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dignity and patriotic elevation in 'Leonidas,' which might even yet find admirers. Thomson is said to have exclaimed, when he heard of the work of Glover, 'He write an epic poem, who never saw a mountain! Yet Thomson himself, familiar as he was in his youth with mountain scenery, was tame and commonplace when he ventured on classic or epic subjects. The following passage is lofty and energetic :
[Address of Leonidas.]
He alone Remains unshaken. Rising, he displays His godlike presence. Dignity and grace Adorn his frame, and manly beauty, joined With strength Herculean. On his aspect shines Sublimest virtue and desire of fame, Where justice gives the laurel; in his eye The inextinguishable spark, which fires The souls of patriots; while his brow supports Undaunted valour, and contempt of death. Serene he rose, and thus addressed the throng: Why this astonishment on every face,
Ye men of Sparta? Does the name of death
Beside the public way an oval fount
For weary steps he framed this cool retreat;
Thou would'st obtain perpetual grace from Jove,
In the Athenais' we have a continuation of the
A light, reposing on the quiet lake,
Swells on the surface. Marble structures there
The scene presented by the shores of Salamis on the morning of the battle is thus strikingly depicted. The poet gives no burst of enthusiasm to kindle up his page, and his versification retains most of its usual hardness and want of flow and cadence; yet the assemblage described is so vast and magnificent, and his enumeration is so varied, that the picture carries with it a host of spirit-stirring associations:[The Armies at Salamis.]
O sun! thou o'er Athenian towers,
Is thronged with millions, male and female race,
By warriors covered, like some trophy huge,
With newly-gathered flowerets; chaplets gay
A popular vitality has been awarded to a ballad of Glover's, while his epics have sunk into oblivion:
Admiral Hosier's Ghost.
[Written on the taking of Carthagena from the Spaniards, 1739
[The case of Hosier, which is here so pathetically represented, was briefly this:-In April 1726, that commander was sent with a strong fleet into the Spanish West Indies, to block up the galleons in the ports of that country; or, should they presume to come out, to seize and carry them into England. He accordingly arrived at the Bastimentos near Portobello; but being restricted by his orders from obeying the dictates of his courage, lay inactive on that station until he became the jest of the Spaniards. He afterwards removed to Carthagena, and continued cruising in those seas until the far greater part of his men perished deplorably by the diseases of that unhealthy climate. This brave man, seeing his best officers and men thus daily swept away, his ships exposed to inevitable destruction, and himself made the sport of the enemy, is said to have died of a broken heart.]
As near Portobello lying
On the gentle-swelling flood,
There while Vernon sat all glorious
On a sudden, shrilly sounding,
Hideous yells and shrieks were heard; Then, each heart with fear confounding, A sad troop of ghosts appeared;
All in dreary hammocks shrouded,
Which for winding-sheets they wore,
On them gleamed the moon's wan lustre,
O'er the glimmering wave he hied him,
Heed, oh, heed our fatal story!
I am Hosier's injured ghost;
Though in Portobello's ruin,
You now triumph free from fears, When you think on my undoing,
You will mix your joys with tears.
See these mournful spectres sweeping
Whose wan cheeks are stained with weeping;
Mark those numbers, pale and horrid,
I, by twenty sail attended,
Oh! that in this rolling ocean
I had cast them with disdain,
For resistance I could fear none;
Then the Bastimentos never
Had our foul dishonour seen,
Thus, like thee, proud Spain dismaying,
Of a grieved and broken heart.
Unrepining at thy glory,
Thy successful arms we hail; But remember our sad story,
And let Hosier's wrongs prevail.
Sent in this foul clime to languish,
Think what thousands fell in vain, Wasted with disease and anguish,
Not in glorious battle slain.
Hence with all my train attending,
Here the Bastimentos viewing,
We recall our shameful doom,
O'er these waves forever mourning
After this proud foe subduing,
And for England-shamed in me.
The poets who follow are a secondary class, few of whom are now noted for more than one or two favourite pieces.
ROBERT DODSLEY (1703-1764) was an able and spirited publisher of his day, the friend of literature and of literary men. He projected the Annual Register, in which Burke was engaged, and he was the first to collect and republish the Old English Plays,' which form the foundation of our national drama. Dodsley wrote an excellent little moral treatise, The
Economy of Human Life, which was attributed to Lord Chesterfield, and he was author of some dra
With that first ring I married youth,
If she, by merit since disclosed,
Here, then, to-day (with faith as sure,
And why?-They show me every hour Honour's high thought, Affection's power, Discretion's deed, sound Judgment's sentence, And teach me all things-but repentance.
[Song-The Parting Kiss.]
