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de Bernardin,' 'Roberte de Bramafam,' and Nearly a quarter of a century has passed away Nissa’ were, after appearing separately in since the Egyptians as a ruling class merited the Revue, published in a collected form under the harshest terms which Gordon used. Dur. the title of ' Les Amours cruelles.' Of this col. ing a part of that time British influence has lection one only, ‘Nissa,' has been translated, supplanted that of France, with the result of the English version appearing in the pages of the judicial bench in Egypt having been puriMaga in April, 1891. Of course, like all fied and its status elevated ; of public educaFrench authors, Albert Delpit expressed some tion being conducted on a plan which more of his ideas in verse, and met with no little civilized nations regard with approval; of the

In poetry, bis “L’Invasion' and toiling fellabeen being freed from many of * Les Dieux qu'on brise,' together with 'Le their most crushing burdens, without the pubRepentir,' were all 'ouvrages couronnés par lic creditor having the slightest cause for coml'Académie française.' His last poem was an plaint. The character of the governing class eloquent tribute to · Jeanne d'Arc, la bonne has been transformed under the pressure of Lorraine.' Poor Albert Delpit's own impru. British power, and the Egyptians, of whom dence seems to have hastened his premature Gordon had a painful experience and memory, death, for he was only forty-three years of age are the fossil relics of a past which cannot rewhen he died. Nervous in the extreme, he turn. If the Egyptians undertook the recov. suffered terribly from insomnia, and although ery of their lost provinces in the Soudan, they by the advice of his doctors he removed from would be hailed as deliverers by the majority the Rue Taitbout to the Avenue Percier in of the inhabitants. Nor would the reinstatesearch of quiet, he could not resist taking ment of Egyptian officials imply a recurrence hydrate of chloral in increasingly large doses." to the old days of tyranny and torture. The flood to full account. These public works, siout. Those who find trade with the Egyp. which are of paramount importance, cannot tians remunerative will become the bitterest be executed unless the Egyptian army guards opponents of the prevailing rule in the SouDal in the Soudan.

former yoke was heavy and intolerable, but at

the worst it was a scourging with whips ; MISCELLANY.

whereas the same people have been scourged THE RECOVERY OF THE SOUDAN.—The truth with scorpions since then, and the process is, that the recovery of the Soudan is perfectly does not gratify them. When the Mahdi feasible without any risk being run by this raised the banner of revolt, thousands flocked country, or any loss occasioned to another, to it for protection. Now, the fing of Egypt Nothing is more desired by the Ministers of his would be greeted with acclamation as the symHighness the Khedive than that Egypt should bol of snfety against oppression and deliver. have what is called in the newspaper slang of ance from bondage. How, then, should the the day

a free hand.” At present, that Gov- flag be carried into the Soudan ? The quesernment is forbidden by the Government of tion can be briefly answered in this wise : Great Britain to take any step toward regain. Continue on a larger scale what has been done ing authority over the Soudan.

on a small one. The frontier which has been It must be admitted that past experience arbitrarily drawn is not that of a few years justifies an indisposition to see the Soudan ago. Father Ohrwalder first felt himself in again under Egyptian domination. Gordon safety after his flight from Omdurman when regarded such a contingency as one to be he reached the wells Murat, which are on deprecated and dreaded. He had beheld the the route through the desert to the south of extent to which Egyptian pashas abused their Korosko, and these wells had been occupied power, and he revolted at the spectacle. by Saleh Bey a few years before on behalf of Hence he wrote in 1879 that “the Govern- the Egyptian Government. When Wad en ment of the Egyptians in these far-off conn- Najumi advanced upon Egypt and found his tries is nothing else but one of brigandage of Waterloo at Toski, his followers occupied the worst description," and also, “ that the Sarrils, which is forty miles to the south of Egyptian should never be allowed out of his the provisional frontier at Wady Halfa. This own country." When this was written the was in 1889, and then it was decided that Sar. system of government in Egypt itself was a ras should be taken and held by Egyptian public scandal. The judicial bench was cor- troops. Since then Sarras has become an out. rupt; injustice could be perpetrated by the post of Wady Halfa, with which it is connectrich. Education was a farce. The fellabeen ed by rail and telephone. Still farther to the were ground between the upper and nether south is Dal, which has been found to be the millstones to pay out of their scanty earnings best place for establishing the works which the cruel demands of foreign bondholders. have been planned with a view to turn the Nile

