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to low millet His plough was very simple, yet did its work well.
The road now ascends more rapidly. The limestone hills on each side become rocky and higher, being green with grass, while low trees are scattered among them. Among these, the Butm, Pistacia Terebinth us of Linncus, the terebinth of the Old Testament, is the most frequent. Bed clover is found growing wild along the path. Reaching the head of this valley, you come out on a ridge, from which a very steep descent brings you to the bottom of another deep and narrow Wady coming down from the N.E. up which the path goes in a general course N.E. by E. This water-course is narrow, and winds among the hills; the sides are rocky, tut clothed with grass and the shrub Bellan, a kind of furze. The bottom of the valley, in its steeper parts, was formerly laid out in terraces, of which the massive walls still remain. The hill terminating the Wady, and the hills around, are in spring covered with flocks and cattle in the ancient patriarchal style, with horses, asses, and camels, all in fine order, and affording a most pleasing prospect.
The country around the village of Dhoheriyeb, which lies high, is visible from a great distance, and seems to have been one of the line of fortresses which apparently once existed all along the southern border of Palestine, has but a barren aspect: the limestone rocks come out in large blocks and masses on the sides and tops of the hills, and give a whitish cast to the whole landscape. No trees are visible, nor any fields of grain, except in the bottoms of the narrow valleys. Indeed the whole aspect of the country is stern and dreary. Yet it must be a fine grazing country, as is proved by the fat and sleek condition of the Socks and herds, and from its having been, from the days of Abraham onward, a place of resort for herdsmen. From the top of a neighbouring hill nothing is to be seen, save rocky Lois and swells.
The course fromTJhoheriyeh to Hebron is north-east. The road winds among valleys and over hills which begin to be covered with shrubs, increiMiing as you advance, being intermingled with evergreens or prickly oaks, arbutus, and other dwarf trees and boshes. In summer a large portion of the peasantry are said to leave their villages, and dwell in caves and ruins, in order to be near their flocks.
The region around Hebron, which lies in a deep narrow valley, abounds with vineyards, and the grapes are the finest in Palestine. *
The path towards Jerusalem, which leads up the valley, and then up a branch coming from th« north-east, is at first paved, ami passes Wtween the walls of vineyards and olive7arda; the former chiefly in the valley, and
the latter on the slopes of the hills, which are in many parts built up in terraces. This valley is generally assumed to be the Eshcol of the Old Testament, whence the spies brought back the clusters of grapes to Kadesh. This assumption is not without reason. The character of its fruit at present corresponds with its ancient celebrity. Pome granates and figs, as well as apricots and
quinces, still grow there in abundance
(Comp. Gen. xiv. 24. Numb. xiii. 23.)
This road bears every mark of having always been a great highway between Hebron and Jerusalem. It is direct, and in many parts artificially made, evidently in times of old. But wheels never passed here: the hills ore too sharp and steep, and the surface of the ground too thickly strewn with rocks, to admit of the possibility of vehicles being used in this mountainous region, without the toilsome construction of artificial roads, such as never yet existed here.
