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105 -Mr. URBAN,
Liverpool, Feb. 1. some, cover the defects of the archiNIE annexed engraving is a view tectural works we know not, but in verpool, and the surrounding buildings the Church has also been repeyed, (see Plate I.) It was taken from and new galleries have been built. Man's Island, in the year 1741, by
In this Church there are a few Mr. R. Wright, a native of Liverpool. good monuments; amongst which we The original painting, which is in my may mention one of Mrs. Clayton. It possession, is about 18 inches by 13. is executed in statuary marble: the This, with five others, Wright paint-composition is a female figure seated, ed in oil for his Shoeniaker. The with an urn; expressive of grief. This Shoemaker's son gave the painting to
monument was erected at the expense me about twenty years ago. This art
of her daughter, Sarah Clayton. There ist arrived to great eminence, and be- is also a monumeni erected to her huscame a member of the Royal Acade- band, Wm. Clayton, esq. of Fulwood, my in 1760.
co. Lancaster, M.P. 'In the site here represented there
The living of St. Nicholas, which has been a wonderful change. In- is a Curacy, is held with the Rectory deed we have nothing left but a few of St. Peter's, and is in the gift of the Houses built of stone, obtained from Mayor and Corporation of Liverpool, the ancient Castle. These old Houses who in 1794 presented it to Sam. are now the only remains we have of Renshaw, M. A. the present Curate. the Seventeenth Century, at the end
M.G. of which Liverpool became a parish.
The exterior of the Old Chapel of ANCIENT AND Modern LIVERPOOL. St. Nicholas, as it formerly stood, is presumed to have been built soon after
(Continued from p. 23.) the Conquest. The walls were taken The Town in 1821 and 1761, presentdown, and the roof removed in the ing a contrast between the Coronayear 1774, when they were rebuilt tions of George III. and George IV. under the direction of 'Joseph Brooks,
by since the last Coronation was roof, the joints of which were covered solemnized in this country : a period with deal boards, upon which was crowded with the most stupendous painted a representation of the firma- events, and during which Great Bri
The interior, however, was tain has played the most conspicuous not then disturbed, save the ancient character on the theatre of the world, massive Gothic pillars and arches, and filled it with the fame of her rewhich were substituted by the pre- nown. The venerated Sovereign, who sent lighter pillars. A spire was add- during sixty eventful years, swayed the ed to the old tower of this Church in British sceptre, now sleeps with his 1746; but it fell down 11th February, ancestors, and the weight of empire 1810, just before the beginning of di- has devolved upon the shoulders of his vine service; of which very melancholy son, who entered upon a solemn conaccident see a particular account, vol. pact with his people, surrounded by
- parti. p. 147. A beautiful Gothic the flower of England's nobility, by tower and spire have since been erect- all that is venerable for wisdom, illused by Thos. Harrison, esq. Architect. trious for virtue, celebrated for naval Compelled to contract its height from or military achievement, splendid for the circumstance of twelve heavy bells talent, and gorgeous and imposing in being erected in the tower, the lan- gothic and chivalrous institutions. thorn is not so lofty as could have Such a period forms an epoch in our been wished; but the structure unites history. It offers an elevated station the essentials of strength, use, and in the route of time, whence we may beauty, and is highly worthy of its take a retrospect of the brilliant carcer distinguished architect. In the East which our country, in the preceding window, where there was no inter
age, has run among the nations of ruption to the display of Gothic beauty, Europe. We may also mark the prowe regret to find a miserable attempt gress she has made in territory and poby a different artist. How far the pulation, in commerce and agriculture, painted glass may, in the opinion of in arts and arms. Such a retrospect. Gent. Mag. February, 1823.
(Feb. would be eminently instructive, and contrast will surprise not only strangers would show, in the most striking co- to the bulk of the modern town, but lours, the astonishing start which she even sundry natives. Since 1761 it has taken in national greatness and re- has pushed out its limits to the North,
But the whole subject is too to the South, and to the East (the gigantic for our feeble grasp. We river bounds it on the West) and has can, however, detach separate frag- swelled on all its three sides to an asments from this mighty mass, and tonishing magnitude. It has even encompare their present with that of croached on the sea, and very consithe forrner Coronation.
derably contracted the bed of the MerWe shall, therefore, select our na- sey.
