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But passing over this, let us now repre- extent, then, each oceasional decrement sent to ourselves in detail this process would profit the organism. The economy which Professor Weissmann thinks will, in weight to a creature having pearly the in thousands of generations, effect the ob- same specific gravity as its medium, wonld served reduction of the eyes : the process be infinitesimal. The economy in putribeing that at each successive stage in the tion of a rudimentary organ, consisting of decrease, there must take place variations passive tissues, would also be but nominal. in the size of the eye, some larger, some The only appreciable economy would be smaller, than the size previously reached, in the original building up of the creaand that in virtue of the economy, those ture's structures ; and the hypothesis of having the smaller will continually survive Weissmann implies that the ceonomy of and propagate, instead of those baving the this thousandth part of its weight, by delarger. "Properly to appreciate this suppo- crease of the eyes, would so benefit tbe sition, we must use figures. To give it rest of the creature's organization as to every advantage we will assume that there give it an appreciably greater ebapee of have been only two thousand generations, survival, and an appreciably greater muland we will assume that, instead of being tiplication of descendants. Does any one reduced to a rudiment, the eye has disap- accept this inference ? peared altogether. What amounts of va- Of course the quantifications of data riation shall we suppose
? If the idea is above set down can be only approximate ; that the process bas operated uniformly but I think no reasonable changes of them on each generation, the implication is that can alter the general result. If, instead some advantage has been gained by the of supposing the eyes to have disappeared individuals having the eyes gouath less in wholly, we recognize them as being in weight ; and this will bardly be contended. fact rudimentary, the case is made worse. Not to put the hypothesis at this disadvan- If, instead of 2000 generations, we astage, let us then imagine that there take sume 10,000 generations, which, considplace, at long intervals, decreasing varia- ering the probably great age of the cavtions considerable in amount-say aboth, erns, would be a far more reasonable asonce in a hundred generations. This is sumption than the other, the case is made an interval almost too long to be assumed ; still worse. And if we assume larger varibut yet if we assume the successive decre- ations-say decreases of one-fourth—to ments to occur more frequently, and there- occur only at intervals of many hundreds fore to be smaller, the amount of each or thousands of generations, wbich is not becomes too insignificant. If, seeing the a very reasonable assuinption, the implied small head, we assume that the eyes of the conclusion would still remain indefensible. Proteus originally weigbed some ten grains For an economy of bath part of the creaeach, this would give us, as the amount ture's weight could not appreciably affect of the decrement of math, occurring once in a hundred generations, one grain. bians, I find that in the nearest ally there Suppose that this eel shaped amphibian, represented, the caducibranchiate axolotl, the about a foot long and more than half an
diameter of the eye, less than balf that of the
smelt, bears a much smaller ratio to the length inch in diameter, weighs three ounces-a
of the body : the proportion in tbe smelt very moderate estimate. In such case the being with of the length, and in the axolot) decrement would amount to watath of the about both (the body being also more bulky creature's weight; or, for convenience,
than that of the smelt). If, then, we take the let us say that it amounted to loooth, bian as one half the mtio which the fish preits survival and the increase of its pos- which, in marked ways, increase the genterity.
linear ratio of the eye to body in this ampbi. which would allow of the eyes being taken sents, it results that the ratio of the mass of at some fourteen grains each. * To this the eye to the mass of the body will be bud
one-eighth. So that the weight of the eye of * I find that the eye of a small smelt (the the aupbibian will be but to both of that of only appropriate small fish obtainable here, the body. It is n liberal estimate, therefore, St. Leonards) is about isoth of its weigbt ; to suppose that its original weight in the Proand since in young fish the eyes are dispro teues was 1000th of that of the body. I may portionately large, in the full grown smelt the add that any one who glances at the repre. @ye would be probably not more than oyib sentation of the oxolot), will see that, were of the creature's weight. On turning to the eye to disappear entirely by a single varihighly-finished plates, published by the Bibli- ation, the economy achieved could not have ographisches Institut of Leipzig, of this per- any appreciable physiological effect on the enni branchiate Procus, and other amphi organism.
eral fitness for the conditions of existence ? Is it not then, as said above, that the And is it not inferable tbat, failing to bear use of the expression, “ natural selection"
natural selection” in mind the limiting condition, that to behas had seriously perverting effects ? come established an advantageous variaMust we not infer ibat there has been pro- tion must be such as will, other things reduced in the minds of naturalists, the tacit maining equal, add to the prosperity of the assumption that it can do what artificial stirp, many naturalists have been unawares selection does—can pick out and select led to espouse an untenable hypothesis ? any small advantageous trait ; while it - Contemporary Review. can, in fact, pick out no traits, but can only further the development of traits
(To be concluded.)