One kind wish before we part,
Let me kiss that falling tear;
SAMUEL BISHOP (1731-1795) was an English clergyman, Master of Merchant Tailors' School, London, and author of some miscellaneous essays and poems. The best of his poetry was devoted to the praise of his wife; and few can read such lines as the following without believing that Bishop was an amiable and happy man :
To Mrs Bishop, on the Anniversary of her Wedding-
Sir William Jones.
His father was an eminent mathematician, but died when his son was only three years of age. The mother, who was well qualified for the duty by her care of educating young Jones devolved upon his virtues and extensive learning. When in his fifth year, the imagination of the young scholar was caught by the sublime description of the angel in the tenth chapter of the Apocalypse, and the impression was never effaced. In 1753 he was placed
at Harrow school, where he continued nearly ten tegrity, disinterested benevolence, and unwearied years, and became an accomplished and critical clas- perseverance. In the intervals of leisure from sical scholar. He did not confine himself merely to his duties, he directed his attention to scientific the ancient authors usually studied, but added a objects, and established a society in Calcutta to proknowledge of the Arabic characters, and acquired mote inquiries by the ingenious, and to concentrate sufficient Hebrew to read the Psalms. In 1764 he the knowledge to be collected in Asia. In 1784, his was entered of University college, Oxford. Here health being affected by the climate and the closehis taste for oriental literature continued, and he ness of his application, he made a tour through engaged a native of Aleppo, whom he had discovered various parts of India, in the course of which he in London, to act as his preceptor. He also assidu- wrote The Enchanted Fruit, or Hindoo Wife, a poetiously perused the Greek poets and historians. In cal tale, and a Treatise on the Gods of Greece, Italy, his nineteenth year, Jones accepted an offer to be and India. He also studied the Sanscrit language, private tutor to Lord Althorp, afterwards Earl being unwilling to continue at the mercy of the Spencer. A fellowship at Oxford was also conferred | Pundits, who dealt out Hindoo law as they pleased. upon him, and thus the scholar was relieved from Some translations from oriental authors, and origi the fear of want, and enabled to pursue his favou-nal poems and essays, he contributed to a periodical rite and unremitting studies. An opportunity of established at Calcutta, entitled The Asiatic Misdisplaying one branch of his acquirements was cellany. He meditated an epic poem on the Disafforded in 1768. The king of Denmark in that covery of England by Brutus, to which his knowledge year visited England, and brought with him an of Hindoo mythology suggested a new machinery, eastern manuscript, containing the life of Nadir the agency of Hindoo deities. To soften the violence Shah, which he wished translated into French. of the fiction into harmony with probability, the Jones executed this arduous task, being, as Lord poet conceived the future comprehension of HindoTeignmouth, his biographer, remarks, the only ori- stan within the circle of British dominion, as proental scholar in England adequate to the performance. spectively visible in the age of Brutus, to the guarHe still continued in the noble family of Spencer, dian angels of the Indian peninsula. This gorgeous and in 1769 accompanied his pupil to the continent. design he had matured so far as to write the arguNext year, feeling anxious to attain an independent ments of the intended books of his epic, but the station in life, he entered himself a student of the poem itself he did not live to attempt. In 1789 Sir Temple, and, applying himself with his characteristic William translated an ancient Indian drama, Saconardour to his new profession, he contemplated with tala, or the Fatal Ring, which exhibits a picture of pleasure the 'stately edifice of the laws of England,' Hindoo manners in the century preceding the Chrisand mastered their most important principles and tian era. He engaged to compile a digest of Hindoo details. In 1774 he published Commentaries on and Mahometan laws; and in 1794 he translated Asiatic Poetry, but finding that jurisprudence was a the Ordinances of Menu or the Hindoo system of jealous mistress, and would not admit the eastern duties, religious and civil. His motive to this task, muses to participate in his attentions, he devoted like his inducement to the digest, was to aid the himself for some years exclusively to his legal benevolent intentions of our legislature in securing studies. A patriotic feeling was mingled with this to the natives, in a qualified degree, the administraresolution. Had I lived at Rome or Athens,' he tion of justice by their own laws. Eager to accomsaid, I should have preferred the labours, studies, plish his digest, Sir William Jones remained in and dangers of their orators and illustrious citizens India after the delicate health of Lady Jones com---connected as they were with banishment and even pelled her departure in December 1793. He prodeath-to the groves of the poets or the gardens of posed to follow her in the ensuing season, but in April the philosophers. Here I adopt the same resolution. he was seized with inflammation of the liver, which The constitution of England is in no respect inferior terminated fatally, after an illness of one week, on the to that of Rome or Athens.' Jones now practised 27th of April 1794. Every honour was paid to his at the bar, and was appointed one of