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as an inner and secret sense. From the Persian philosophy (see Philosophy) they took the notion of great periodic changes, distinguishing the old and the new age as 'the world that now is,' and 'that which is to come' (t'hiin haieh and olam habah). The former was the times of the Old Testament; the Utter, the times of the Messiah. This Messianic period the Kabbala found set forth in the laws, histories, usages, and persons of die sacred writings; and it was its special business to discover the spiritual features of the future world in the outer and verbal import of the Old Testament. As the Kabbalists professed, under Divine guidance, to deal with the hidden sense of the Divine Word, so the; had full scope for the indulgence of a prolific imagination, which of necessity tended to abuse. In the lapse of ages this abuse went on growing, until the professors of Knbbalistic skill laid claim to an acquaintance with occult powers in nature and natural bodies, by which they could transmute the baser into the precious metals, and exert an irresistible control over health and sickness, life and death, nay, over good and bad spirits. In earlier times their skill of mind was employed in speculations on the Divine Essence, in which they constructed a species of philosophy which, fantastic as it seems in some of its features, is scarcely less rash and groundless than what sometimes passes as the sober thoughts of Christian divines touching the attributes of God. Borrowing from the Pythagorean school the practice of dissertating on powers attributed to certain numbers, they indulged themselves in speculations in which fancy furnished the text and the love of novelty gave the comment.

The Kabbala comprises three elements, I. the symbolical; II. the dogmatic; III. the speculative or metaphysical. The symbolical furnishes the means of finding in Scripture an inner or mystic sense, different from the literal. It works by three operations: 1, themonra; 2, geometria; 3, notarikon. Themoura (change, permutation) consists in the arbitrary transposition of the letters of a word; or in the substitution of others, so as to form a new term. Sheshach (Jer. xxv. 20), the name of an unknown place, is converted into Babel by a process which consists generally in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, T, for the first, A; the last but one, Sh, for the second, B; and SO forth; and vice veni. Geometria gives exclusive attention to the numerical value of letters, and substitutes one word for another. Thus Mashiah (Messiah) consists in Hebrew of letters making in all 358. The same is the rase with Mali shah, terpcut; whence it is concluded that the Messiah will overcome or replace the serpent. Notarikon unites the initial or final letters of several words, or considers the letters of a single

word as so many words of which they severally form the commencement. Thns the three letters of the word Adam form the initials of the three words Adam, David, Messiah; which shows that by metempsychosis Adam re-appeared in the persons of David and the Messiah. The dogmatic Kabbala treats of angels and demons, and their different classes; of the several divisions or mansions of paradise and hell; of the transmigration of souls, and other mysteries. The visions of Ezekiel furnished scope for this kind of mythological trifling. There God is exhibited as seated on a throne environed by winged animals (i. 4, seq.), whose figures bear a resemblance to others found on the ruins oT Persepolis. These probably are symbolical representations connected with local beliefs. The Kabbalists coll E/.ekiel's vision Mercaia, or chariot, and find in it the court of the celestial King, the throne of God surrounded by angels; with which they have connected their doctrine of good and bad spirits. The stars, the different kingdoms of nature; the elements, men, the virtues and passions of men, are all under the influence of angels. The lower world itself is filled with material genii, of both sexes, who hold a middle position between men and angels. The good angels ore under the command of Metal nm (from the Greek meta thrown, 'near the throne'), who is also called Sarhappanim, 'angel of the divine countenance.' The devils are under the sway of Samael, that is Satan and the angel of death. Besides the transmigration of souls partially received by them, the Kabbalists have another mystery, Iblour, 'impregnation,' that is, the union of two souls in one body, wrought for the purpose of giving succour and strength. Some of their more imaginative fables call to mind passages in Dante and Milton. The spetnlative Kabbala had for its aim the bringing into harmony monotheism and the act of creation with the fundamental principle of ancient philosophy, Ex nihilo nihil Jit; 'From nothing, nothing is made.' All that exists is derived from God, the eternal source of lightGod is known only by his manifestations: God not manifested, is a mere abstraction. This God is from all eternity. Hence litis called 'the ancient of days,' 'the hidden of the hidden,' also ' nothing;' and thus the world as created by him came from nothing. This nothing, whence came all things, is unity indivisible and infinite, or En-toph, the cause of causes. The primal light of God-iiotAing filled all space; it is space itself; every thing virtually was in it; but to manifest itself it must create, that is, unfold itself by emanation. It therefore withdrew within itself in order to cause a void, which afterwards it gradually filled by light which varied in brilliancy, and as it receded from the centre, became more and more imper!«t.