A DEFEATED TRANSCENDENTALIST.
BY G, DUNN.
buddled herself into a corner of the vehicle,
tucking her mantle more closely round When Evelyn Markham alighted in the her. The dusk deepened rapidly, and evening at the little station of A-on soon she could only see the white snow the Highland Railway, she found that the scurrying past. Once or twice they en. snowstorm which had been raging all day countered wreaths which were only surhad increased in violence; and the low mounted with difficulty, and with much sullen orercharged sky appeared to threaten foundering and plunging of the horses, its continuance. She had a drive of six whose panting and snorting testified their or seven miles before ber ere she reached excitement and the violence of their exerGlenfoyle House, the residence of her tions. Alistair's guttural exclamations friend Lady Nisbet, with whom she was and objurgations in Gaelic also were not going to spend a fortnight. She found a reassuring, for he was usually a very unclosed carriage drawn by a pair of hand- demonstrative driver, and rarely comprosome grays standing just outside the sta- mised his dignity by intemperate language. tion ; and she recognized Alistair Macal. To be sure, he seemed perfectly sober pine, Lady Nisbet's coachman, who was when they started, thought Evelyn ; but seated on the box with his babitual air of it was very cold, and who knows whether monumental digoity. A porter conveyed he had not fortified himself with an occaher luggage to the carriage, and she stood sional dram from some private receptacle ? for a moment to exchange a few words Then might he not in the darkness stray with Alistair. After a friendly greeting from the road, which was possibly almost and inquiries about Lady Nisbet's health, obliterated by the snow, and precipitate she asked what was the condition of the ber over a bank or into a ravine? She roads.
sat and shivered, partly with cold and “It will be very bad, matam-oh, very partly with apprehension. At times, when bad indeed ; and I'll no' be so sure that one side of the carriage was tilted up at an we'll win through. There is wreaths and angle perilously near 45°, Evelyn had to wreaths here and there ; but we'll chust brace her feet against the opposite seat, trust in Providence. Now, matam, if you expecting every moment to find the vehicle please, we'll be going as fast as ever we capsized. When, as she judged, about can.
half the journey had been accomplished, The road was fairly clear in the neigh- she perceived that the road began to deborhood of the station, for the wind swept scend, and the added gloom appeared to across it and kept the snow from accu- indicate that there were high banks or inulating to any considerable extent ; but rocks on either side. She peered out, but as they pursued their journey, the diffi- could discern nothing in the impenetrable culty of progression became aggravated. mass of gloom. All at once the carriage It was also exceedingly cold, and Evelyn stopped abruptly, and Alistair's voice
could be heard raised in seemingly anxious in such circumstances, stand upun stepand angry ejaculations. Eelyn pulled ping-stones," he remarked, answering her down the sash behind the driver's seat, unspoken protest. And now, let me and asked what was the matter.
help our Highland friend." “ It will be a snow-wreath.-stand still, She stood in the doorway and watched ye swine !—and the beasts is up to their the proceedings. The horses were degirths, and a trace is broke."
tached from the carriage and extricated Oh, wbat shall we do, Alistair ?”' from the snow-wreath ; one of them was cried Evelyn, in a quavering voice. relieved of part of its harness, a rug was
“There's a bit boosie here, by the side thrown over its loins, and Alistair clamof the road,—a queer body lives in't, no' bered upon its back. that wise, I'm thinking; and if the beasts “Maybe you will be having a drop of would stand still, I would get down, and whiskey,” he said, insinuatingly. see if he would help us. Hi, there ! Mr. 6. The exercise will warm you, my Casanove."
friend," was the cool reply. "You will Just then a light appeared flickering need all your sober wits to reach Lady about, and Evelyn heard a man's voice in Nisbet's, and every moment is precions. refined accents exchanging some remarks Alistair grunted something in Gaelic, with the driver. She looked out and saw presumably of an uncomplimentary chara tall man with a stable lantern in his acter, for the stranger replied sternly in hand, standing by the side of the road ; the same language, whereupon Alistair but the carriage-lamps seemed only to make muttered a deprecatory reply in a comithe darkness visible, and she could not cally discomfited tone, and rode off withdistinguish his features. Finally, he came out further parley. The stranger now recrunching through the snow to the door turned to his cottage door, and invited of the carriage.
Evelyn to enter with an air of deferential Young lady, further progress is im- courtesy. A huge Newfoundland dog possible, " he said.
