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forcing reforms upon the Academy, left ganization and management than ordinary the agitators in a body, and proceeded to picture shows. The very fact of having take counsel together as to the best means to deal with such a variety of work as was of furthering their aims, and the immedi- submitted, and the conditions under which ate result was the founding of the Arts work in decoration is generally done (makaud Crafts Exhibition Society, which, after ing it difficult for the artist to retain posmany difficulties, opened its first exhibi- session of bis work for exhibition purtion at the New Gallery in the autumn of poses), made the formation of such an ex1888.
hibition at all no easy matter. Then there The members of the society, who were were two open and palpable dangers to also most of them members of the Art be encountered. The danger of being Workers' Guild aforementioned, were well swamped by a great influx of amateur aware of the difficulties they would bare work, as it is generally understood, on the to face in the endeavor to realize their one band, and the danger of merely comaims and carry out their principles. Their mercial work getting the upper hand on main object, however, was to denion- the other. To keep strate, by means of a representative pub
“ Along the narrow strip of herbage strown lic exhibition, the actual state of decora
That just divides the desert from the sown” tive art in all its kinds as far as possible. They desired to assert the claims of the was a delicate matter, and it was easy to decorative designer and craftsman to the wander off into the regions on either band. position of artist, and give every one re- For, in spite of the immense activity and sponsible in any way for the artistic char- industry, the independent artists in design acter of a work full individual credit, by and handicraft were but few; and, algiving his name in the catalogue, whether though many inventive brains and skilled the work was exhibited by a firm or not. hands might be disguised as and They also desired to bring the worker and Company," they had to be discovered ; the public together. In spite of all draw- the bushel had to be taken away and the backs the richness and artistic interest of light put upon the candlestick of publicity, the exhibition was generally acknowledged, and this appeared to be a trial to some. and the novelty of the idea attracted the It might be thought to be of small impublic.
portance, this matter of assigning artistic An exhibition of designs and cartoons authorship or credit for any part of the for decoration had been held by the work where it was due ; and it may be directors of the Grosvenor Gallery in 1881, quite true that when men have reached the but it was limited to this class of work, so point when artistic tradition and social that this Arts and Crafts Exhibition may condition both favor a fraternal co-operabe said to have been really the first which tion in production, they can afford to sink attempted anything like a representative the individual claim to distinction in the and comprehensive display of, 'not only collective pride of saying—" This is our designs for work, but the actual work it- work." But we have not reached that self, for its artistic and decorative quality stage yet, and it seems only common fairalone. It comprised designs and cartoons, ness if individual and artistic responsibility modelled work, wood carving, furniture, is attached to a work the credit should go tapestry and embroidery, and printed cot- with them and be assigned in the proper tuns ; pottery, tiles, and glass ; metal- quarter. In these days of commercial work, jewelry, printed books, binding, competition and sculptor's “ ghost," it is calligraphy, and illumination; and un- perhaps hardly surprising that the asserdoubtedly included some of the best con- tion of such a principle might produce a temporary work wbich had been produced little consternation, and also, in cases of a in England up to that time. The exhibi- great multiplicity of cooks, it might easily tion was repeated at the same place the be understood to be embarrassing, to disfollowing year at the same time, and also tribute properly the individual responsithe year after, so that the society bas now bility for spoiling the broth, and, thereheld three exhibitions, and promises an- fore, not wonderful that it should, in some other in 1893.
instances, have been shirked altogether. It is obvious that exhibitions of this As another indication of the way the kind involve many more difficulties of or- wind was blowing,
an Association was
formed this same year (1888) for the Ad- All these movements may be but futtervancement of Art in association with In- ing leaves in the wind, but at least they dustry—a somewhat large order. Almost serve to show its direction. The colois everything and everybody had had their of spring sometimes resemble those of aucongresses, and why not art ? So an Art tumn ; but the former are distinguished
Congress was arranged to take place at by a certain daintiness and delicacy, a soft · Liverpool in December of that year. It bloom of silver and russet comes over the was properly divided into sections for the woods before the cloud-like green drapes separate discussion of painting, architec- them for the coming summer.