dan.-Blackwood's Magazine. Let what has been done on a small scale without difficulty or protest be continued, and GERMAN FINANCES.—That the debt of the the time is not far distant when the rule of German Empire is increasing very rapidly his Highness the Khedive will extend, as that there can be no manner of doubt. Whether of the founder of his family did, to the equa- the increase could have been, or can be in futor, where Mehemet Ali fixed the boundary of ture, avoided are matters of less certainty. his country to the south. That is the sugges- So long as France and Russia continue to detion. How should it be carried into effect ? velop their naval and military armaments, so The first thing necessary is for the Govern. long, in the words of the German emperor, is ment of Egypt to repeat the word which was it absolutely necessary for the Germans “ to spoken to the Israelites by the Lord of hosts take effective measures for the continued through Moses and tell them to“ go forward.” strengthening of the defensive powers of the The road is open and easy. From Wady empire.” If there were any doubt before as Halfn to Khartoum a line of way has been

to the rumored new loan, it exists no longer, surveyed. A part of it has been constructed ; and we may expect an imperial issue to be an& long stretch of embankment is prepared for nounced at any moment for some £6,000,000 rails being laid down. To reach Dongola or £7,000,000 sterling. At present the debt would be almost child's play, and Dongola, as of the empire amounts to about 1,671,000,000 Father Ohrwalder puts it, is "the key of the marks, or £83,550,000—no very enormous sum Soudan,” When Dongola is reached, the ex. for a country with a population of some tension of the railway to Khartoum would not 50,000,000 inhabitants. But it must be borne involve any engineering difficulties. The in. in mind that the debts of the States which vaders of the territory which now groans compose the empire reach a very considerable under the yoke of the Khalifa Abdullah would total.-that of Prussia being £300,000,000, that be welcomed and aided as deliverers by the of Saxony £31,600,000, and that of Bavaria inhabitants, and the disciplined Soudanese £66,650,000, not to mention those of the smaller and Eg ptian soldiers, under the command of States of the federation. At the same time, English officers in the Khedive's service, in order not to be unfair, it must be mentioned would be foes such as the wild savages of the that the greater part of the individual State Sondan have not encountered since the Mah. debts has a set-off in the railways, the receipts di's death. Those who have taken part in from which-in Prussia, at all events-more the process of crossing the North American than cover the yearly interest and amortisa. continent by rail would consider the scheme tion of the debt. The financial system of Geras simple as learning the alphabet. The many is certainly capable of improvement, bechances of failure are less than for any scheme cause while with one hand the imperial exwbich has been proposed. A considerable chequer levies federal contributions (Matricuoutlay must be incurred; but nearly two mill- ar-Beiträge) from the States, with the other ions sterling are in the Treasury of the Public hand it gives a great part of them back again. Debt, and a part of this suin might be devot. It is clear, however, that it will be necessary ed to the reconstitution of Egypt.

in 1893-94 to increase the matricular contribuSupposing the scheme which has been indi. tions, and it is proposed to raise them to 356,cited were resolved upon, its execution might 000,000 marks, as against 321,000,000 marks be preceded by a simple change which would in the present year and 316,000,000 marks in largely contribute toward its success. At 1800-91. At the present time the rate of inpresent the Soudanese aro like rats in a trap terest on the imperial debt of £83,550,000 that rend and dovour each other. They can- averages slightly under 37 per cent. The earnot communicate with the outside world ex- lier issues, amounting to 450,000,000 marks, cept by stealth ; yet despite the prohibitions carried 4 per cent, 661,000,000 marks bear 31 of the Mahdi's successor, they wish to live, per cent, and the loans of 1890, 1891, and 1892 and, if possible, to trade. Their desire to do were made on a 3 per cent basis. We may business in Egypt should be granted. Cara- point out that at the current qnotation of Gervans from the Soudan should be welcomed at man Threes the return to an investor is about Korosko' and Wady Halfa, Assouan, and As. 35 per cent. - Financial News.

some.