The En-soph originally manifested itself by man contains really. By his living principle putting forth a first principle, the prototype man belongs to the world Asiah; by the of creation, or Macrocosm, which is termed soul or breath, to the world Yezirnh; and the Son of God, or the primitive man, Adam by the intellectual principle or mind, to the Kadmon. This is the human figure which world Beriah ; the last is a portion of the in the vision of Ezekiel sonrs above the divinity, and as such pre-existent. Man, apimals (i. 26, 27). From Adam Kadmon then, is composed of two principles-a good emanated the creation in four degrees or and a bad one. It is his duty to give to the worlds, the first of which represents the former dominion over the latter. After death operating qualities of Adam Kadmon, that he is rewarded according to his works; for is, powers or intelligences proceeding from the mind, Neshamah, is immortal. him, and forming at once his essential qua. These pretended explanations increase the lities and the instruments with which he difficulties they are intended to remove, and works. These qualities are in number ten, only serve to exemplify the folly of attempt. and form the Sephiroth, composed of two ing to dive into the Divine Essence. The sacred numbers--three and seven. The three transition from mind to matter, from absofirst Sephiroth are intellectual, the seven lute good to evil, remains enveloped in an others are only attributes. This is the order impenetrable veil. At least, in its results, in which they emanate one from the other the system wholly departs from the Mosaie

doctrine and ends in pantheistic mists. Instead of God creating all things by his will, we find a system of unintelligible emanations proceeding by some directing fate from we know not what deified nature.

TRANSFIGURATION, THE, is an important event in the history of our Lord, which is clearly related by three evangelists (Matt. xvii. 2, seg. Mark ix. 2, seq. Luke iz 18, seg.). Matthew and Mark agree in stating hat Jesus, taking with him Peter, James, and John, withdrew up into a high mountain, where he was transfigured; when, according to the latter, his raiment became white as snow, and according to the former, besides this, his face did shine as the sun. Luke, not using the term 'transfigure, states that while Jesus was on the mount in prayer, the appearance of his countenance

became different, and his raiment was white Their names are, I. Kether, crown; II, like lightning. Whence it appears that our Hocmah, wisdom; III. Binah, intelligence; Lord underwent externally a change which IV. Hesed, grace; V. Gevourah, strength; made his face and his raiment assume an VI. Tiphereth, beanty; VII. Nezach, triumph; nwonted brilliancy-a brilliancy which is VIII. Hod, glory or majesty; IX. Yesod, represented by that of lightning and that of foundation; X. Malcouth, kingdom. Here we the sun. These facts are in general well find the Powers' of Philo and the Æors of represented by the term 'transfigured,' which the Gnostics.

in the original strictly signifies a change of This primary world put forth Beriah, cre- form, but is also used of an internal change, tion; that is, the beginning of creation. The as in the transformed' of Rom. xii. 2, and substances of this second world are all the changed' of 2 Cor. iii. 18. The existspiritual ; but not having emanated imme. ence of the word in these two passages, diately from En-soph, they are inferior to showing on the part of Paul a reference to Sephiroth. From them, however, comes Ye. the transfiguration, proves that the event was zirah, formation, the world; which contains known and recognised in the primitive chu.ch. angels, incorporeal beings surrounded by An express allusion also is made to it in an a luminous medium; also dsiah, fabrication; Epistle whose authenticity has been qnesthe last emanation, containing bodies subject tioned (2 Pet. i. 17, 18), but whose date tu continual variations, which are born and cannot be placed long after the apostolic perish, rise and fall. To this belongs all age. that is of a material nature. This lowest The event whose existence and Dature are world is the seat of evil.