When we ture, sculpture, and decorative or applied see delicate and harmonious dyes and patart, as the phrase goes.
be inen- terns in the fabrics of the windows of comtioned here that the Society of Arts bad merce ; when we see dainty gowns in the before this formed a special committee to street, expressing the fair forms of their arrange for lectures and discussions on wearers with the grace of flowers ; when “the applied arts,” and had also offered we see a certain sense of relation and barprizes to art workmen for excellence in mony of tint in the most ordinary arrangevarious departments of handicraft, and bad ments of paint and paper in our interiors ; beld a small exbibition of such works in when our chairs and couches not upfretheir rooms in the Adelphi. Well, the quently show lines of good breeding ; Congress at Liverpool duly met, and every when we find books on the table which one having a particular axe to grind have been considered by their printers and brought it to the common grindstone of desiguers as works of art as well as of public discussion. It was a fairly repre- literature, and thus give a double pleasure, sentative parliament. The Royal Acade- since they satisfy more than one of the mician sat down with the Socialist; the - well we begin to think that somescientific color theorist fed with the prac- thing has bappened to us ; some new spirit tical decorator ; the industrial villager has breathed upon the land, that such refaced the manufacturer ; the art critic and finements should be possible to the modthe painter iningled their tears ; and all crate citizen, remembering that such tbings were led to the pasture by a gentle fine art but a few years ago could not be bad for professor. Some home truths were spoken, love or money. We might still be happy and there were many interesting papers were it not for the whirlwind of trade and and discussions, but wbether we were the whirligig of fashion, which occasionreally nearer solving the problem how to ally seem to coquette with art, as a child bring about the marriage of art and indus- plays with a toy, but soon turns away to try is doubtful, though the association had continue their mad chase after a supposianother campaign at Edinburgh the fol. titious“ novelty.” Happily they leave lowing year, and one since at Birmingham. some quiet corners unswept, as they have Association and discussion among people always done, or wo could never have of common interests is, of course, good, known what the homes of our ancestors but art is a subject by its very nature diff
But how many still does Engcult to deal with in words, although per- land hold of those delightful places full of haps more is said about it in these days the pathos of passed time, where each tban almost any other subject.
dumb thing of wood, or iron, or copper, “ A hair perbaps divides the false and true." each fragment of faded tapestry seems to
have the speech of romance, We have no word symbols for defining
“ full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet those delicate shades of difference so im
breathing"? portant to the artist, and to be perpetually qualifying is fatiguing. It is useful to When the utilitarian would destroy such consider art in its relation to life ; to con- relics for the sake of “ modern improvesider how it is affected by economic con- ments,” we do not realize what priceless ditions ; to study its history and influence things we lose. We can only realize it and the lives of its workers. One can when we live for a time in country or city even proceed a certain distance with gen- without antiquity of any sort. Here in eral principles, but finally we must get England there are still many places where down to the solid ground of practice to we might have the suggestion that we solve its real problems,
moderns were like children, playing with
new toys in front of a rich tapestried mechanical and artificial conditions. Such background, full of great deeds and ro- revolts make epochs, and when the human
In America the idea could not mind is deeply stirred, it is sure, sooner occur, and the absence of such suggestion or later, to find expression in some revival is no doubt much felt by the more cul- or new form of art. tured and thoughtful, especially after visit- A great intellectual revolution has taken ing Europe. It may partly account, too, place in the last half century : a great sofor the more fantastic character in the cial revolution is preparing, or even now architecture of some of their recent coun. progressing. Whether art will again be try dwellings, which are full of nooks and able to sum up and express adequately in corners and odd gables and stairways, as monumental form the new life and its asif their designer wished to make up by bis pirations, as it expressed the heart of aninvention for the absence of old-timo sen- cient life in Greece and mediæval Europe, timent.
must depend upon its power of appeal, and Some of us appear to be trying to turn this again must depend upon the sensitiveEngland into another America, forever ness to form and color on the part of the scheming railways where they are not people. In England the domestic sentiwanted, cutting down trees and clearing ment is so strong that enthusiasm for large away old dwelling-places, and insulting public works is rare, and opportunities for even the green fields with advertisements. sculptor or painter to express anything like (This last is a recent innovation which the generic thought of their time, or to ought to be promptly stopped, if we care touch the pride or hopes of the nation for the scenery of our country.) Any- rarer still. It is true, we have our frescoes thing that interferes with extra percentages of English bistory at the Houses of Paris as dust in the balance to such.