There is a deep rose from the fireside as she stepped into wreath in front of my cottage, and it ap- the cottage, and advanced to meet her pears that one of the traces is broken. 'I with dignified scrutiny. Think your driver should unyoke the " What a magnificent dog !" she exhorses, get on the back of one of them, claimed, patting its noble head. and try to reach Lady Nisbet's. If she The stately animal slowly waved its tail has a sledge, it is just conceivable that it once or twice in token of amity, and then might reach you here ; but in the mean- returned to its resting-place. time I would heg of you to accept my
" Cæsar evidently approves of you, hospitality, such as it is."
remarked the stranger with a smile ; " I suppose there is no alternative,'' re- Caesar, Cæsar, you forget the door!" marked Evelyn, ruefully.
Whereupon the Newfoundland rose “None whatever, madam, I am sorry again with a curiously abashed and conto say.”
scious look, and advancing to the door, So saying, he opened the door of the slammed it to with its powerful paws, to carriage. She rose from her seat, and he Evelyn's amusement. lowered the step, on which she stood for The apartment which she had entered a moment, surveying with a bewildered was tolerably roomy, and seemed to be a Jook the wreath in which he stood up to kind of compromise between kitchen and the knees.
sitting-room. The floor was hard and ” he said, coolly, and be- firm and composed of some cement-like fore she could realize the situation, she substance, while one or two rugs and deerfelt herself lifted bodily by a pair of pow- skins supplied the place of a carpet, and erful arms and carried to the door of the gave to the apartment a comfortable look. cottage, where she was gently deposited. A dresser stood opposite the fireplace; and Though at heart rexed and irritated by the a framework of plain wooden shelves filled upceremonious though friendly act, she with books occupied a corner. A deal suppressed her annoyance, and thanked table was placed in the middle of the floor, him with only a shade of cold irony in and the stranger had evidently been writher tone.
ing, for a brass-mounted mahogany desk “Literally and figuratively we cannot, was lying open upon it. The roof was
" Allow ine,
low, and, like the walls, was whitewashed. dently robust and vigorous. His face had A couple of chairs, one of them an arm- little regularity of feature, but wore a chair, flanked the fireplace, in which a high-bred and intelligent look ; his keen peat-fire was smouldering, with the pun- gray eyes peered out from beneath bushy gent odor of which the atmosphere was eyebrows running in a straight line along impregnated. A cavalry-sabre was sus- a prominent frontal ridge. The forehead pended over the bookcase', on the top of was full and broad, and the chin slightly which lay a flute and a bundle of music. projecting His hands were long and
The stranger drew the arm-chair nearer sinewy, and a white scar ran obliquely to the fire and invited Evelyn to seat ber- across the back of the right hand. self, which she did after divesting herself “I suppose," said he, smiling, “I had of her heavy fur-lined mantle.
better introduce myself as Mr. Austin “ Had you not better remove your Casanove. May I beg the favor—" bat ?" he suggested. “ You will feel “ I am Evelyn Markham,” she replied. more comfortable.
“ You know that I am paying a visit to She silently acquiesced, though she in- my old friend Lady Nisbet ; and oh! wardly resented somewhat his aggressive what will she say about this ?" hospitality, as she considered it. Then He shrugged his shoulders as a Frenchshe hastily and almost pettishly pulled off man might, and then remarkedher gloves, and held out her hands toward 'I am one of her tenants ; and when the fire ; and where he stood he could see she knows that you are here, she will have the sullen glow gleaming through the pink no further anxiety. But what abont flesh on each side of her outspread fingers. food! I am but ill provided for a lady's Beautiful hands they were ; and the rings visit. Perhaps, however, you won't obshe wore—one of them an engagement- ject to a little porridge-and-milk ?” ring—flashed and shimmered prettily in "Nothing could be better," said the light of the fire. The tall and hand- Evelyn, who was dying for a cup of tea. some bronze lamp standing on the table " But I bethink me,' he added, behind her irradiated her shapely head ; thoughtfully, “you ladies like tea. I and her host, contemplating her for a wonder if there is any tea in the house. brief instant, thought that a very charm- Permit me to explain that I don't take ing genre picture might be made of such tea." materials and such a scene. She for her 6. Nor coffee?!! part was both embarrassed and perplexed. Nor coffee." The heteroclite character of the furniture “May I ask why ?" and domestic arrangements, with their " It is a dangerous tbing to begin to blending of the common and the refined, catechize a doctrinaire. Well, because I puzzled her greatly, and uncasy specula- do not believe in any nerve-stimulants extions began to course through her brain. cept fresh air and exercise." Was be quite sane ? Was there nobody
don't take alcoholic beverelse in the cottage ?
ages, I presume?" As if he had divined the current of her “No; though not to take whiskey in ideas, he said quietly, “My housekeeper the Highlands is to be a kind of tree-frog (I use the word in a very elastic sense) is or flying-fish.” just now milking the cow, I think, but “I venture to assume also that you she will be in presently. She is a High- don't smoke." land woman, and speaks Auently only “I see you have an inductive turn of Gaelic, but she is intelligent and kindis, mind, Miss Markham. Well, you are 80 it will not be difficult to make her un- right. I don't.” derstand your requirements.''