thus made clear, had doubtless a significant Man by his nature partakes of the three import, Peter speaks of then beholding the created worlds, and is on that account majesty of Jesus, as well as hearing the termed Microcosm, Olam Katan, or little Divine attestation as recorded in the Gospels, universe ; for all that Adam Kadmon, or Ma. This is my beloved Son, in whom I am crocosm (great universe), contains virtually, well pleased; hear ye him.' On the occa

sion, there were present forms which were in some way known to be those of Moses ami Elijah. Of these two emblems of the old and vanishing dispensation, Moses represented the Law, ami Elijah the Prophets. They are seen in friendly converse with Jesus. Thus is there intimated that the Law, the Prophets, and the Gospel, are three ministering spirits sent forth of God on the Mine benign errand, namely, to instruct, reconcile and save the world. The whole transaction, in harmony with the Eastern method of teaching by actions and symbols, seems to be a striking and impressive lesson given to the three chief apostles, designed and specially fitted to transform their minds, by divesting them of their Jewish notions, and making them aware of the spiritual aims and tendencies of the Messiah's kingdom; and, as subsidiary to this purpose, to exhibit Moses and Elijah as in accordance with Jesus, and Jesus himself as the object of God's special approbation. Such an event is in spirit and result entirely congruent with Christianity, whose chief aim is the returning of the soul of man (Col. iii. 10. 8 Cor. iv. 16. Rom. xii. 2. Tit. iii. 5. John iii. 5) This renewal is by the transfiguration strikingly and solemnly presented in Jesus, who thus stands at the head of his church, a grand symbol of the one needful change. The Transfiguration holds the middle place between tin- Temptation and the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, being one of tlie three great events which in a marked manner illustrate the development of the gospel on earth, and the disclosure of 'the majesty' of its divine promulgator.

The editor, after mature consideration of the point, is of opinion that the transfiguration could not have taken place on Tabor but on Ilermon. On this question he has expressed himself as follows in the 'Modern Judea.'

All the evangelists who speak of the transfiguration have connected it at the distance of six days with the disclosure Christ made to his disciples of his approaching death; this disclosure He made while He and they were on their way northwards from the lake of Gennesareth to the towns of Cessna Philippi, the populous region at the sources of the Jordan; and the following considerations will satisfy us, we think, that the transfiguration took place on some high mountain in this neighbourhood, to which Christ led His disciples apart by themsehei, aud was transfigured before tbem. On the one hand, six days do not appear too many for Christ to spend ministering in the towns of Cesarea Philippi. And on the other, they appear too few to have all the circumstances happen which must have taken place between the conversation regarding his death and the transfiguration, provided that event took place on Tabor. That portion of the journey which remained after the conversation was to

be gone. Some time must be spent in ministering in the towns which he wis now visitrnr;, and after this a long journey was to be accomplished from Cesarea Philippi south t» Tabor. It does not appear that six days could have allowed time for all these events. Moreover, when Christ descended from the mountain after the transfiguration was over, we are told that a great multitude met Him, and amongst the crowd was a certain man who had brought to Him his child possessed of a devil, for the purpose of being cured, a circumstance which implies that the Saviour had been some time in the neighbourhood, and that His presence there was well known. This view of the matter is confirmed, too, by the terms which the evangelists employ to describe the subsequent movements of the disciples. We are told that, after the transfiguration, 'th«y dsparted thence, and passed through Galilee,' 'and he came to Capernaum.' The phrase patting through Galilee is admirably fitted to describe a journey from Cesarea Philippi to the lake of Gennesareth; but such a phrase would have been altogether improper if applied to the short distance between Tabor and Capernaum; and we may reckon it almost certain that such a phrase would not have been employed in reference to such a journey by a native of the country, and especially by those who on all occasions in speaking of the journey ings of the Saviour have used terms characterised by the highest degree of topographical accuracy and precision.'. In fine, provided the transfiguration took place on Tabor, Christ, after departing from Cesarea Philippi, of which no notice is given, must have passed to the south of Capernaum, (for Tabor is situated about twenty miles south-west of that town,) and, after tlic transfiguration, retraced His steps and arrived at Capernaum, in which case He must have gone about forty miles out of His way, for the sole purpose of being transfigured on this mountain, a supposition not very probable.