At one hour from Hebron, a blind path goes off to the right, leading to Tekoa; and on it, about five minutes' walk from the road, are the foundations of an immense building, which the Jews of Hebron call the House of Abraham, and regard this as the place of Abraham's tent and terebinth at Mam re (Gen. xiii. 18). The country U still rocky and uneven, but somewhat cultivated. It soon becomes more open; the valleys are wider and fertile; and the hills ore covered with bushes, arbutus, and dwarf oaks, exhibiting also in their terraced sides the traces of ancient cultivation. The tract is full of partridges, whose calling and clucking in spring may be heard on every side. Crossing a valley obliquely, you see the road at some distance a-head, ascending the side of a long ridge, the path up whicb is artificial; midway is a cistern of rain-, water, also on open place of prayer for the Mohammedan traveller. From the top the path descends into a long straight valley, which it follows for an hour, called Wady et-Tuheishimeh. The hills become higher and more rocky, the valley narrower and winding; while the road ascends obliquely on the left, and bends around the eastern point of a high hill, leaving the valley very deep below on the right The valley passes on towards the right, and receives that which descends from Solomon's Pools, and so runs to the Dead Sea. The road leads across a ridge into the more open valley, n which are those famous pools. There ore three of these immense reservoirs lying one above another in the sloping valley, and bearing every mark of high antiquity. A small aqueduct is carried from them, along the sides of the hills, to Bethlehem and Jerusalem. A road passes hence to Bethlehem along the aqueduct. Another, which is more direct, leads obliquely up the gentle ascent north of the pools. The path in this latter passes over a level, bat exceedingly rocky, tract, difficult for camels. You soon come to a modern building, bearing the name of Rachel's Tomb, which is merely an ordinary Moslem Wely, or tomb of a holy person. The general correctness, however, of the tradition which has fixed upon this spot for the burialplace of Rachel, cannot well be drawn in question, since it is fully supported by the Scriptural narrative (Gen. xxxv. 10—20). Still ascending, the road passes to the left, around the head of a deep valley, running off east-ward to the Dead Sea, and affords a wide view out over the mountainous regions towards and beyond that sea, including Bethlehem and the Frank Mountain. The deep basin of the sea can in part be made out; but its waters are not visible. You now come opposite the convent of Mar Elyas, which lies on the brow of the high ridge overlooking Bethlehem. Here you get your first view of the holy city, the mosque, and other high buildings which stand on Mount Zion.— As you advance, you have on the right low hills, and on the left the cultivated valley or plain of Bephaim, or the Giants, with gentle hills beyond. This plain is broad, and descends gradually towards the southwest, until it contracts, in that direction, into a deeper and narrower valley, called Wady elWerd, which unites further on with Wady Ahmed, and finds its way to the Mediterranean. The plain of Bephaim extends nearly to Jerusalem, which, as seen from it, appears to be almost on the same level. As you advance, the plain is terminated by a slight rocky ridge, forming the brow of the valley of Hinnom. This deep and narrow dell, with steep rocky sides, often precipitous, here comes down from the north from as far as the Yafa Gate, and, sweeping around Mount Zion at almost a right angle, descends with great rapidity into the very deep valley of Jehoshapha*. The southern side of Zion is very steep, though not precipitous. You cross the valley of Hinnom opposite the southwest corner of Zion, and pass up along the eastern side of the valley to the Hebron or Yafa Gate, and thus enter the holy city. The distance between Hebron and Jerusalem is given by Eusebius and Jerome at twenty-two Roman miles, equal to about seventeen and a-holf geographical miles. The journey took Bobinson eight hours unci a quarter with camels.
The feelings of the Christian traveller, on approaching Jerusalem, are very strong, and of a sacred nature. Before him, as he draws near, lie Zion, the Mount of Olives, the Vales of Hinnom and Jehoshaphat, with other objects of the deepest interest; while, crowning the summit of the same ancient hiUs, is spread out the city where God of old had manifested his special presence, and the Saviour of the world lived, taught, and died. Here are localities of which, from his ear
liest childhood, he has read and thought, now beheld with his own eyes; and they all seem familiar, as if the realisation of a former dream; so that he could fancy himself again among cherished scenes of childhood.
BEETLE. — This word occurs in our Bible only once, Lev. xi. 22, where it stands as the representative of the Hebrewghargohl, which probably denoted a species of locust The beetle, however, abounded in the valley of the Nile, and frequently occurs in the sculptures. 'A great portion of Egypt,' says Pliny, 'worshipped the Scarabasus, or beetle, as one of the gods of the country; a curious reason for which is given by Apion, — that in this insect there is some resemblance to the operations of the sun.' The Scantbajus was an emblem of the sun, to which deity it was particularly sacred. It often occurs in a boat, with extended wings, holding the globe of the sun in its claws, or elevated in the firmament, as a type of that luminary when in the meridian. Figures of other deities are often seen praying to it iu this character. It was also a symbol of Pthah, the creative power, and of the world It was connected, too, with astronomical subjects, and with funeral rites. The Scarabasus was not only venerated when alive, but embalmed after death. Some have been found in that state at Thebes* The one so frequently represented on the sculptures, anrl which may therefore have been the sacred beetle, appears to be the same animal as is still common in every part of Egypt.
EOTPTIAN BEETLES, FROM THE MOKCMEXTS.
