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termined; bat the mighty changes through which it had passed before man was introduced, and the order of time (in relation to other species) in which that introduction took place, are indicated with sufficient clearness. Regarding the antiquity of the globe, and the moment of time when it was first peopled by living creatures, the inspired volume is silent; nor is there the least likelihood that human science shall ever satisfactorily determine what the Creator has been pleased to conceal. It will be readily perceived, however, that what is clearly indicated is of vastly greater importance to our race than what has been purposely left in the dark. In the very first sentence of tbe Book of Genesis we are informed that matter is not eternal; that our world had a beginning; and that it required divine energy to bring it into being. Further in, but still on the same page, we are informed that the planet had been in existence for an undefined period before any living thing was created on its surface; that this creation was gradual and progressive, the humbler forms of life taking the precedence of the more highly organised; and that the last creatnre that appeared on the scene was man, formed in God's own image, and so bearing His likeness that he could with propriety be called 'a son of God;' for he not only resembled his Creator in his moral and intellectual nature, but his body also—so fearfully nnd wonderfully made—bore the form and lineaments of that body which, in the fulness of time, the divine Son was to assume—that body in which He was to give perfect obedience to God's violated law, and perfect satisfaction for the sins of His people.
These infinitely important items of revealed truth, in common with many others, are in perfect harmony with the teachings of science; and though the latter cannot draw aside the veil which obstructs our view in some directions, she has opened up a very fascinating vista in others. For example, she has well nigh demonstrated—what the inspired record had long ago clearly asserted (compare Heb. xi. 3, in the original) that between each of the 'days' of creation,— that is, between each mccasive txercite of supernatural power,—an 'mon' or mighty cycle of years intervened, daring which the results of the new order of things initiated by the divine Word at its commencement were left to operate, by the continuous and undisturbed routine of natural law, until the earth had thereby become adapted for a new act of supernatural power — as, for example, the introduction of a higher type of organic life. —iio has shown that the order of sequence in these six periods is identical with the order so graphically detailed in the Book of Genesis. .She has shown that onr placet had existed for untold ages before it became inhabited by living creatures; that tbe forms of life that first peopled it were zoophytes and fucoids—
the very lowest types of animal and vegetable existence; that many ages then elapsed before molluscs and crustaceans peopled its waters; that whole millenniums of the world's history had passed before fishes—the lowest typo of vertebrated animals, and the contemporaries of the first land-plants—were ushered into being; that reptiles—the next higher type of vertebral life—made their first appearance when the continents and islands of the globe waved with the most abundant and gigantic flora that ever adorned its surface; that alt these vast changes took place during the great Pal.xozoic age of its history; and that then some mighty, but hitherto unexplained, catastrophe occurred, which suddenly extinguished all the forms of organic life that had hitherto peopled its oceans and continents. Science further demonstrates that during the Triassic era—the first stage of the world's Secondary age—an entirely new series of plants and animals, including birds and marsupial mammals, appeared on the Scmio; that placenta) or true mammals come first into view near the end of the VValdean period—the period of the iguauodon and pterodactyl; that true or exogenous trees, together with quadrnmanous mammals, had no existence before the Cretaceous era; that immediately after tho completion of that era another tremendous cataclysm took place, which once more extinguished every species of organic life; that the third grand age of the planet's pulaontologiual history — viz., the Tbktiabi age — was ushered in with myriads of new and higher forms of existence — forms more closely resembling the fauna and flora of the present day than any that had preceded them; that notwithstanding the great cosmical revolutions that occurred during the lapse of the Tertiary era, not a few of the species that were then created continue to survive till the present day, forming a living bridge between our own times and the immeasurable ages of the past. One item more must finish this enumeration (and it is tbe clearest and best established of all the teachings of geology)—viz., that notrace of the existence of man is found anywhere till we advance far into the present or Post-tkrtiart age of the world's history, and till this beautiful earth had received the last touches of its Creator's hand, every animal and plant now inhabiting it having been already called into existence.