TREES in Palestine were of old far more abundant than they are now, when the land wears a bare appearance from wont of wood. In the period of Hebrew prosperity, the country was adorned with the tall aud graceful cypress, the palm with its branching head, the outspreading fig, the bushy white mulberry, the handsome terebinth, the long lived cedar, various species of oak, with other trees; to say nothing of many shrubs and plants.

In Ecclesiasticus xxiv. 13, ten. is an enumeration of many Palestinian trees, to each of which in turn Wisdom compares herself:— 'I was exalted like a cedar in Libanus, and as a cyprus-trec upon the mountains of Hermon. I was exalted like a palm-tree in Engaddi, and as a rose-plant in Jericho, as a fair olive-tree in a pleasant field, and grew up as a plane-tree by the water. As the turpentine-tree I stretched out my branches, and my branches are the branches of honour

and grace. As the vine brought I forth plea- walnut-tree sometimes joins with the oak to sant savour, and my flowers are the fruit of overshadow the streams beyond Jordan.' We houour and riches.' Sowe, perhaps many, also cite these words from Robinson : "We trees not mentioned, or at least not recog. stopped for lunch a few rods short of the nised in the Bible, originally adorned the village (Jufna), under a large walnut-tree, surface of Palestine. Of these we may men. Jike the English waluut, the first we had tion the walnut - tree, which was seen by seen. It was growing within the precinets Olin (ii. 418) near Safed, in Galilee. Early of an ancient church. Under the tree, a in May, according to Kitto (Palestine,' 250), small enclosure contains an altar on which

large walnut-trees may be seen bending to mass is still sometimes celebrated' (iii the ground under their loads of fruit. The 78).

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed]

A. Almond

D. Orange.
B. Box.

E. Oleander
C. Fig.

P. Cactus.

G. A young Juniper. It was truly a delight to think that, be. Here it was-on the banks of Elisha's stream, sides the palm, aud the oleander, and the now called Ain Sultan (near Jericho). The prickly pear, he (Jesus) knew as well as we clear, rushing waters flowed away under the do the poppy and the wild rose, the cyclamen, spreading branches of gnarled old trees, and and the bind-weed, the various grasses of thcre were thickets beyond where the mules the way-side, and the familiar thorn.'

and horses could scarcely force their way. • Till now we had not seen forest scenery. The green and golden sheeted liglits and

broad shadows on the stream, were to oar eyes like water to the desert traveller. 'As You Like It' was in my head all day, for here was an exact realisation of my conception of the forest -haunts of Rosalind and Jaques' (Martinean, 'Eastern Life,' iii. 54, 142).