AN APOLOGY FROM AGE TO YOUTH. -I am sad. surprise you as much as anything in the world ly aware that you can accuse me of growing could do to learn that in those times I often more solitary, more distant, more self-ab. came down to breakfast quite unbappy on no sorbed, and even more forbidding. Yes, and other account; but however surprising it is that has been oppressive to you and very irk. trne. And then upon the ugliness of age came

I know it and feel it every day of my some small infirmities, such as a troublesome life, and yet have been unable either to end loss of memory, a trembling hand for a soupor mend it ; though I have thought many a ladle, which made matters worse ; and I, being time of my own young days at home, and re- ashamed of them and unwilling to display member well that it was much the same with them, shut myself out more and more from an my father and his children (when they grew intercourse which yet I cannot blame myself up), as it is with you and me. Much the same for being the first to narrow. but not so bad ; on second thoughts not near. But now, according to information impartly so bad, for he had a very great advantage. ed to me by Dr. -, there is soon to be an In him old age was almost beautiful. At end of all tbis muddle of small miseries. And seventy, and even till he died, there was no that being so, I look forward with no earthly ravage in his silvery hair, his features gradu. trouble but one, and that is, lest you should ally fined away like a good blade in the wear- think of me after I am gone-or, should I ing, and there was a very great difference be rather say, forget me ?-as the morose, selftween his eyes and the eyes of a tortoise. concentred, curmudgeonly old man that I Fortunate beyond words is the man, if he doubt not you have thought me, and perhaps loves to be loved, who at seventy years looks even fancied that I delighted to be. There and moves as your grandfather did. But it is are such old gentlemen, I grant you ; so many not the general luck. Most of us, alas and that they are believed to be a common spealack ! are unbeautiful in decay. Here and cies. But I have given you my grounds for there, and there again, we are marked by doubting whether some of these are not in part Time's defacing fingers with the ugliness of home-made, and made out of reluctant mate. age ; and whom do those uglinesses not repel? rial; and I beg of you to take me out of the If we are humane we are ashamed of the re

category altogether. Appearances are strong pugnance, and do our best to sit upon it, to against me, it is true ; and yet I do assure you use one of Charles's favorite expressions ; but that even now, when, already on the pathway it is as much a natural birth in the breast as out of the city of this life, I turn to look down any other sentiment, and is never consistently on it, I hardly know how these appearances suppressed. Now, speaking among ourselves, could have been avoided. Even if I could I may say we all know that your father has have invited you, six or eight years ago, to a been one of the unfortunates, not conspicu- consideration of the laws of our nature, which ously so, as again we shall agree, I think, but are so much to blame for the alienation of enough ; and that one little physical accident youth and age, little good would have come of is answerable for a great deal. Of course it it; and the invitation was an impossible one. has had its effects upon you, this repellence But there is no risk in placing that considera. which is 80 strangely felt as a personal tion before you in this way, to think of when offence; and, father or no father, he would I am gone, and to make it easier for you to be daught of a philosopher and much of a fool believe that your father's later years were not who dropped into self-pitying pathetics over quite discharged of tenderness which surely that. And then, murk you, it has had its you remember in the days when you were liteffect upon me also. Again, George, I charge tle children. Before I had drawn the right you to bear me out, so far as your remem. deductions from my natural history books, brances allow. Did I ever put on the airs of there were times when I thought you most a buck, or set any recognizable value on the unkind to me. Then I learned to know bet. modest portion of good looks that was mine ter than to cherish such thoughts ; and now I before the gray days? I think not, and in. would have you discard the corresponding, deed am sure. But now hear me avow that, idea of me as really and truly a churlish old when those good looks fell away and gave man, more than content that his affections place to different ones, I mourned much as a are ashes, and no longer troublesome.

It was beauty does when her losses are too great for never so really and truly. All the four walls denial to herself or disguise from others. And of my den could testify to that if they had why? Because I hated to present myself to tongues as well as ears. – Macmillan's Mayayou a disagreeable object. I dare say it will zine.

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Tuere are certain minds over which un- sinus,” a monument discovered at Perugia, solved problems exercise a strong fascina- which contains forty-six lines of text, they tion, and it is not wonderful, iherefore, are merely the shortest of short memorials that the decipherment of the Etruscan in- of the dead. The Etruscan epitaph did scriptions has been attacked time after not indulge in pious wishes or a descriptiine in our restless century. Each fresh tion of the virtues of the deceased. worker in the field believes that he has at Nevertheless the persistent labor of genlast discovered the key to these mysterious erations of scholars has not been altotexts, unmindful of the ill-success of his gether in vain. With the help of some predecessors and of the lesson which it bilingual (Latin and Etruscan) inscriptions teaches.

about twenty words and grammatical forms That the Etruscan language should have have been made out with certainty, while remained so long undeciphered seems, in- a couple of dice found at Vulci have given deed, a slur on the philological science of us the names of the first six numerale. our age. But the fault bas not lain with What we thus know of the Etruscan lanphilological science or its professors. The guage places it in a category by itself. materials have been wanting for a solu- Every attempt to compare it with the tion of the problem. It is true tbat about known languages of the would, whether three thousand inscriptions bave been dis- ancient or modern, has been a failure. covered, but with a few exceptions they Words like klan, " son ;" sekh,daughconsist of little more than

proper names.

ter;" puia, “ wife;" and avil, "year" Apart from the famous “ Cippus Peru- bave been sought in vain in other tongues.