liament, but they cannot be said, with the In the destruction of beauty of any exception of the work of Mr. G. F. Watts, kind, however, is involved the destruction to have been conceived in an epic spirit. of the faculty of its perception and appre
The art that is capable of illustrating ciation. The artistic capacity and sense this spirit is what is called decorative art : of beauty must be fed by the contempla- but the art which can cover large mural tion of beauty, or both will in time perish. spaces with a people's history and legend We cannot really satisfy one of the senses in noble and typical forms; the art which unless we satisfy them all. It is often can lift our souls with large thoughts, or said, You must sacrifice this or that to enchant them with a sense of mystery and comfort and convenience ;'' but it is quite romance, can also be a familiar friend at possible to have every so-called comfort our firesides, and touch each common and convenience, and yet to be anything thing of every-day use with beauty, weave but happy or comfortable. Unless the ing its golden threads into the joys and utilitarian succeeds in eliminating the sense sorrows of common life, and making happy of beauty and art altogether, the natural both young and old. — Fortnightly Revier. man will still revolt against the tyranny of
"Per me si va nella città dolente,
tal agony of despair, in addition to exPer me si va nell'eterno dolore,
treme physical torture, was recognized as Per me si va tra la perduta gente.
the inevitable lot of the multitude of lost
souls. It was also of the essence of this Lasciate ogni speranza, voi che entrate."
belief that the agony should be eternal, “Leave every hope behind, O ye who enter and known to be eternal by the wretched here !''
perduta gente-of that Dante's terrible words truly express "città dolente," that city of despair. what was the almost universal belief of But the modern mind has come to feel Christians for many centuries. The men- an abhorrence for beliefs which
viewed with complacency or accepted one or two exceptions) be relieved from without difficulty for so many ages. And uneasiness as to their own obligations in not only the sentiment of our day, but such respect. what we take to be its more highly evolved We
e repeat that our sense of responsimoral perceptions, are shocked beyond ex- bility is extreme, as is our desire in no pression at the doctrine that countless mul- way to trifle with so solemn a question. titudes of mankind will burn forever in For the minds which are disturbed and hell fire, out of which there is no possible distressed by difficulties about hell include redemption. Our experience shows that many among the best of mankind. It is not a few persons have abandoned Chris- the very nobility of their character, the tianity on account of this dogma, which tenderness of their sympathetic feelings and also constitutes the very greatest difficulty the keenness of their perceptions concernfor many who desire to obtain a rational ing justice and benevolence, which make religious belief and to accept the Church's these difficulties seem to them so insurteaching.
mountable. They would rejoice to find Is, then, the doctrine against which so their distress needless ; and to afford that strong a repugnance is felt, really one es- satisfaction to such persons would be to us sential to Christianity ; and, if so, can it an exceedingly great consolation. We be a belief reconcilable with right reason, feel, therefore, the more bound not to the highest morality and the greatest blink any difficulty and to do our best to benevolence ?
be scrupulously impartial and candid. The following pages contain suggestions In setting out to consider what is Catho. offered in reply to this important question lic teaching on this terrible question, we about which we have found so widespread are fortunate in being able to refer to two an interest to exist. They have been writ- recent publications in English. The first ten under a deep sense of responsibility, of them is a book by the late Henry Nutwith an earnest desire to study the ques. combe Oxenham * (devoted to setting out tion honestly and impartially ; not in the what the Catholic doctrine on this subject spirit of an advocate, still less in that of a really is), which has not only met with no Jover of paradox. They are addressed to censure, but has been very generally apTheists--to those who believe in the ex- proved of. The second publication is an istence of a God infinitely wise, powerful anonymous article written by a very disand good. It would obviously be absurd tinguished theologian, and published in a to argue concerning the nature and mean- periodical the name of which is a suficient ing of any doctrine, considered to be a re- guarantee for the thorough orthodoxy of vealed doctrine, with men for whom there the writer. is no God to reveal it. Secondly, we as- It is most certain that the Catholic sume that our readers agree with us in Church is definitely committed to the docaccepting the doctrine of the soul's im- trine that souls condemned to hell remain mortality and moral responsibility ; our there for all eternity and that all of them actions carrying with them consequences suffer the loss of the Beatific Vision of which extend into our future life.