The beetle, it is said, causes fertility in pursuing those habits which instinct prompts. We quote a passage from Kelly's ' Syria and the Holy Land:'—' In passing through the desert from Egypt, the author was surprised to see the fresh verdure, in many instances, of tall grassy bushes, to which the bending of the camel's head not unfrequently directed his attention; and when there was no water near, it was some time before he could satisfy himself as to the cause of the verdure. Little holes were seen around the bushes; but the cause or purpose was alike unknown. At Khan Younes the seeming mystery was solved. Multitudes of beetles (thai gcarabcens of the Egyptians) were seen rolling the round pieces of camel's dang, and other deposits, speedily formed by them into a similar shape and size, to suitable spots, where the soil was bare, or around the roots of bushes; then they formed their holes with the mathematical certainty of instinct, into which the balls, by a slight motion, were rolled down, thus forming beds of intubation for the " sham-bred beetle." These little animals, which abound in myriads, at once preserTe the purity of the air, and increase the fertility of the soil, being often die only busy cultivators where man is idle; and thas the wonder is diminished that the Scarabeus was, in ancient times, worshipped bv the Egyptians' (p. 434).
BEEVES. — This word, which is found in Lev. xxii. 19, 21, and a few other places, as the translation of a word generally rendered 'oxen," 'bullocks," 'herds,' is an old but regularly formed plnral of the term btef, deriTed from the French bauf, which has its root in the Latin hot, and the Greek boat. The form 'beeves,' now obsolete, is found in our older writers. Thus Browne (' 6hepherd's Pipe,' EcL in.): — 1 Han, by the nlgbt, accursed thieves, Slaine bis lambs or stolne bis beeves.'
This word calls to the mind the fact, that there are in English pairs of words having originally the same meaning; of each of which pairs, one word comes from a classic, the other from a Saxon origin. The terms of classic derivation were mostly introduced bv the Norman French, who, in the case of animals, gave to the slaughtered beasts which they consumed their own names (beef, mutton), and left the old Teutonic appellations (ox, sheep) to the native Saxons, who reared the cattle for their masters. BEHEMOTH is the original word (Job xd. 19, sea.) in English letters, our translators thas showing that they could not determine what modern name to assign to the animal. Indeed numerous and dissimilar opinions have prevailed, among which, that seemed to have the preference which represented behemoth to be the elephant; nntil Bochart, after a careful investigation of the subject, decided in favour of the hippopotamus, or river horse. The opinion of that distinguished scholar has been adopted and upheld by Gesenios, Winer, and others, j According to these eminent linguists, the name is derived from an Egyptian word, Pehtmout, which signifies wattr-ox — an obvious attempt to describe a Urge and powerful marine animal. The view which the name thus suggests, the text itself strongly supports; and it is strange that those who held the elephant to be intended, could have overlooked two nets, — namely, that the distinguishing characteristic of the elephant, the proboscis, is not ascribed to the behemoth; and that h« n spoken of in terms which conld be
The Nile horse, or river horse, was iu ancient days, and is still, found in the Nile below the cataracts; but the animal has now for a long time pretty much withdrawn into Nubia, and is more frequent at present in the Niger, and the rivers which lie between that and the Cape of Good Hope. It is also found in the lakes and fens of Ethiopia. It belongs to the class mammalia, and is of the order pachpdermata, or thick-skinned animals. It is also herbivorous. Its head is long and broad; its lips very thick, and the muzzle much inflated; it has four very large projecting teeth in the under jaw, and four also in the upper; the skin is exceedingly thick; the legs short; four toes on each foot invested with small hoofs; and the tail is short and moveable. The appearance of the animal on laud is very uncouth, the body being huge, flat, and round; the head out of all proportion for magnitude, the feet as disproportionably short, and the armament of teeth truly formidable. The length of the male has been known to be seventeen feet, the height seven, and the circumference fifteen. Bruce mentions some as being each twenty feet in length. The whole animal is covered with short hair, which is thicker on the under than the upper parts. The general colour is brownish. The skin is exceedingly tough and strong, and was used by the ancient Egyptians for the manufacture of shields. Kiippell, the German naturalist, in speaking of the upper regions of the Nile, says, that the hunters of the Nile-ox have to endure and parry ferocious assaults from the enraged animal. The harpooning on those