The turing companies is now being made a hydrocarbons from bituminons coals, considerable source of revenue. The which have blackened and disfigured the value of sulphate of ammonia as a fertilgrandeur of our architecture, are absent izer is now beyond dispute. Where vitrofrom the atmosphere of Paris. Conse- gen bas been deficient in the soil the apquently, the buildings are not nearly so plication of 450 lbs. of sulphate of ammuch discolored : they simply acquire, monia to each acre gave an increase of after centuries of exposure, the pleasant nearly four tons of potatoes. Sulphate grayness of age, which, while adding dig. of ammonia, although not quite so active nity to graceful outline, does not wear a fertilizer as nitrate, is held in the soil away the carving of pilaster and column. with greater tenacity. It contains 24 per Unfortunately, charcoal is not generally cent. of ammonia, which is equal to 20 available in England. Our treasures of per cent. of nitrogen. Then, there are fuel are—not the oak and the yew, but— the tarry hydrocarbon compounds, from the carbonized wood of primeval times, which (thanks to the discovery of Kirk: deeply laid beneath the soil. We have, ham and Perkins) beautiful aniline dyes therefore, to seek a substitute which, can be extracted. The tar has been a while being smokeless and non-sulphur- source of such revenue to the gas comous, will give the luminous flame of bitu- panies that it may be seriously stated that minous coal.
every year there is more coloring matter A substitute may be found in the gas sent into the atmosphere of London than obtainable from the distillation of bitu- would dye all the fabrics woven by Engminous coal. This
gas, when properly lish looms within the same time. If we used, has almost all the advantages, with take the waste of the hydrocarbons to out any of the evils, of the coal fire. If equal 20 per cent. of the fuel burned, we purified properly, it is free from sulphur shall find that in the 9,000,000 of tons of and ammonia. It is easily lit, and the coal burned in the metropolis 1,800,000 heat thus produced, which it produces, is' tons of hydrocarbons are lost. In other under perfect control. As Lord Salis- words, some 16,000,000 cubic feet of rich bury says, fuel gas is admirable ; but he hydrocarbons are every year uselessly thinks that its cost is great enough to pre- thrown into the air of London, and the vent it from being generally adopted. loss is £400,000. The objection, I think, may be overcome. In the thriving States of Pennsylvania
Before considering how the gaseous fuel and Ohio, Nature has illustrated the ideal may be reduced in price, le 113 estimate method of obtaining heat for the benefit the value of the waste annually attributa- of mankind. There the gaseons hydroble to the ordinary system of consuming carbon is distilled by the internal heat of bituminous coal. Some 13,000,000 of the earth from bituminous coal, or from tons are burned in London yearly. About naphtha deposits, in enormous volumes, 4,000,000 are utilized by the gas-manu- and at high pressures, and is led for disfacturing companies ; 9,000,000 tances of seventy miles and upward to burned in household and industrial fire- cities and villages, where it is used for
household and industrial purposes.
The * Boswell's Journal of the Tour to the IIebrides, distributing mains are already nearly 3,000
miles in length. The use of this natural