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A. To endeavour, as far as I am ful plains into a desert ; whereas lia able, to preserve the public tranqui. berty, like the dew from heaven, lity; and, as I am a freeholder, to fructificth the barren mountains, give my vote for the candidate, whom This I have learned from travellers, I judge most worthy to serve his who have visited countries in both country; for if from any partial mo- conditions; therefore, as I said bee tive I should give my vote for one fore, I should reckon myself guilty unwortly, I should think myself of the greatest crime human nature justly chargeable with his guilt. is capable of, if I were any ways ac
Q. Thou hast perbaps but one cessary to the enslaving iny country. vote of five hundred, and the mem. Though I have but one vote, many ber perhaps one of five hundred more; units make a number; and if every then your share of the guilt is but elector should reason after the same small.
manner, that he has but one, what · A. As be, who assists at a mur- must become of the whole? A law der, is guilty of murder, so he, who of great consequence, and the elecacts the lowest part in the enslaving tion of the member 'who voted for his country, is guilty of a much that law, may be both carried by greater crime than murder
one vote. Great and important ser, Q. Is enslaving one's country a vices for the liberties of their coun. greater crime tbak murder?
try have been done by ordinary men. · A. Yes; inasmuch as the murder I have read that the institution of of human nature is a greater crime the tribunes of Rome, or the whole than the murder of a human crea- power of the commons, was owing ture; or as he, who debaseth and to a word spoken in season by a rendereth miserable the race of man common mau. kind, is mere wicked than he, who Q. Is it not lawful then to take a cutteth off an individual.
bribe from a person otherwise worthy Q. Why is enslaving mankind to serve his country? murdering human nature?
A. No more than for a judge to A. Because mankind in a state of take a bribe for a righteous sentence; slavery and freedom is a different nor is it any more lawful to corrupt, sort of creature; for proof of this I than to commit evil that good may have read what the Greeks were of come of it. Corruption converts a old, and what they are now in a good action into wickedness. Brie state of slavery.
bery of all sorts is contrary to the Q. Wbat is become of the heroes, law of God; it is a heinous sin, often philosophers, orators, and free citi. punished with the severest judgments; zens of Greece?
it involves in it the sin of perjury, A. They are now slaves to the as the law stands now; and is begreat Turk.
sides the greatest folly and madness, Q. What is become of the Scipio's Q. How is it contrary to the law and Cato's of Rome?
of God ? A. They sing now on the English, A. The law of God saith expressly, stage.
thou shalt not wrest judgment ; thou Q. Does not the tranquility, oc shalt not take a gift. If it is a sin in casioned by absolute monarchy, a judge, it is much more in a law. make the country thrive?
giver, or an elector; because the A. Peace and plenty are not the mischiefs occasioned by the first reach genuine fruits of absolute monarchy; only to individuals; that of the last fur absolute monarchies are more sube , may affect whole nations, and even ject to convulsions than free govern- the generations to come. The Psalmments, and slavery turneth the fruits ist describing the wicked, saith, his right hand is full of bribes. The Q . Why is taking a bribe folly, or prophet, describing the righteous, madness? tells us, he shaketh his hands from A. Because I must refund tena holding a bribe. Samuel justifying fold in taxes of what I take in elechis innocence, appeals to the people, tions; and the member who bought of whose hands have I taken a bribe ? me, has a fair pretence to sell me ; Then as to divine vengeance, holy nor can I, in such a case, have any Job tells us, that God shall destroy just cause of complaint. the tabernacle of bribery, Achan's Q. What wilt thou say then to avarice who had appropriated to his the candidate, that offers thee a bribes own use the golden wedge and the A. I will say, thy money perish Babylo:ish garment, brought the with thee! 4s thou art now purchasjudgment of God upon the whole ing thy seat in parliament, I have people, so that they fled before their just reason to suspect thou resolvest to enemies, till the criminal was dis- sell thy vote. What thou offerest, and covered and stoned to death. The what thou promiseth may be the price leprosy adhered to Gehazi (the ser. of the liberties of my country. I will vant of Elisha) and his house for not only reject thy bribe with disdain, ever, for taking a bribe from Naa but will rote against thee. man, a rich minister of a great Q. Is not the justice of a king. prince. Therefore he, that taketh sufficient securiiy for the liberty of a a bribe, may justly expect what is people i threatened in holy writ; he shall not A. The people ought to have more prosper in his way, neither shall his security for all that is valuable in substance continue ; his silver and the world, than the will of a mortal gold shall not be able to deliver him and fallible man. A king of Britain in the day of the wrath of the Lord. may make as many peers, and such