spots where it comes to graze, is attended with great danger, when the hunter, who must approach within about seven paces, is seen by the behemoth, before he has hurled his weapon. In such cases the beast sometimes rashes enraged upon his assailant, and crushes him at once between its wide and formidable jaws. Sometimes the most harmless objects excite the rage of this terrific animal. Kiippell reports, that, in the region of Amera, a hippotamus craunched several cattle that were fastened to a water-wheel. He speaks of one that was not captured till after a battle of four hours long: —' Indeed he came very near, destroying our large bark, and with it perhaps all our lives.' A small canoe, engaged in taking him, he dragged with him under the water, and shattered to pieces. The two hunters escaped with extreme difficulty. Out of twenty-five musket balls fired into the monster's head, at the distance of five feet, only one penetrated the hide and the bones near the nose; all the other balls remained sticking in the thickness of his hide. 'We had at last to employ a small cannon; but it was only after five of its balls, fired at a distance of a few feet, had mangled most shockingly the head and body of the monster, that he was fairly vanquished. The darkness of the night augmented the horrors and dangers of the contest. This gigantic creature dragged our large bark at will in every direction of the stream, and it was in a fortunate moment for us that he yielded, just as he had drawn us among a labyrinth of rocks.' Hippopotami are a plague to the land, in consequence of their voraciousness. In some parts they are so bold, that they are undeterred by the noise3 made to keep them off, or drive them away; and will yield up their pastures, only when a large number of persons come rushing upon thein. The Egyptians of old took litem much in the same manner as whales are captured; and it appears from the accounts of travellers (Wilkinson, iii. 70; see particularly, 'Voyage d' Exploration au Cap de BonneEsperance, par Arbousset et Daumas;' Paris, Delay, 1842; p. 432, seq.; where more details of an interesting kind maybe found), that the plan, as described in the cut, remains essentially the same at the present day.
BELIAL, a compound Hebrew word, signifying originally lowness as to place, and thence moral degradation. Accordingly, 'children' or ' sons of Belial' signifies bate, worthless men (Deut. xiii. 13. Judg.xix. 22) In Deut. xv. 9, it is rendered 'wicked.' In Ps. xli. 8, the words translated ' an evil disease' literally mean a word or thing of Belial. With that tendency to personification which marked the Jewish religion when, in its decline, it fell under rabbinical influence, the word came to be au epithet of Satan (2 Cor. vi. 15).
BELLS of gold were required to be sewed on (lie hem of the ephod of the high priest, round the entire robe, interchanging with pomegranates. The Jews make the number to have been seventy-two. These were to be wom during the time that Aaron and his successors were engaged in actually ministering at the altar: —' And his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometli out' (Exod. xxviii. 33, seq.). The last words seem to intimate that the chief object of these bells was similar to the use which is made of a bell in the Catholic mass, though bells are not unusual in the East as decorations to stately robes. Wherever n ceremonial constitutes the principal part of public worship, and the worshippers are numerous, some sound is necessary to indicate to the assembled congregation the exact part which is being performed, in order that they may by their sympathies concur in the offering. Accordingly, a bell in Catholic worship is heard at the precise moment when the host is elevated, which would otherwise be unknown to the worshippers, as their faces are bent towards the earth, and their numbers and distance preclude the view of the sacred object
In Zech. xiv. 20, bells (the marginal rendering, 'bridles,' is not to be preferred) are mentioned as a usual accompaniment to the equipment of horses; being designed at once to encourage the animals, and to aid in his recovery should any one stray. The practice of affixing bells on harness is still prevalent in the East.
BELSHAZZAR (C), the last king of Babylon, of the race of the Choldees (Dan. v. 1, 30; vii. 1); variously called by non-Biblical writers Nabonnedus, Nabonadius, Nabodenus, Nabonuidochus, Abydenus, Labynetus, and Naboondel; so little ore the pronunciation and the spelling of eastern names fixed in the practice of ancient authors. It would be easy to show, iu the instance before us, that great variety prevails also in regard to alleged events in the history of oriental personages According to Herodotus (L 188, seq.), Belshazzar was the son of the Queen Nitocris, and was put to death in tho night, during a carousal, when Cyrus took Bobylon (A.M. 5010; A.C. 638; V. 539). The narrative of the Bible Is of deep inters*!, and may be read in Dun. v.
