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of his power,
And the hammer and fashioning-iron and beside this heartfelt and eminently natural the living coal of fire ;
outburst. We feel, as we read this hymn, And the craft that createth a semblance and
that its author was a true Christian, after fails of the heart's desire," etc.
the manner of the fisher-disciples, whose And these from Whittier :
humility almost equalled that of the Gali“ Where our heathen doom rings and gray lean. stones of the Horg,
Whittier rarely gives himself the trouble In its little Christian city stands the Church
to search for original metaphors ; he seems of Vordingborg ; In merry mood King Volmar sat, forgetful rather to prefer those that have been con
secrated by immemorial use. Hear the As idle as the Goose of Gold that brooded climax of the Wish of To-Day, another on his tower."
of this poet's beautiful hymns : Whittier's hymns are also deservedly Though oft like lelters traced on sand admired. Of these, the one beginning :
My weak resolves bave passed away, 6 And so beside the silent sea
In mercy lend Thy helping hand
Unto my prayer to-day.'
In conclusion, we will cite Thy Will Be
Done, which recalls the seventeenth and is as fine in its way as Tennyson's Cross- eighteenth century hymnology. Surely ing the Bar.
there is an echo of Bishop Herbert's ten
der devotional feeling in the following “ And Thou, O Lord, by whom are seen
lines : Thy creatures as they be, Forgive me if too close I lean
" We take with solemn thankfulness My human beart on Thee."
Our burden up, nor ask it less,
And count it joy that even we
Whose will be done." spectively of unction and pious hysteria
WITH APOLOGIES TO MR. RUDYARD KIPLING AND PROFESSOR GARNER.
BY E. H. T.
To-day the American professor, Mr. R. L. Garner, leaves Liverpool in Messrs. Elder, Dempster & Co.'s steamer Matadi for Gaboon, South-West Africa, for the purpose of studying the language of the forests, though chiefly that of the monkey species. Professor Garner has the special patronage of ex President Grover Cleveland and Mr. T. A. Edison in his unique undertaking, and claims to have recorded and reduced the voices of nearly all the monkeys on the American continent. He is going to Africa to reduce the sounds of the monkeys' voices out there, and to do the same with the lower tribes of mankind. The professor says he is confident that he can find the means of intelligent intercourse with the man-like apes, and to show that they possess the faculty of speech. Among the articles which Professor Garner is taking out is a steel cage intended for his accommodation in the forests, and to prevent him being molested by any wild animals. The cage is portable, and can with facility be erected. It is merely frames with corrugated steel wire, and in this the professor hopes to remain secure. He is entirely alone in his venture, which he is undertaking for the advancement of science."— Yorkshire Post.
This is the wonderful story
Told when the twilight fails,
And nibble each other's tails.
One day, in the forest primeval,
Where monkeys and pigmies abound,
Arose on the silence a sound.
In the silent hush of the noonday,
When all honest monkeys are napping, In the depths of the ancient forest
Was heard a mysterious tapping.
Our grandmother, peacefully sleeping,
Had told us the story again
And made them the things they call men.
Sbe awoke with a start from her slumbers,
And, bending her ear to the ground, Cried she, “ 'Tis a terrible farmer !".
Then, gaining a branch with a bound,
She called to her slumbering children,
And bidding them hold by her tail, She led us to where, from safe quarters, We
e saw what made each of us quail.
Far down in the twilight beneath us,
In a prison of twisted wire,
Could only our pity inspire.
Haggard and shaven and helpless,
Without e'en the stump of a tail, We recognized one of our kindred,
And set up a heartrending wail.
With a leap as the leap of a leopard,
He uttered an answering yell; And the sound that broke forth from his quivering lips
Was a word that was known to us well.
Our grandmother heard it with rapture,
And, in spite of her ven'rable age, She shook her tail free of her offspring,
And flung herself down on the cage. “ 'Tis my baby, my long, long lost darling !"
She whimpered, in accents of joy ; “ He remembers the speech that I loved so to teach
Him when only a toddling boy ! Come hither, 'ye tribes of the forest,
To rescue your wandering brother, Whose trembling feet and yearning heart
Have turned to his sorrowing mother,” With a rush as the roar of the tempest,
They came at their ancestress' call ; And the joy thus expressed in her face and her voice
Was reflected and echoed by all.
We surrounded the wire-twisted fortress,
And, stretching forth welcoming paws, We seized on the bars of his prison
And wrenched them asunder like straws.
Now this is the wonderful story
Told when the twilight fails,
- Blackwood's Magazine.
THE INADEQUACY OF “NATURAL SELECTION.”