TRIBES (L. tribus), representing (Gen. xlix. 28) the Hebrew shecet, which, according to its import, is (10) translated 'sceptre' and 'rod' (Levit. xxvii. 32), ore family divisions of men that grew naturally out of the patriarchal mode of life, were among the earliest fixed states in which society was found, and have always prevailed in the East, where the most ancient usages have from age to age been preserved and transmitted. In agreement with other Oriental peoples—as, for example, the Edomites (Gen. xxxvi.), and the Isbmaelites, or Arabs (xxv. 12, ie7.; comp. xvii. 10)—the Hebrews, of an Aramaic nomad race, were in the fourth generation divided into twelve families, according to the names and descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob (xlix.-28). These sons were, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph, Benjamin. Of these, Levi was not reckoned as a tribe, because the Levites had no portion in the soil of Canaan. Joseph was divided into two, Ephratm and Manassch (xlviii. xlix. 28). Four of these sons had slaves for their mothers, namely, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. Each tribe was divided into families, and each family into houses (Numbers i. 2, 18). At the head of each tribe was its prince (10). Next stood the heads of their fathers' houses (Exod. vi. 14. 1 Chron. v. 15). The highest officer was called ' chief over the chief (Numb, iii. 32). So among the modern Bedouins we find emirs, sheikhs, and fathers.

As representatives of the tribes there appear, now the twelve tribal princes of Israel (i. 44), now the heads of the fathers' houses (Josh. xiv. 1). Sometimes, without special reference to the distinction of tribes, the Hebrews are represented by their elders (Exod. iii. 16).

During the wandering in the desert, the tribes were divided into four classes, each of which contained three tribes. The head of the first class was Judah, with whom were Issachar and Zebulun; the head of the second was Reuben, with whom were Simeon and Gad; the head of the third was Ephraira, with whom were Manassch and Benjamin; the head of the fourth was Dan, with whom were Asher and Naphtali (Numb. x. 13, seq. See Camp). In the division of Canaan, two tribes and a half settled on the east and nine and a half on the west of the Jordan (for the several localities, see the names and consult the Maps). The tribal system being thus transported from Egypt, where it was found by Moses, into Canaan (Josh. xiii. ttq ; comp.

Joseph. Antiq. v. 1, 22), exerted bat little binding influence on the people at large during the disturbed era of the Judges, in consequence of the strong counteractions it had to withstand from the Canaanites, who not only dwelt in the land, but kept the several tribes apart one from another. The defective union occasioned weakness and brought on national thraldom. The division into tribes, however, remained in existence, and when royalty was set up, afforded effectual aid in promoting the national unity; while doingwhich, it grew in strength itself, and afforded a species of representative organisation, which on occasions displayed both power and vigour (1 Samuel x. 20, seq. 2 Samuel iii. 17, seq.; v. 1, seq. 1 Kings xii. 2 Chron. xxiv. 17). Before the exile, the tribes kept their separate existence; but after that event the tribal division disappears. Families henceforth formed the basis of genealogies (Ezra viii. Nehem. vii.), and their heads were the representatives of the nation (x.). But though the tribes as compact civil divisions had vanished, yet individuals, from genealogies or tradition, retained a knowledge of the tribes to which they belonged (Luke ii. 36. Acts xiii. 21. Romans xi. 1); and in the hopes connected with the Messiah, the twelve tribes remained as the representative of the nation and the basis of the expected kingdom (Matt. six. 28. Apoc. v. 5, 9 ; vii. 4, seq.).

The division into tribes, in connection with the partition among them of the land of promise, made family registers, as the ground and evidence of family and individual rights, of the greatest consequence, and accordingly they became the foundation of Hebrew history. See Genealogy.

In Matt. xxii. 24, the law of Moses is spokeu of which requires the brother of a deceased man, dying childless, to marry his widow aud * raise up seed to his brother," or beget children, which should be accounted not his own, but his brother's. Many Jewish ordinances had for their aim to keep the tribes separate from each other, and the whole nation sepnrate from the rest of the world. Such was the purpose of the requirement—called the law of the Levirate—mentioned above. The marriage of a widow by her brother-in-law was accomplished without much ceremony, because the widow of a brother that had died without children became forthwith the wife of that relative. Nevertheless, custom required that the union should be acknowledged before two witnesses, and that the brother gave the widow a piece of money. Some are of opinion that after the exile in Babylon the law was no longer observed, because the possessions of the tribes were not distiuct from each other. It is said that the German and Italian Jews do not, or very seldom, act in accordance, with it

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