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the most common method adopted, and it tion of the upper plate of the skull, and is the only one which satisfactorily ac- sometimes the entire excision of the bone counts for the characteristic appearance of down to the dura mater, a practice which the large majority of perforations—the he (Broca) considered to be a survival of scooped surface, irregularly oval or round the still more ancient custom of trepanshape, and bevelled margin being inex- ning. Indeed, partial removal of the upplicable on any other reasonable hypothe- per plate of the cranial case had in several sis.' Since then, however, one or two ex- instances been met with concurrently with ceptions have been noted, as those from some of the perforated skulls and amulets Lizières and Casa da Moura, but they are —a fact wbich had not escaped Broca. 80 few and of so undecided a character, as That it was, however, a distinct and speto justify the conclusion that the scraping cial operation in neolithic times was shortprocess had been the rule.
ly afterward confirmed by further discovAs to the selection of the site of the eries, notably by a case recorded by M. operation there was evidently no fixed Guégan from the dolmen of Etang-larule, as the perforation may be found on Ville. Hence it would appear that both any part of the head, on the body of a the partial and complete removal of a porbone, or across a suture. It would ap- tion of the cranial wall had been practised pear, however, that the forehead was pur- in prehistoric times, though the former posely avoided so as to prevent disfigure- only survived to the Middle Ages as a ment of the face.
reniedy against epilepsy. Another old It is, however, in propounding an remedy for tbis disease, and one which hypothesis as to the object for which the might also have a similar origin, was to operation was performed that Dr. Broca administer to the patient some particular has supplied the most novel suggestions. part of the human skull, such as the ossa He beliered that in the main the opera- wormiana, reduced into powder or ashes. tion was resorted to for therapeutic pur- That peculiar medicinal properties were poses, chiefly to relieve mental disorders, traditionally assigned to the bones of the as epilepsy, convulsions, lunacy, etc. We buman skull, and that they were used as now know that many of the convulsions special remedies for diseases of the head, of childhood, such as those due to denti- was further shown by Dr. Prunières, who tion and other physiological causes of a quotes a passage from a work by Nicholas temporarily disturbing character, disap- Lemary (1699) to the effect that preferpear in adult life without any specific ence is to be given to “ la crâne d'un treatment. But it cannot be supposed jeune homme mort de mort violente et qui that medical science in those days was so • n'ait pas été inbumé.") far advanced as to distinguish between the Dr. Belluci, in the catalogue of his varieties of epileptiform diseases Such well-known collection of Italian amulets, diseases were in all likelihood then consid- exhibited at the Paris exhibition of 1889, ered to be due to some supernatural or
describes two made of cranial bones which demoniacal agency that had taken hold of were found in the possession of old men the individual-a superstition that bas who were then using them as charms found credence in all ages of the world's against epilepsy and other nervous dishistory, if, indeed, it is yet extinct even among
80-called civilized nations. Dr. Prunières, ever since the pathoPeople looked upon the spasms and con- logical character of trepanning was recogtortions of a convulsive attack as a mani- nized, contended that the operation had festation that an evil spirit was confined been occasionally performed for a purely within the skull and struggling for free- surgical purpose, such as the removal of dom. With such a preconceived notion, dead bone, and this opinion he founded or perhaps as an article of a long-cherished on special features of some of the trefaith, what could be more natural than to panned skulls in his own collection. suppose that by boring a hole in the prison Broca, however, thought the evidence walls the escape of the evil spirit would be then insufficient to justify this conclusion, facilitated ? In support of this theory Dr. The subsequent researches of Dr. Parrot, Broca quotes an author of the seventeenth and others, have demonstrated ibat Dr. century who recommended as a remedy Prunières was right, and the question may against epilepsy the scraping off of a por- now be accepted as settled in the affirma
tive. But these purely surgical cases are a trepanned skull was not, in the opinion very few in comparison with those which of Broca, confined to this world, but also show no pre-existing lesion whatever in extended to that which is to come. Hence, the bong tissues. Hence we must con. when the posthumous operation was perclude that in the majority of cases the formed—and this, judging from the numprimary object of the operation was some ber of entire specimens that bave been colmental disorder of an epileptiform char- lected, would have been comparatively acter.
seldon—care would be taken by the relaPosthumous operations on the skull can tives of the deceased that some portion of be distinguished from those performed on the cicatrization would be left. Evidence the living subject by several character of the supernatural favors bestowed on the istics. The aperture in the fornier is gen- individual during life was not on any accrally larger, and its outline more irregue count to be totally destroyed, as it was a Jar ; the surrounding edge is perpendicular, passport to the world to come, where it or at a slight angle to the surface of the ensured to the owner a place of distincskull, and presents a series of separate cuts tion. For similar reasons we can underor sawing inarks, according to the kind of stand why an amulet would be buried instrument used in the operation. The along with the body of its owner. This manipulation is altogether rougher, and precious relic, or talisman, was to accomoften leaves gashes and scratches on the pany him to his new abode, where, by adjacent bone. The cuts have also a kind means of it, he could exercise bis magic of fresh appearance, and never show any and beneficent powers in keeping malign cicatricial deposits.