BY HERBERT SPENCER.
STUDENTS of psychology are familiar fore the middle of the back could distinwith the experiments of Weber on the guish between two points and one. That sense of touch. He found that different is to say, as thus measured, the end of parts of the surface differ widely in their the forefinger has thirty times the tactual ability to give information concerning the discriminativeness which the middle of things touched. Some parts, which yield- the back has. ed vivid sensations, yielded little or no Between these extremes he found gradaknowledge of the size or form of the tions. The inner surfaces of the second thing exciting it ; whereas other parts, joints of the fingers can distinguish sepafrom which there came sensations much rateness of positions only half as well as less acute, furnished clear impressions re- the tip of the forefinger. The innermost specting tangible characters, even of rela- joints are still less discriminating, but have tively small objects. These unlikenesses a power of discrimination equal to that of of tactual discriminativeness he ingenious- the tip of the nose. The end of the great ly expressed by actual measurements. Tak- toe, the palm of the hand, and the cheek ing a pair of compasses, he found that if have alike one-fifth of the perceptiveness they were closed so nearly that the points which the tip of the forefinger bas; and were less than one-twelfth of an inch the lower part of the forehead has but apart, the end of the forefinger could not one-half that possessed by the cheek. perceive that there were two points : the The back of the hand and the crown of two points seemed one. But when the the head are nearly alike in having but a compasses were opened so that the points fourteenth or a fifteenth of the ability to were one-twelfth of an inch apart, then : perceive positions as distinct, which is the end of the forefinger distinguished possessed by the finger-end. The thigh, the two points. On the other hand, he near the knee, has rather legs, and the found that the compasses must be opened breast less still ; so that the
compasses to the extent of two and a half inches be- must be more than an inch and a half
apart before the breast distinguishes the finger-ends, recently tested, comes up to two points from one another.
the standard specified by Weber, it is clear What is the meaning of these differ- that this decrease of manipulative power, ences ? How, in the course of evolution, accompanying increase of age, was due to have they been established ? If natural decrease in the delicacy of muscular coselection or survival of the fittest is the ordination and sense of pressure—not to assigned cause, then it is required to show decrease of tactual discriminativeness. in what way each of these degrees of en- But not making much of these criticisms, dowment has advantaged the possessor to let us admit the conclusion that this high such extent that not infrequently life has perceptive power possessed by the forebeen directly or indirectly preserved by finger-end inay have arisen by survival of
We might reasonably assume that in the fittest ; and let us limit the argument the absence of
8ome differentiating proc- to the other differences. ess, all parts of the surface would have How about the back of the trunk and like powers of perceiving relative posi- its face? Is any advantage derived from tions. They cannot have become widely possession of greater tactual discriminaunlike in perceptiveness without some tiveness by the last than by the first ?
And if the cause alleged is natural The tip of the nose has more than three selection, then it is necessary to show that times the power of distinguishing relative the greater degree of the power possessed positions which the lower part of the foreby this part than by that, has not only head has. Can this greater power be conduced to the maintenance of life, but shown to have any advantage? The back bas conduced so much that an individual of the band has scarcely more discriminain whom a variation has produced better tive ability than the crown of the head, adjustment to needs, thereby maintained and has only one-fourteenth of that which Jife when some others lost it ; and that the finger-tip has. Why is this? Adamong the descendants inheriting this vari- vantage might occasionally be derived if ation, there was a derived advantage such the back of the band could tell us more as enabled them to multiply more than the than it does about the shapes of the surdescendants of individuals not possessing faces touched.
faces touched. Why should the thigh it. Can this, or anything like this, be near the knec be twice as perceptive as shown ?
the middle of the thigh ? And, last of That the superior perceptiveness of the all, why should the middle of the foreforefinger-tip has thus arisen, might be arm, middle of the thigh, middle of the contended with some apparent reason. back of the neck, and middle of the back, Such perceptiveness is an important aid to all stand on the lowest level, as having manipulation, and may have sometimes but one-thirtieth of the perceptive power given a life-saving advantage. In making which the tip of the forefinger bas? To arrows or fish-hooks, a savage possessing prove that these differences have arisen some extra amount of it may, have been by natural selection, it has to be shown thereby enabled to get food where another that such small variation in one of the
In civilized life, too, a seamstress parts as might occur in a generation—say with well-endowed finger-ends might be one-tenth extra amount-has yielded an expected to gain a better livelihood than appreciably greater power of self-preservaone with finger-ends which were obtuse ; tion, and that those inheriting it have conthough this advantage would not be so tinued to be so far advantaged as to mulgreat as appears. I bave found that two tiply more than those who, in other reladies whose finger-ends were covered with spects equal, were less endowed with this glove-tips, reducing their sensitiveness trait. Does any one think he can show from one-twelfth of an inch between com- this ? pass points to one-seventh, Jost nothing But if this distribution of tactual perappreciable of their quickness and good- ceptiveness cannot be explained by surness in sewing. An experience of my own vival of the fittest, how can it be explained ? here comes in evidence. Toward the The reply is that, if there bas been in close of my salmon-fishing days, I used operation à cause which it is now the to observe what a bungler I had become fashion among biologists to ignore or in putting on and taking off artificial flies. deny, these various differences are at once As the tactual discriminativeness of my accounted for. This cause is the inherit
ance of acquired characters. As a pre- Now if acquired structnral traits are inliminary tu setting forth the argument heritable, the various contrasts above set showing this, I have made some experi- down are obvious consequences ; for the ments.