Such, then, are some of the beautiful1 harmonics that everywhere abound betweenScience and Revelation. The globe and the Bible are evidently two volumes by tbe sameAuthor; and though in some things it is still difficult to reconcile their teachings, they nowhere teach contrary lessons. The author of these remarks is a theologian by profession, and at the same time an ardent student of nature; and he takes this opportunity of affirming, in the most solemn manner of which he is capable, that at this moment he is not new moral prrwer. T>...* introduction is marked by peculiar efiVti; U attended by it* own evidences; is to be recognised by tokens feat cannot be mistaken end thai could not hare been fabricated. <*
And observe the general spirit of this new moral power, as indicated to the letter of which ire base given an analysis, lacking, si ail the composition does, to Jesos Chrirt as me anthor and giver of this new life, it ihibits the essentials of his sy«tem in moral perfection—in the lore of God and the lore arid serrice of man—carried to their most disinterested, loftiest, and most sanctifying pitch. And yet, srhOe the most derated spiritual excellence is required, all wears a »ober practical air. The apostle descends to the Tirtnes which stand lowest in the moral scale, if also he ascends to those which are near heaven itself. He enters into the ordinary concerns of life; he makes religion a work-male with the handicraftsman—a companion and a monitor on the marts of commerce. And yet this quiet tone, this tone as of every-day life, which breathes through a large portion of the letter, is pat forth by one who had only a few years before received into his bosom facts and ideas of the most rousing and exciting nature; and is addressed to persons who were agitated by a conviction that the end of the world was at hand, and who needed, under the injustice and persecution they were suffering, every sustaining aid which Christianity could afford.
The tranquil and sober tone of the letter shows on the part of Paul a true and earnest mind. We are content to put the question of his sincerity on the verdict which twelve intelligent men may give after the careful perusal of this one composition. And then mark how, while the writer is gentle as a nurse, he is also faithful and admonitory as ajndge. There Is much in this letter that must have given psin and might have occasioned offence. Yet this reproof is written, tliis reproof is endured. More still, the Tliessalonians perpetuate the memory of their own misdeeds by carefully preserving the letter In which they are spoken of and blamed. Are not all these signs of reality? Do they not prove that the Thessalonians had undergone a great moral change, and were undergoing a greater still? Do they not show us the apostle's consciousness— ni spotless and full of a divine peace? The study of the Scriptures themselves is the best preventive or the most effectual cure of unbelief.
It is worthy of notice that this letter emanated from Paul, Silvanua, and Timothy. This is expressly set forth (i. 1), and wa9, therefore, not an accidental circumstance. Wo see in this fact a proof that the First Epistle to the Thessalonians was an early lition of the apostle's, who as yet
hardly feh die firmness) of his own position, and was anxious to recommend what he bad to say with all the force be could emptor. We see aho in this a very narzril solicitude, and a proof, that the apostle was a faithful and honest witness for Jesoa. who •ought to aid his own influence, not by high and exclusive pretensions, bat by snrh means as lay before him; and who therefore associated with himself two persons well known to the Christian community in ThessaJonica.
The possession of the power of working miracles did not supersede, with the apostles, the employment of ordinary prudence. An additional illustration of this fact is sen in that our Lord himself sent forth his messengers 'by two and two' (Mark si 1). So Barnabas and Paul, then Barnabas and John Mark, and Pan] and Silas, went out, esch pair together, to the work of the ministry. The reason of this is found not merely in the Jewish law which required the testimony of two men (John viii. 17), but generally in the confirmation that a second witness gives to the statements of a first. It was historical facts that Paul had first to publish, as the groundwork of all his teachings; and historical facts greatly increased in credibility when attested by two competent witnesses.
This letter did not accomplish all that was required and that the apostle wished. News came to him which revived and m some way augmented his solicitude. In faith and love, indeed, the disciples had continued to grow; but their misconceptions regarding the appearance of the Lord Jesus had become greater and more operative on their lives. Hence Paul was led to write the Second Epistle tj the Thessaluuians.
The evidence of this letter's having proceeded from Paul is involved in the recognition as his of the First Epistle to the same church (ii. IS). It refers to the same subjects as the First, and treats of them generally in a [similar manner. There is, indeed, a difference, but this difference favours the hypothesis that both proceeded from Paul. The difference to which we allude is in the tone taken in the Second letter—the tone of a now confirmed and rightful authority, which would seem to justify the ancients in regarding this as the Second letter, written posterior to that which is denominated the First Accordingly, his apostolic authority is now so established that he no longer, as in the First letter, admonishes in a subdued manner, but speaks in a firm and decided tone, almost blaming his pupils for their indocility (ii. 1, tea.). In the same way he now, as a master, bids them to observe his teachings (ii. 15), and to conduct themselves after the manner that he prescribes (iii. 6, IS); nay, disregard to his authority was to be expressly marked (iii. 14). He no longer speaks of the introduction of Christianity into Thessoionica, but of its growth and diffusion (iii. 1).
The time when the letter was written was when Silyanus and Timothy were still with Paul. It must, as we have just seen, have been posterior to the First letter. Silvanus and Timothy seem to be among the brethren of whom Paul took leave on quitting Corinth (xviii. 18). Timothy appears again in connection with Paul only some time after, and Silas never (xix. 22). Therefore we seem justified in fixing the era of its composition towards the termination of the period during which the apostle remained at Corinth.