the latter influences at bay. Sometimes the friends characteristic requires the subject to be in of the deceased went so far as to put the life for at least some days after the opera- amulet inside the skull, three examples of tion, this distinction is not applicable to which are recorded by Dr. Prunières, but those who immediately succurb to its for what purpose it is hard to say. Baron effects. The most remarkable fact in re- de Baye describes something analogous to gard to these post-mortem cases is that, this from the caves of Petit-Morin, where almost invariably, there is some part or he found several human skulls containing portion of the edge of the perforation the bones of infants and other objects. which shows signs of an old cicatrization. It is not absolutely proved that all This fact suggests the idea that the special cranial amulets were exclusively derived reason for the secondary or post-mortem from trepanned skulls, as there are some interference was to be found in the fact which show no trace of an old cicatrization that the individual had successfully under- or a falciform margin. These generally gone the surgical operation. Here, at assume some regular form, as that of a Jast, we have a clew to the motives of triangle, an oval, or a circle, and they are these posthumous trepanners, as well as a sometimes perforated with one or two striking confirmation of the theory which holes for suspension. One peculiarity explains the use of the pieces taken away equally common to all classes of amulets as amulets. That at death the skull of a is the bevelled shape of their margin, a person successfully trepanned would be result which is almost invariably accomheld in repute as a prophylactic against all plished at the expense of the upper plate diseases assigned to malign influences, is of the cranial bone. The range of these not, after all, such a far-fetched hypothe- cranial amulets, both chronologically and sis. If so, what would be more natural geographically, corresponds very closely than the belief that an amulet would be with that of the trepanned skulls. Their more efficacious if it retained a small sec- prevalence in Gaulish cemeteries is attesttion of the actually cicatrized margin? ed by De Mortillet, Baron de Baye, and That this was a special character in the other authorities. selection of cranial amulets is unhesitat- Amulets made of human bones other ingly affirmed by Dr. Broca. In looking than those of the skull have been rarely over the specimens figured by him, I find met with. One supposed to be of this that the retention of a falciform portion of character is recorded from the Dolmen de the primary cicatrix is a constant feature Vauréal (Seine-et Oise), and consists of in all the irregularly shaped ones.
the upper portion of a shoulder blade in But the great veneration associated with which was inserted a small bronze ring for suspension. The late M. de Quatrefages luxuries, and amusements. Their wellrefers to one he had seen in the collection developed skulls show that in actual brain of Baron de Baye which was made of a capacity evolution had already done its long bone, probably a femur.
work. To estimate the quality of this Since the unwritten records of map com- brain work is, however, a more subtle menced to be investigated on scientific problem. However comprehensive and methods, many novel if not startling de- vivid the picture of their civilization may ductions have gradually found their way be, it gives but an imperfect insight into into current philosophical beliefs. The their culture and higher mental, moral, long-settled mists, which like an impene- and metaphysical qualities. It is from trable barrier bounded the historic vision, this aspect that the facts and speculations are now fast breaking up, and through here popularly depicted derive whatever great rifts here and there we can distinctly importance they may possess beyond novtrace the trail of humanity, till it again elty and curiosity. They afford us a passdisappears on the more distant horizon of ing glimpse into the religiosity, or, as geological remoteness. Before the historic some would call it, superstition, of the dawn in Europe neolithic civilization, men of the Stone and Bronze Ages. So which in my opinion differed only in de- far it corroborates the opinion, already gree from that wbich now prevails, held surmised from the attention paid to the sway
many ages. The people of this structure of the tomb and the kind of obperiod reveal by tbe character of their re- jects deposited therein, that the most mains—their implements, tools, weapons, powerful and dominating influence in the ornaments, buildings, tombs, etc.--that, creed of prehistoric man in Europe was a at least in adaptive genius and manipula- belief in the supernatural and the existtire skill, they were in no respect inferior ence of a future state. to their modern successors,
By the in- In conclusion, let me say that those who dustry and researches of archæologists, wish to pursue this subject further will more especially since the discovery of that find fuller details, with illustrations and remarkable class of remains known as ample references to its somewhat volumiLake-dwellings, we have materials from nous literature, in the forthcoming annual which their entire life history can be re
volume of the Proceedings of the Society constructed. They are here disclosed as of Antiquaries of Scotland, of which this a navigating, building, commercial, pas- notice is partly an abstract.— Fortnightly toral and agricultural people, and possess Review, ing a knowledge of various arts, industries,
MARRYING IN THE VALLEY,
BY ALFRED AUSTIN.
WHERE Lugliano crests the ridge
mountain intimate :
* The “ Baths of Lucca," as that place is colloquially called, consists of three distinct groups of houses, known on the spot as the Villa, the Ponte or Bridge, and the Bagni Caldi or Hot Baths,
As household sweet in breath and air,
Thrice had the grapes swelled plump and sweet,
We greeted in our ancient wise,
* The large mushrooms, or agarics, which, with chestnut flour, constitute the staple food of the Lucchese peasants.
And on our lips as much of speech
As firm of foot, as proud of head,
They tell me he'll be fifty-eight
Fair child of English birth and blood,