gradations in tactual perceptiveness correIt is a current belief that the fingers of spond with the gradations in the tactual the blind, more practised in luctual ex- exercises of the parts. Save by contact ploration than the fingers of those who can with clothes, which present. only broad see, acquire greater discriminativeness : surfaces having but slight and indefinite especially the fingers of those blind who contrasts, the lunk has but little converse have been taught to read from raised let- with external bodies, and it bas but small ters, Not wishing to trust to this current discriminative power ; but what discrimibelief, I recently tested two youths, one native power it has is greater on its face of fifteen and the other younger, at the than on its back, corresponding to the School for the Blind in Upper Avenue fact that the chest and abdomen are much Road, and found the belief to be coriect. more frequently explored by the hands : Instead of being unable to distinguish be- this difference being probably in part intween points of the con passes until they herited from inferior creatures, for, as we were opened to one-twelfth of an inch may see in dogs and cats, the helly is far apart, I found that both of them could more accessible to feet and tongue than distinguish between points when only one- the back. No less obtuse than the back fourteenth of an inch apart.
are the middle of the back of the neck, thick and coarse skins ; and doubtless, the middle of the forearm, and the midbad this intervening obstacle so produced dle of the thigh ; and these parts have been less, the discriminative power would but rare experiences of irregular foreign have been greater. It afterward occurred bodies. The crown of the head is occato me that a better test would be furnished sionally felt by the fingers, as also the by those whose finger-ends are exercised back of one hand by the fingers of the in tactual perceptions, not occasionally, as other ; but neither of these surfaces, by the blind in reading, but all day long which are only twice as perceptive as the in pursuit of their occupations. The facts back, is used with any frequency for answered expectation. Two skilled com- touching objects, much less for examining positors, on whom I experimented, were them.
them. The lower part of the forehead, both able to distinguish between points though more perceptive than the crown when they were only one-seventeenth of of the head, in correspondence with a an inch apart. Thus we have clear proof somewhat greater converse with the bands, that constant exercise of the tactual ner- is less than one-third as perceptive as the vous structures leads to further develop- tip of the nose ; and manifestly, both in ment. *
virtue of its relative prominence, in virtue
of its contacts with things smelt at, and * Let me here note in passing a highly sig: in virtue of its frequent acquaintance with nificant implication. The development of the handkerchief, the tip of the nose has nervous structures which in such cases takes far greater tactual experience. Passing place, cannot be limited to the finger-ends. If we figure to ourselves the separate sensitive to the inner surfaces of the hands, which, areas which severally yield independent feel. taken as wholes, are more constantly occuings, as constituting a network (not, indeed, pied in touching than are the back, breast, a network sharply marked out, but probably thigh, forearm, forehead, or back of the one such that the ultimate fibrils in each area intrude more or less into adjacent areas, so that the separations are indefinite), it is mani. ceives the impressions. Nay more,
there fest that when, with exercise, the structure must be, in this central recipient-tract, an has become further elaborated, and the meshes added number of the separate elements whicb, of the network smaller, there must be a mul. by their excitement, yield separate feelings. tiplication of fibres communicating with the so that this increased power of tactual dis. central nervous system. If two adjacent areas crimination implies a peripheral development, were supplied by branches of one fibre, the a multiplication of fibres in the trunk-nerve, touching of either would yield to conscious. and a complication of the nerve-centre. It ness the same sensation ; there could be no can scarcely be doubted that analogous changes discrimination between points touching the occur under analogous conditions throughout two. That there may be discrimination, there all parts of the nervous system-not in its must be a distinct connection between each sensory appliances only, but in all its higher area and the tract of gray matter which re. co-ordinating appliances up to the highest.