The immediate cause of these false views in the minds of the Thessalonians which indnced Paul to pen the letter, appears to have lain in new persecutions which had broken out against them, and which they were led to consider as the token of the immediate appearance of Christ (i. 4—7; ii. 2). The way in which the apoBtle sought to correct these false notions will appear in the summary we are about to give of the contents of the Epistle.
After greeting his readers, the apostle expresses his gratitude to God for the increase of their faith and their mutual love; in consequence of which they were regarded by him as his glory, knowing, as he did, how firm and patient they were nnder the persecutions which they were then enduring. These sufferings were to be regarded as a token of Ood's being well pleased with them, since what they endured prepared them for what they would shortly enjoy in the kingdom of God; and so would they be recompensed for their tribulation, while wrath awaited their persecutors, who would receive terrible punishment at the manifestation of the Lord.
This retributory recompence is the general idea of the letter. Its application in particular cases follows (i.).
Having established this retribution as a fact, the writer begs his pupils, by their belief in that appearance of Christ which would occasion it, not to be troubled in their minds as if the event were near. Some persons had been endeavouring to make a wrong nse of the fact. They had misinterpreted the apostle's words. They had even brought forward a letter as if from Paul. Thus had they tried to deceive the church. But an event which had not taken place must first happen, of which the apostle, when with the Thessalonians, had given them information; namely, au evil power, the mystery of iniquity, which claimed divine honours, but which was now restrained, would, ere the coming of the Lord, rise into influence and seduce even believers: when this wicked one should have been revealed, Jesus would come and consume him with the spirit of his mouth. Then would
vengeance fall on their persecutors and on all who did not receive the truth; while faithful Christians would be rewarded abundantly and for ever. Hence the apostle requests the prayers of his readers to aid him in his work. He expresses his confidence that they will be obedient to his instructions and wait patiently for Christ. Disorders, too, required a remedy. In the false notion that the world was near its end, some had discontinued to work, and sought their support in the resources of others, meanwhile wasting their time in going about in a disorderly way, augmenting men's fears and alarms. If needful, these persons were to be avoided by the church, yet not as enemies, but as brothers to be admonished. Let all bear in mind Paul's own example, who ate no man's bread for nought, but wrought with labour and travail night and day in order not to be chargeable to auy one. So let these mistaken persons work with quietness and eat their own bread, and if any one obeyed not Paul's word as communicated by this Epistle, note that man and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. Finally, he prayed that the church at large might not be weary in well-doing, but have peace always of the Lord. And in order that no forged letter might be imposed on the church, he wrote the salutation with his own hand, and intimated that this was to be accounted the token of his authorship in every succeeding Epistle.
This conclusion would seem to imply that the apostle contemplated the possibility of his sending other letters to Thessoionica. Whether he did so or not we are not informed. If he sent other letters, they have perished.
Various are the opinions as to what the 'man of sin' (ii. 3—12) was of which the apostle speaks. It is styled the 'apostacy' or falling away, that is, from the gospel. Paul gives the marks by which it was to be known when it appeared. These marks have all been signally verified in the Koman apostacy, and in it alone.
THEUDAS is by Gamaliel (Acts v. 34, teq.) described as one who, boasting himself to be somebody, rose up before the census by Cyrenius (cir. A.D. 7), and, gathering aronnd him a band of four hundred men, was slain, and his associates put to flight. Josephus (Antiq. xx. ft, 1) mentions an insurgent by the name of Thendas, who was put down under Fadus, procurator of Judea (cir. 44 A.D.). But this cannot be the person of whom Gamaliel spoke in probably A.D. 33. Another person it was to whom Gamaliel referred, and who, under the name of Matthew (the Hebrew form of Theodotos, which in Aramaic is Thcudas, each signifying 'given of God'), raised, in the latter days of Herod the Great, a band of his scholars, in
aware of a single statement in Scripture that after. According to our present Hebrer is contradicted by any ascertained fact in either text, the former event took place B.C. 4004, science or history. Let as take & single and the latter, 1656 years afterwards. In instance in point. The Old Testament de- other words, one edition of the Scriptores clares that God created man in His own assigns to the human race an antiquity of image' (Gen. i. 27), and the New Testament more than 1400 years greater than the other, calls Adam'a son of God' (Luke iii. 38), while it makes the period from Adam to the and adds that all men are God's offspring Flood 000 years longer These discrepancies (Acts xvii. 29). Now, though the findings are enormous, and make it perfectly obvious of geology are not equally distinct, they all that either the one or the other copy, or both, point, as we have seen, in exactly the same have been seriously tampered with. Modern direction. Geology nowhere sanctions the doc scholars are now generally of opinion that the trine of the transmutation of species, or that the serious charge of falsifying the sacred record higher types of organic life have, in the course lies at the door of those intrasted with the of ages, been developed' out of the lower. custody of the Hebrew Scriptures; and that, No trace of such development can be found in in order to refute their Christian opponents as the innumerable pages of her stony records. to the predicted time of the appearance of the Her entire testimony is opposed to the impious Messiah, they committed the fearful crime of theories of the modern infidel, who tries to changing the inspired records. It was an show that man has been developed from the ancient tradition among the Jews that the ape or the baboon, or that he is the lineal world was destined to last for a period of descendant of the gorilla--the most hideous seven millenniums,- the first six correspondand disgusting of all brutes. It is ouly when ing to the six days of creation, and the seventh men are opposed in heart to God, and when, to the Sabbath, or day of rest—and that prein consequence, their moral eye hopelessly vious to the last millennium the Messiah should squints, that they can so read the record of appear in great power and glory. Traces of either Genesis or Geology.