NEW SERIRE—VOL. LVII., No. 4.

28

66

or

So far as we know at present, the language of experts on the condition of the linen of Etruria was a waif of an otherwise ex- and the character of the ink. Part of the tinct family of speech.

memoir is devoted to the removal of any This of itself would explain the inability donbts that may be felt as to the genuineof modern scholars to interpret the Etrus- ness of the newly discovered book. can texts.

The Etruscan alphabet can be The text originally contained twelve colread with as much case as the alphabet of umns, the greater part of which have been Rome; the words of a text are usually preserved. More than two hundred lines of divided from one another by means of it remain, including the last paragraph of points, and yet the meaning of these words the work. It was divided into sections or cannot be fixed. Like the geologist who chapters, distinguished from one another comes to a fault” in the strata he is ex. by spaces, and the single words are separatamining, so in Etruscan the philologist ed by means of points. finds a linguistic “fault"-a language It is clear that it cannot be long before which refuses to be compared with any the problem of Etruscan decipherment is other that is known to him.

solved. A large proportion of the words A discovery lately made by Professor which occur in the newly-discovered book Krall, of Vienna, has removed the first are met with in the inscriptions, inore esdifficulty which stands in our way. It pecially in the “ Cippus Perusinus,”' and can no longer be said that it is impossible the frequency with which the same phrases to decipher the Etruscan language because and words are repeated, shows that the the materials for doing so are insufficient. text must be of a ritualistic pature. InThree fourths of an ancient Etruscan book, deed, this is indicated not only by the ocwritten on linen, has been discovered ; currence of the names of certain Etruscan and discovered, moreover, in the most un- divinities, but also by that of a word which likely of places—the coffin of an Egyptian is already known to signify a ghost" mummy.

spirit," and of another word, a The mummy was brought from Egypt lengthened form of which appears in a some forty years ago by an Austrian trav- bilingual inscription as the cquivalent of eller, and deposited after his death in the the Latin “haruspex.” Museum of Agrain. When unrolled it We may conclude, therefore, that in the was found that the linen bands which were newly-found fragment of Etruscan literawrapped round it were covered with writ- ture we have one of those semi-religious, ten characters. They were examined in semi-magical works for which Etruria was 1867 by Brugsch Pasha, who imagined celebrated. Etruria was the home of them to be Ethiopic ; and in 1877 by Sir augury and divination, and it was from Richard Burton, who suspected that they Etruria tbat Rome derived its pseudo-sciwere Nabathean ! It was reserved for

ence of omens, and its pretension to read Professor Krall to point out that the char- the future in the flashes of the lightning acters were the well-known letters of the or the entrails of a victim. The great Etruscan alphabet, and that the words Etruscan work on divination was, we are they embodied occurred in the inscrip- told, contained in twelve books, the reputtions of Etruria.

ed author of which was the culture-god Professor Krall's discovery was made at Tages, the offspring of the ploughed earth. the beginning of 1891. Since then he It may be that in the book whose fraghas been occupied in transcribing the text, ments have been so unexpectedly discovportions of which are difficult to read, and ered in the wrappings of an Egyptian in determining the order in which the mummy, we

bare before us of these fragments should be arranged. The result lost books. of his work has now been published by At all events, it would seem that the the Imperial Academy of Vienna. * His inscribed wrappings were folded round memoir is an exhaustive account of the dis- the mummy not without a purpose. The covery, and contains a transliteration of Egyptians buried with their dead chapters the text, as well as photographs of the from an ancient ritual, the recitation of linen wrappings, together with the report which by the spirit of the departed ensured

him a safe passage through the lower * Die Etruskischen Mumienbinden des Agramer

world. The references in the Etruscan National Museums. 1892.

book to the hinthu, or “ghost,” go to

on

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