the Commis- remains, and the East India Company erected a sioners of Bankrupts. In 1778, he published a monument to his memory in St Paul's Cathedral. translation of the speeches of Isæus, in causes con- The attainments of Sir William Jones were so procerning the law of succession to property at Athens, found and various, that it is difficult to conceive how to which he added notes and a commentary. The he had comprised them in his short life of fortystirring events of the time in which he lived were eight years. As a linguist he has probably never not beheld without strong interest by this accom- been surpassed; for his knowledge extended to a plished scholar. He was decidedly opposed to the critical study of the literature and antiquities of American war and to the slave trade, then so pre- various nations. As a lawyer he had attained to a valent, and in 1781 he produced his noble Alcaic high rank in England, and he was the Justinian of Ode, animated by the purest spirit of patriotism, India. In general science there were few depart and a high strain of poetical enthusiasm. He also ments of which he was ignorant: in chemistry, joined in representing the necessity that existed for mathematics, botany, and music, he was equally proa reform of the electoral system in England. But ficient. He seems,' says his biographer, 'to have though he made speeches and wrote pamphlets in acted on this maxim, that whatever had been at favour of liberty and pure government, Jones was tained was attainable by him; and he was never obno party man, and was desirous, he said, of being served to overlook or to neglect any opportunity of transported to the distance of five thousand leagues adding to his accomplishments or to his knowledge. from all the fatal discord of contending politicians. When in India, his studies began with the dawn; His wishes were soon accomplished. He was ap- and in seasons of intermission from professional duty, pointed one of the judges of the supreme court at continued throughout the day; meditation retraced Fort William, in Bengal, and the honour of knight- and confirmed what reading had collected or inveshood was conferred upon him. He married the tigation discovered. By a regular application of daughter of Dr Shipley, bishop of St Asaph; and time to particular occupations, he pursued various in April 1783, in his thirty-seventh year, he em- objects without confusion; and in undertakings barked for India, never to return. Sir William which depended on his individual perseverance, he Jones entered upon his judicial functions with all was never deterred by difficulties from proceeding to the advantages of a high reputation, unsullied in- a successful termination.' With respect to the
division of his time, Sir William Jones had written in India, on a small piece of paper, the following lines:
Sir Edward Coke:
Six hours in sleep, in law's grave study six, Four spend in prayer-the rest on nature fix.
Seven hours to law, to soothing slumber seven,
The poems of Sir William Jones have been collected and printed in two small volumes. An early collection was published by himself, dedicated to the Countess Spencer, in 1772. They consist of a few original pieces in English and Latin, and translations from Petrarch and Pindar; paraphrases of Turkish and Chinese odes, hymns on subjects of Hindoo mythology, Indian Tales, and a few songs from the Persian. Of these the beautiful lyric from Hafiz is the most valuable. The taste of Sir William Jones was early turned towards eastern poetry, in which he was captivated with new images, expressions, and allegories, but there is a want of chasteness and simplicity in most of these productions. The name of their illustrious author 'reflects credit,' as Campbell remarks, on poetical biography, but his secondary fame as a composer shows that the palm of poetry is not likely to be won, even by great genius, without exclusive devotion to the pursuit.'
An Ode, in Imitation of Alcaus.
What constitutes a state?
Not high-raised battlement or laboured mound,
Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned;
Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride.
With powers as far above dull brutes endued
As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude;
But know their rights, and, knowing, dare maintain,
And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain:
These constitute a state,
And sovereign Law, that state's collected will,
Sits empress, crowning good, repressing ill;
The fiend Discretion like a vapour sinks,
Hides his faint rays, and at her bidding shrinks.
Such was this heaven-loved isle,
Shall Britons languish, and be men no more?
Those sweet rewards, which decorate the brave,
And steal inglorious to the silent grave.
*As respects sleep, the example of Sir Walter Scott may be added to that of Sir William Jones, for the great novelist has stated that he required seven hours of total unconsciousness to fit him for the duties of the day.
A Persian Song of Hafiz.
Sweet maid, if thou would'st charm my sight,
Boy, let yon liquid ruby flow,
O! when these fair perfidious maids,
In vain with love our bosoms glow:
Speak not of fate: ah! change the theme,
But ah! sweet maid, my counsel hear
What cruel answer have I heard?
Go boldly forth, my simple lay,
The nymph for whom these notes are sung!
The Concluding Sentence of Berkeley's Siris Imitated.
I kneel in manhood as I knelt in youth:
*The following is the last sentence of the Siris:-' He that would make a real progress in knowledge must dedicate his age as well as youth, the latter growth as well as the first fruits, at the altar of Truth.'