this tradition may be found in the vaticinaThe entire space of time intervening be- tions of the Sibylline oracles, and in the tween the creation of man and the birth of writings of the Greek theogonists and cosmoChrist is usually divided by chronologists into gonists; and there can be little doubt that it six periods or ages. The first, extending from found its way to the native country of the Adam to the general Deluge, is called the Magi, and prepared them, at the proper time, Antediluvian age; the second, from the for the appearance of the star in the east. We Deluge to the call of Abraham, the Post- have no doubt that the tradition had ita firm diluvian age; the third, from the call of foundation in the Hebrew and Greek Serip. Abraham to the Exodus, the Patriarchal age; tures, which, at the time of our Lord's adeert, the fourth, from the Exodus to the foundation were in exact harmony. The date of His of Solomon's Temple, the Critarchal (Judge- birth perfectly agreed with the tradition, and ruling) age; the fifth, from the founding of thus a powerful argument was supplied to the the Temple to the Jewish Captivity, the Christians that the Desire of all nations' Monarchal age; and the sixth, from the had actually come, and that it was He whom Captivity to the birth of Christ, tha Hierarchal the Jewish rulers and priests had maliciously age. Each of these great periods has its own crucified. Seeing they were capable of perchronological difficulties, but those connected petrating that unparalleled crime, they would with the first three greatly exceed in magni. hardly shrink from any other. Having tude those attaching to the others. The date already murdered the Son of God, they now when man first appeared on the earth, and resolved on mutilating His inspired word, in the precise time when, owing to its multiplied order to make the world believe that Jesus of iniquities, almost the entire race was swept Nazareth was not the promised Saviour, but nway, are out of sight the hardest to determine an impostor who had appeared fourteen hun. in the entire field of chronology. With the dred years too soon. It is ackuowledged by exception of the Book of Genesis, we possess Biblical critics,' says Professor Wallace, in his no authentic records of these events; and it admirable and exhaustive treatise, The True so happens that even this invaluable document, Age of the World' (Smith, Elder, & Co., full as it is of notes of time, conveys much London, 1844), 'that all the copies of the less satisfactory information regarding the two present Hebrew text were taken from manggrand events referred to than we could wish. scripts of dates later than the ninth century, That book comes down to us in three distinct and that the striking uniformity which all the forms-the original Hebrew, the Samaritan, printed editions exhibit is to be attributed to and the Greek or Septuagint translation; and the fact that they were all copied from the these three, while closely agreeing in almost same codex.'s Dr Hales also gives citations all other particulars, are amazingly divergent from Eusebius, from the Jewish Targums, and in everything connected with dates. Accord from other works, in which decided referenca ing to the chronology of the Septuagint, Adam is made to the larger numbers as they anciently was created 5478 years before the Incarnation, existed in the Hebrew. Mr Cunninghame, and the Deluge occurred 2262 years there- also, in bis Dissertation on the Apocalypse,'
proves, on the authority of ancient Jewish tradition, that Adam was 230 years old when he begat Seth (and not 130 aa in our Hebrew text). Consequently, by the argument ex uno discs omnes, we conclude that the whole of the antepaidogonian ages are correctly given in the Septuagint, and that the true extent of the Antediluvian ago is 2202 years.' The changes introduced are, for the most part, curiously systematic, as will be at once perceived by comparing the Hebrew with the Septuagint, in regard to the ages ol the Antediluvians at the birth of each eldest son:—
Hebrew. . 130 105 90 70 65 16J 65 187 181 Septuagint, 230 805 190 170 165 161 165 187 183
It will be seen that in six cases the difference is exactly 100 years, and the result is that, according to the Hebrew, the Antediluvian age is shortened by six centuries.