Q. Why is he, that taketh a bribe, as he pleaseth; therefore the last guilty of the sin of perjury?
and best security for the liberties of A. Because he sweareth.
the people, is a house of Commons I A. B.* do swear (vr being one of genitine and independent. the people called Quakers, I A.B. Q. What meanest thou by a gedo solemnly afirm) I have not re- nuine house of Commons ? cerved, or had by myself or any other A. One that is the lawful issue person whatsocver in trust for me, or of the people, and no bastard. for any use or benefit, directly or in. Q: How is a bastard house of directly, any sum or sums of money, Commons produced ? ofice, place, or employment, gift or A. When the people by terror, reward, or any promise or security corruption, or other indirect means, for any moncy, office, employment or chuse such as they o:herwise would gift, in order to give my vote at this not chuse; when such as are fairly election ; and that I have not before chosen, are not returned; when such been polled at this election.
as are returned, are turned out by Q. What thinkest thou of those, partial votes in controverted elec. who are bribed by gluttony and tions, and others not fairly chosen drunkenness?
set in their places. A. That they are viler than Esau, Q. How may a house of Com. who sold his birth-right for a mess mons become dependeni? of porridge.
· A. When the freedom of voting is
destroyed by threatnings, promises, This oath is enjoined in the late glo- punishments, and rewards ; by the rious act, for preventing bribery and open force of the government, or the corruption at elections.
josults of the populace; but above
al by private influence; for they, had any affairs to setile with my who are aimed with the power of the lord, I would chuse: my neighbour. crown, have many ways of gratifying for a referee rather than my lord's. such as are subservient to their de- steward. signs, and many ways of oppressing Q. Why is frugality of the people's such as oppose them, both within money so necessary at this time. the bounds of the law.
A. Because they have run out Q. Can a king have a more faith- much, and are still much in debt., ful council than a house of Com- My father and I have paid our share mons, which speaketh the sense of of one hundred millions, and I have the people?
heard there are near fifty more to 4. None ; for they will not only pay.* I grudge not this prodigious give him impartial council, but will expence, as far as it has been the powerfully and cheerfully assist him necessary price of liberty; hui as it'in execute what they advise. would grieve me much to see this
Q. What are the marks of a per- blessing ravished from me, which Son, worthy to serve his country in has cost me so dear; so on the other parliament?
hand I think it expedient to save, A. The marks of a good ruler now the affair is over, and the go. given in Scripture will serve for a vernment setiled. parliament-man ; such as rule over Q. Who are those, who are so you shall be men of truth, hating co. careful of the trade of the nation ? Detousness; they shall not take a gift; A. Such as are willing to keep it they shall not be afraid of the face of from all vexatious interruptions by e man, Deut. xvi. Therefore I con- inspections, entering into houses, sei. clade, that the marks of a good par zures, suits ; and the oppression of liament-man are riches with fruga- tar gatherers, as much as possible; lity; integrity, courage; being well. such as are willing to take off the affected to the constitution ; know. burthensome duties, which encrease kuge of the state of the country; the expence of the workman, and being prudently frugal of the money, consequently the price of the manu. careful of the trade, and zealous for facture. the liberties of the peoplo; having Q. But as you have a freehold, stuck to the interest of his country would you not be willing to be ex. in perilous times, and being assidu- cused from paying two shillings in ous in attendance.
the pound, by laying excises upon Q. Who is most likely to take a other parts of our consumption ? bribe?