In the splendour of the miracle which is there recorded, the part wbich Daniel bore in the events, and the distinction to which he was raised, were there influences which, while they wear a thoroughly oriental character, and speak for the authenticity of the narrative, could not fail to fix men's eyes on the Jewish people; to turn men's thoughts to Jehovah; to afford support, encouragement, and hope to the exiled Hebrews; and to incline the conqueror strongly in their faTonr. If the threatened captivity had been carried into effect, the promised deliverance (lsLiiii. xxi.) appeared to be at hand. And, as none but a Hebrew captive had been able to read and interpret the mysterious characters which darkly betokened the, downfall of a most ancient monarchy, so Cyrus may well have felt it wise and politic to liberate the Jews, in the hope of thus being able to conciliate the Great and Mighty Being whom they served.
BENEFACTOR (L. wttt-dotr), a word which in the original Greek, and in this the Latin representative of the original, signifies one tcho confer* benefits, and was a title of honour not nnlike the Latin pater palria, father of his country, with which Cicero was honoured; given originally to those who had rendered great services to a nation, but afterwards applied in the way of flattery to kings. Ptolemy, king of Egypt, received the surname of Eurgetes, or benefactor. The distinction was also borne by several of the Syrian kings. In 2 Mace. W. 2, the high priest Onias is termed the benefactor of the city. The word is found in Luke xxii. 25. In the parallel passages, Matt. xx. 23. Mark x. 42, there is no equivalent term. If the existence of the word in Luke is not to be ascribed to the learned education of the composer of that Gospel, it may suggest speculations as to whence our Lord derived the historical facts on which the allusion is founded.
BENHADAD (son of AAad or JJar)—that U. of the sun, which was worshipped by the Syrians under the title of Adar—was the name borne by three kings of Damascus, of whom the second only (A.M. 4056; A.C. *92; V. 901) needs to be spoken of at any length in these pages.
Retaining the hostile feelings which had long been felt by the Syrian kings against the Hebrew nation, Benbadad II. collected (I Kings xx.) all the forces he could command, including no fewer than thirty-two petty princes, and invaded the dominions of Ahab, king of Israel. Sitting down before Samaria, he sent a haughty and insolent demand of submission to its prince,— 'Thy silver and thy gold, mine; thy wives tbo and their children, the goodliest, mine.' Ahab, struck with fear, humbly answered,
'I, thine, and all that I have.' But the Syrian further insisted on making a minute search, in order to get possession of the most precious articles belonging to Ahab. This scrutiny the Samaritans would not endure. The refusal roused the anger of the invader, who answered, ■ This petty king is ignorant of my strength: the dust of Samaria will not suffice for handfuls for all the peoplethat follow me.' To this Ahab rejoined in the well-known apothegm, 'Let not him that girdeth on his armour boast himself as he that putteth it off.' On receiving this message in the midst of a carousal, Benbadad forthwith arose, and prepared for battle. But a higher power intervened, and ere the revellers had equipped themselves, they were set upon by the troops of Samaria, and put to the sword: their prince himself owed his safety only to the fleetness of bis horse.
The remnant that escaped to Damascus began to speculate as to the cause of their defeat, when it was agreed upon, that it was owing to their having fought on high ground, since 'their gods are gods of the bills; therefore they were stronger than we; but let us fight against them in the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than they' (23). In the spring of the ensuingyear, accordingly, Benhadad marched to the valley of Aphek (Jezreel), where he suffered a second defeat, being obliged to secrete himself in an Inner chamber of a house in the city of Aphek. And now a deep humiliation was at hand for this elated and boastful man. He who a few months before had come against Samaria in the extreme of insolence, is obliged to sue for pity by means of servants clad in sackcloth, and with ropes round their necks; so speedily overturned are the pomp and circumstances of what has (surely in derision) been called 'glorious war.' Benhadad's life was spared on condition that he restored to Israel the cities captured by his father, and gave its people free passage through his Syrian dominions (34).
A peace of three years' duration ensued; at the end of which, Ahab, being dissatisfied that Benhadad was tardy in executing the conditions, proceeded, in union with Jehoshaphat, king of Judea, to lay siege to the frontier town, Ramoth-Gilead, which ought to have been surrendered in virtue of the treaty. The king of Syria was as yet too weak to do more than stand on the defensive. He directed his troops, however, to seek, before all things, the life of Ahab, who was accordingly slain in the action that took place for the recovery of Ramoth.
The reign of Ahaziah, the successor of Ahab, passed, it would appear, without any attack from Benhadad, who, however, had not forgotten the defeats he had suffered, and was preparing to take revenge. At length, in the reign of Joram (893), the Syrian re