" Nor snuff ?" “ Thank you very much, but I require “ Nor snuff. Nor chew.” nothing,” replied Evelyn, considerably re- She laughed merrily. lieved. “And I hope I shall not trespass “But why don't you believe in nerve. unduly on your kindness."
stimulants ? Why, the juice of butcherHo shook his head slightly, but made meat is one ; and doctors say persons in a no comment. She shot a swift and com- certain state might get drunk on a beefprehensive glance at him. He was a tall steak." and handsome man, rather lean, but evi. " I don't take butcher-meat."
And he smiled at her look of discom- these classes are tyrants. But perhaps fiture.
you are a Radical, Miss Markham; many " Nor fowls ?''
ladies are such nowadays, I believe.” “ Nor fowls, nor game. Though I con- “ Well, I don't much believe in governfess to a little aberration or inconsistency ment by means of Policeman X.” here, for I eat eggs.
That involves a “ And you would bave questions in point of gastronomic casuistry.”
Parliament every time Colin Clout gets a “ You are in fact a vegetarian ?”' biow from a baton-tunt de bruit pour " Well, yes ; if you wish to label me.
une pomme de terre.” " And is Cæsar a vegetarian too ?”
Well, Colin Clout's cranium is of “Caesar does his best to imitate his great importance to him.” master, but has lapses froin virtue. You “Let Colin keep his invaluable brains like a bone, don't you, Cæsar ?''
out of the range of batons ; he knows The Newfoundland raised bis head, and very well where they flourish and are the corners of his large black chaps began flourished. But I beg your pardon for to quiver with such evident imaginary en- talking politics. And it is not usual with joyment that Evelyn could not help laugh- me ; for, though a vegetarian, I observe ing. After a sniff or two and a hollow the Pythagorean maxim to abstain from moan he laid down his head again upon beans—that is, from voting and all the the rug, and blinked solemnly, perhaps rest of it." reproachfully, at his master.
Meanwhile Flora had by this time set Meanwhile Casanove had risen and pro- the table for the evening meal. Evelyn ceeded to make the porridge. Evelyn got her cup of tea—very good it was, watched his operations-it was evidently and took a little porridge-and-milk, in
familiar process—with inward amuse- honor of her host. Flora bad seated herment, but with a grave and attentire face. self on a stool and proceeded to knit inWhile he was thus engaged, chatting the dustriously. while about the storm, Evelyn heard the “I grant you,” said Casanove, balsound of footsteps ; presently a side-door ancing his spoon meditatively on his foreopened, and an elderly woman entered the finger, “ that this is not a concise kind of apartment. She had a pleasing homely feeding. It is, so to speak, voluminous. countenance, and despite the prominence But why should we be in a hurry? Naof her cheek-bones must have been a very ture isn't. And what a comfort to reflect comely person when she was young. On that if you only give this preparation seeing Evelyn she smiled and curtseyed. time, it is sure to be digested. With Casanove addressed to her a few words in more artificial dishes, there is always a Gaelic ; and she nodded energetically, and dread Perhaps that they won't be assimihaving disappeared for a few minutes re- Jated, as they call it, though I confess I turned with a glazed earthenware teapot don't see how a lobster salad or a pâté de of a deep and matured color, which had foie gras can appeal to me. My system evidently often stood by the fire in a
refuses to recognize them. brown study. She then proceeded to in- "Well, your food will do I suppose fuse tea.
well enough for a student and a recluse, “ Flora likes both tea and toddy,” said Evelyn ; “but I fear it wonld be inmarked Casanove, smiling; and Flora sufficient for a inan who undergoes severe gave a low laugh, and again nodded em- physical exertion.” phatically. “Every doctrinaire, Miss Pardon me, I roam about these bills Markham, ” he continued, as he slowly all day long on the strength of bread and stirred the porridge, which was now be- cheese and milk.” ginning to throb and sputter lazily,“ is She was silent for a few moments, and apt to be a benevolent tyrant ; and I have then said bluntlyto guard against that. And therefore, as Will you pardon me, if I ask what freedom is better even than temperance, you really are, Mr. Casanove, for you are I like to see Flora taking her tea. It is a perfect enigma to me. her è pur si muove, her protest against my 'I am a kind of practical mineralogist, infallibility. I conceive that society has he replied, with a smile. "I wander most to fear from the twin forces of the over all this region in search of the various Radicals and the Fadicals ; for both of kinds of rock that are found here, and I