In the second or Postdiluvian age, the result is precisely similar, as will be perceived at a glance by arranging the ten descents, from the Flood to Abraham (Gen. xi. 10-27), in parallel columns. The figures show the age of each patriarch at the birth of his firstborn son—first, in the Hebrew, and second, in the Septuagint:—
Hebrew, .35 0 30 31 30 32 30 59 70 75 Septuagint, 135 130 130 131 130 132 130 70 70 75
Here, again, there appear clear indications of design; for in six cases out of the ten, the age of each patriarch at the date of his eldest son's birth is, in the Hebrew, precisely 100 yean less than in the Septuagint. What is still more extraordinary, the Hebrew entirely omits the name of Cainan II., thereby shortening the chronology to the extent of 130 years, though the genuineness of the Septuagint is fully attested by St. Luke in his genealogy of our Lord (Luke iii. 36). Lastly, the following table shows the discrepancies of the two texts with regard to the whole lines of the ten Postdiluvian patriarchs:—
Hebrew, .438 0 433 4M 239 239 230 143 205 175 Septuagint, 538 460 433 404 339 339 330 208 205 173
An important consideration in favour of the Septuagint chronology is that, according to it, the decrease in the duration of human life after the Flood is far more natural and progressive than in the Hebrew, which exhibits great leaps between the different terms of the progression. Leibnitz's celebrated rule, natura ntm agit per solium, is nowhere more applicable than here. There is a suitable proportion, moreover, in the Greek numbers, between the whole lives of the patriarchs (both before und after the Flood), and their ages at the birth of their eldest sons, which is wholly wanting in the Hebrew. In the period before die Flood, the average of the six antepaidoi, onian ages is to the average of their entire lives in the ratio of 1 to 5 in the Greek, but only as 1 to 9 in the Hebrew. If these ratios be applied to the present average duration of human life, we find that, were the proportions
indicated by the Hebrew text to hold good, fathers would beget children at the age of eight years! but, according to the Greek, not sooner than at the age of fourteen. This argument grows in strength when we come to the Postdiluvian ago; for there the Hebrewanalogy would allow men now to become fathers at the age ol seven, but the Septuagint not before tho age of twenty-three.
Once more, the Hebrew text gives B.C. 2288 as the date of the universal Deluge, but the Septuagint B.C. 3218, or nearly a thousand years earlier. Now we cannot possibly accede the former as the true date, for we have the most indubitable monumental evidence to the contrary. Professor C. P. Smyth has shown, in his recently published 'Antiquity of Intellectual Man,' that the Great Pyramid of Jeezeh, the most ancient and stupendous of all existing monuments, was erected about the year B.C. 2170. Now, such a gigantic structure, on which, according to Herodotus. 10),00) men were engaged for 30 years could not possibly have been erected so early as 118 years after the Deluge, or (according to tho same system of chronology) only 41 years after the dispersion of nations.
This Pyramid, moreover, in its unique and marvellous system of symbology, gives some very remarkable indications of the true date of the Delnge. These, as interpreted by the Scottish Astronomer-Royal, clearly point to a year close upon B.C. 2800 as the actual time of that grand catastrophe. The evidence, therefore, which this colossal monnment supplies, while it confirms the general testimony of both the Hebrew text and the Septuagint, differs from each by only one-twelfth part of the whole time, either way—yet, precisely speaking, indicates a year that lies almost midway between the dates which they assign to that great era in the world's history. A doubt is consequently suggested, whether the chronology of the Septuagint has not, to some extent been tampered with, as well as that of the Hebrew, though in an opposite direction? We need scarcely inform our readers that many able chronologists, including Usher, Petavius, and Clinton, adduce many weighty arguments against the early chronology of the Greek Scriptures, without being in the least swayed by any evidence obtained from the Pyramid. At the same time, the Pyramid date of the Deluge approaches that of the Septuagint about a hundred years more closely than it does the date of the Hebrew text. Further investigations will, in all likelihood, confirm the testimony of this 'sign and wonder in the land of Egypt' (Jer. xxxii. 20), and render it more and more manifest that that unparalleled structure was intended from tho beginning to be the grand standard for trying and correcting not only the confusei metrologies of the nations, but also their equally vitiated chronologies.
Dc Bichard Lepsius of Berlin, the most