Without entering into particutive town, and endeavour to compare lars which might be deemed tedious, Liverpool in 1821, with Liverpool in we may estimate the space at present 1761. This comparison, being found-covered with buildings, to form an ed, for the most part, on arithmetical area of 6,000,000 square yards; exstatements, will be level to the lowest hibiting an enormous increase, since capacity, and must strike every mind 1761, of 4,816,000 square yards. This with astonishment. The extent of the area, it must be remembered, is within town is the first object which presents the boundaries of Liverpool ; but if itself as a contrast. Liverpool in 1761 we conclude, as we justly may, the was but the mere skeleton of Liverpool space covered by the buildings at Harin 1821. There are now some vener- rington, Edge-hill, Low-hill, Everton, able characters among us who can re- and Kirkdale, which are chiefly inhacollect its size at the former period; bited by persons carrying on business hut the great majority know it from in Liverpool, and are constituent parts description ouly. About 1761 the of the town, as Westminster and Southtown extended as far as the top of wark to the metropolis, and Salford Old Hall-street to the Northward. to Manchester, the area would be still In Tythebarn-street only to Key-street more expanded, and exceed probably all the interval thence to the present 7,000,000 square yards ! Vauxhall-road being open fields. In Having thus contrasted the extent Dale-street it extended a little beyond of Liverpool in 1891 with its extent Cheapside on the left, and on the in 1761, we shall proceed to contrast right to Preston-street; all beyond was its population at the two periods. And open ground. Williamson-square had here the comparison will be more asbuildings only on the lower side, the tonishing than in its increased extent. other three parts were not covered. In 1761 the number of inhabitants Clayton - square contained but two
may be safely computed in round numhouses. Church-street and the streets bers at 26,000. We cannot ascertain leading Southward and Northward what was then the population of the were beginning to be covered; but suburbs. This census 'shews that the all the land from the present Saint town, even at that early period, was Stephen's Church, at the lower end comparatively populous; but how inof 'Byrom-street, to an obscure pot- significant in comparison to its prehouse, at the bottom of Richmond
sent population ! According to the restreet, Whitechapel, was open to the turn of the last census, the population Eastward. Duke-street was covered of the parish of Liverpool alone is about 200 yards: all the rest to the 118,972! But here again we must in Southward was open fields. A part fairness include the population of Harof Pitt-street and Park-lane was then rington and the other suburbs, which, built; but all the lands from the wa- it appears, united, amount to 22,515; ter, South and East, were entirely this, added to that of the parish, makes open. The Quay of the Old Dock a grand total of 141,487, being 115,487 was encuinbered with a great many more than in the year 1761. A prohuts and cottages. A plan of the digious increase in 60 years! Town was made by Mr. John Eyes, This may be regarded as the amount in 1705, from which it appears, that of the permanent population of the at that time, four years after the pe- town and suburbs. But we must not riod of our comparison, the buildings omit in our calculation the seamen covered an area of 1,184,000 square who sail out of the port, and who may yards. Such was the extent of Liver- be denominated its floating population. pool in 1761. Let us now compare In 1811. they were estimated at 7000 ; it with its extent in 1821, and the and their numbers having kept pace
1893.) Ancient and Modern Liverpool contrasted.
107 with the increase of the commerce of inural architecture. They are as subthe port, if we estimate them now at stantial as human art and ingenuity only 9000, we shall not, we think, ex- can make them : their gates, though ceed the truth ; and thus we shall have comparatively light, are strong and a permanent and floating population of compact; and the whole has a soliabove 150,000 souls !
dity and magnificence of appearance, The contrast presented by the com- equalling, if not surpassing, those of merce of the town at tiie two periods any similar structures in the world. calculated still more excite astonish- The Prince's dock, opened on the
To begin with the number of Coronation-day, is a matchless specishipping In 1761 the number of men of mural, architecture, and is ships that entered the port was 1319: unique in having lock gates. in 1820-21 (the accounts are made up As connected with this part of the to five each year) it was 7810; exhi- contrast, we may point out the im. biting an increase of 6493, as com- mense ranges of lofty, substantial, and pared with the former period. The capacious, warehouses, built along the amount of the dock-duties in 1761 was dock quays and other parts of the 23821. Os. 2d.: in 1820 and 1821 it was town. "These are all the creation of 94,5561. Os. Id. Increase 92,1741. 8s. the last 20 or 30 years, and none of 11d. This comparison of the annount those existing in 1761 in any respect of dock dues received at the two pe- equalled them. riods is perfectly fair; but the com- We shall now proceed to contrast parison of the number of ships, de- the principal public structures which ceptious. Those used in commerce in exist at present. We shall divide them 1761, were, with some few exceptions, into eight classes, viz. structures for not so bulky as those used at present. religious worship; for charitable uses; If, therefore, we would ascertain the for civic and judicial purposes; for tonnage of the 1319 vessels which en- business; for literature, politics, and tered the port that year, and could the arts; for pleasure; for public uticompare it with the tonnage of the lity and accommodation ; and for con7810 which entered in 1820-1821, it finement. would, there is no doubt, prodigiously First, to begin with structures deswell the actual amount of the present voted to religious worship. In 1761, state of the port. Unfortunately we. there were four Churches, St. Nichocannot ascertain this fact; the amount las *, St. Peter, St. George, and St. of tonnage having been published since Thomas. At the present period there the commencement of the present cen- are not less than 22; sone of them, tury only.
particularly those erected within the The increased accommodation for last few years, matchless specimens of shipping, by the increase of docks architectural taste and beauty In since 1761, is the next subject which 1761 there were about seven disseniforces itself upon our notice. It has, ing meetings; at this time there are it will be seen, kept pace with 25; several of which are uncommonly the progressive increase of the com- spacious, and form distinguished ornamerce of the port. In 1761 there were, ments of the town. It is here worthy three wet docks and two basins co- of remark, that the number of churches vering an area of about 18 acres. At and chapels hear nearly, the same nuthe present time there are six wet merical proportion to each other now, docks and six basins, covering an area of as they bore in 1761. The balance 63 acres, three roods, 20 perches; and is clearly on the side of the Churches ; forming a sea wall of above a mile and from which we are inclined to infer, a half in length. This is certainly a that much of the apprehension respectgigantic increase of dock-room in 60 ing the progress of dissent in the prepears ; but the docks of 1761 cannot sent day is imaginary. bear any thing more than a numeri- Second, structures for the purposes cal comparison with those of the pre- of Charity. In 1761 these consisted sent day. The structure of the ancient of the Blue Coat Hospital, the Infirdocks was comparatively rude; they mary, and the Seaman's Hospital. were liable to rapid decay, and had They were brick buildings, with litmerely clumsy draw-bridges, on the tle ornament. We have now, in adDutch plan, thrown over the entrances. But the modern docks are constructed * Engraved in our present Number, see p. upon the most improved principles of 105.