God (the pæna damni), while a portion of As we have done before (when consid- them further suffer what is technically deering the compatibility of Evolution and nominated the pæna sensus—the equivamodern Biblical criticism with Christian- lent of “bell fire." Universalism, or the ity), so here also, we take the teaching of final restitution of all men, is (as Mr. the Catholic Church as our standard. We Oxenbam has conclusively shown) utterly do this not only because it is our inestima- irreconcilable with Catholic doctrine. It ble privilege and unspeakable happiness to is interesting to find that the Eastern belong to it, but also because no other test Church (such a remarkable “ survival” of could be so useful to Christians of all de- earlier conditions) teaches the same docnominations. For if it should turn out trine. In “ The Orthodox Confession that the oldest, the most authoritative and of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern dogmatic Christian body should not have committed itself to any dogına about hell * Catholic Eschulology and Universalism (Lon. inevitably conflicting with reason and con
don, W. H. Allen & Co., 1878). science, the members of more recent and
7" Everlasting Punishment,” an article in
the Dublin Revier, vol. v. (third series), 1881, less dogmatic bodies may (possibly with p. 117.
Church,” we find to the question “What who are excluded from it. Pargatory bas is to be thought of those who die at enmity nothing to do with the question here diswith God ?" the following reply * : cussed, since it is but a passing, temporary “ Some will be chastised with heavier, state. The Church sets before men but some with lighter punishments, but all two kinds of eternal existence—an eternal forever, according to the Scripture." existence in possession of the Beatific Again, in the full Catechism of that Vision (that is, heaven), and an existence Church, question 383 is : “ But what will in eternal exclusion from it—which is hell. be the lot of unbelievers and transgres- This has ever been Catholic teaching. sors ?” and the answer is : “ They will In our parish churches it was customary to be given over to everlasting death-that have a painting of the Last Judgment over is, to everlasting fire, to everlasting tor- the chancel arch. In the middle was a ment, with the devils.”
representation of Christ enthroned, as a To show that the teaching of the Catho- judge ; on his right hand were the just lic Church is at least in harmony with that ascending to bliss, wbile on his left demons of Scripture, we need only refer to Mat- drove lost souls into the widely gaping thew xxv. 41, 46, Mark iii. 29 avd ix. 47 jaws of hell. The same subject was often and 18, and Revelation xiv. 11, avd xxi. portrayed on the richly sculptured fonts of 8. That the damned also do not acquire Gothic cathedrals—as may be very well better dispositions is implied in Rer. xvi. seen at Amiens. 10, 11, where we read :
The often grotesque realism and the gnawed their tongues for pain, and blas- monstrosities of such representations are phemed the God of heaven because of apt now to raise a smile, but it was far their pain and their wounds, and repented otherwise with those who first conteinnot of their deeds."
plated them, to whom they were a part of This was but the further continuation that “ Bible for the people” which on all of antecedent Jewish teaching. Edersheim sides, in their places of worship, simulat least tells us f that “ Notorious breakers taneously appealed to their senses, their of the law, and especially apostates from inagination, and their reason. the Jewish faith and heretics, have no The lessons inculcated by such imagery hope whatever, here or hereafter.” This were in full accord with what was taught is not wonderful when we recollect how in from the pulpit and by the writings of diIsaiah (xxxiii. 14) we read of “everlasting vines of those and of antecedent ages. burnings,” in Jeremiah (xxiii. 40) of They taught plainly that there were eter
everlasting reproach,” and in Daniel nally in hell unspeakable torments (poena (xii. 2) of “ everlasting contempt.” sensus) in addition to the state of loss
The various Protestant sects generally the poena damni. This was the unanimous followed, as concerns hell, the teaching of teaching of Saints and Fathers—especially the Church ; and Lutherans and Calvinists, homilists—such as St. Gregory the Great, Anglicans and Puritans, were in this per- St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. fectly agreed, and it is notorious that, Bonaventure, and so many more that it until recently, the almost universal teach- would be useless to attempt to enumerate ing of the Protestant clergy was that for them here. There can be no question but the righteous there was everlasting happi- that the Catholic Church is irrevocably ness, and everlasting condemnation for the committed to the doctrine that not only reprobate.
are the damned damned for all eternity, That between those who are eternally but that their condition is least inadequateexcluded from heaven there are differences ly represented by images of the most exof condition—it may be enormous differ- treme and varied torture. This teaching ences—is freely admitted both by Greeks has been familiarly brought home to the and Latins; but it is no less true that such people in the most startling and appalling differences are declared to be nothing in manner by preachers and popular writers, comparison with the difference which exists age after age. Although the Church never between those admitted to the Beatific hesitates to condemn what it deems erroVision and the most favored of all those
neous teaching, it bas never (so far as we
know) condemned even that repulsive and * Quoted by Oxenham, op. cit. p. 204.
widely known book entitled Hell Opened + See bis Sicetches of Jewish Social Life, p. 180.
to Christians. This work was published