4. No doubt but every landed • A. Ile, who offereth one. man would be glad to be free from
Q. Who is likely to be frugal of paying two shillings in the pound; the people's money?
but, at the same time, I would not A. He, who puts none of it in his raise, by another tax, two shillings own pecket.
in the pound, nor one shilling in the Q. You seem by this to be averse pound for a perpetuity; for parlia. from chusing such as accept places ments, who have no more to give, and gratuities from the crown). What may be disappointed for the redress is your reason for this partiality of their grievances. Besides, I would
4. I am far from ihinking that a not be deluded by an impossibility; man may not serve his King and his country faithfully at the saine time.
If the writer had lived at the present Nay, their interests are inseparable.
period he would have found our debt Mr. Such an one, my lord's steward,
amounting to eight hundred millions, is a very honest inan; and yet if I and our taxes increased len told !--En.
for if my tenant has any new tax entrusted with the lives, liberties laid upon him, I am afraid he will and properties of the people, which nut pay me so much rent; so that have often been endangered by the the new tax must still affect land. non-attendance of many members ; Then it is utterly impossible to raise because, if representatives do not by excises what shall be equivalent attend, I may have a law imposed tu two shillings in the pound, with- upon me, to which I had no opporout the ruin of trade; for the exci- tunity of giving my assent. ses, which are settled already, gene Q. Thou hast prudently and justly rally speaking, raise double the duo resolved to promote, to the utmost ty on the people, of what they bring, of thy power, the public tranquillity. in in the government.
What are the advantages thou proQ. How canst thou prove that? posest from that?
A. By experience of several ex- A. All the advantages resulting cises, as of leather, candles, soap, from political society depend upor &c. Whatever is brought into the the public tranquillity. Besides, by public by those excises is raised public tranquillity, armies, which double upon the people; therefore are a mark of distrust of the af. if a million of money, or what is fections of the people, may be disa equivalent to two shillings in the banded. pound, were levied by excise, it Q. Why do'st thou not love arwould be two millions upon the ex- mies, in time of peace? cised commodities, which must de- A. Because armies have overturned. stroy every subject of trade in Britain. the liberties of most countries ; and
Q. Why dost thou insist that a all, who are well-affected to liberty. knowledge of the state of the coun- ever hated them ; because they are try is a necessary qualification for a subject to an implicit obedience to parliament-man?
their officers, and to a law of their A. Because this is a qualification, own; because they are so many of late, very much unheeded. I lusty men taken from work, and have heard that there are many cor maintained at an extravagant ex! porations, which never saw their pence upon the labour of the rest : members.
because they are many ways bur Q. Is then a writ of parliament thensome to the people in their quaronly a congé d'Elire for a bishop, ters, even under the best discipline, where the king nominates !
especially in dear countries; because A. God forbid! The crown is ne- there are so many preferments in ver to meddle in an election. the hands of designing ministers;
Q. Why is assiiluous attendance and lasily, because the king will so necessary?
pever be denied an army as great as 4. Because a parliament-man is he pleaseth, when it is necessary.
LOCKE ON GOVERNMENT.
[Continued from page 10.]
intricacy of the words, and the doubtOf Adam's Title to Sovereignty by fulness of the ineaning; let us go on to. Donation, Gen. i. 28.
his next argument for Adam's sovereign$. 21. Having at lost got through the ty. Our author tells us in the words of foregoing passage, where we have been Mr. Selden that Adum by donation from so long detained, not by the force of God, Gen i. 28. was made the general aryumcuts and opposition, but by the Lord of all things, not without such a
private dominion to himself, as without ted such a ruler. If our author means his grant did exchide his children. This otherwise, he might with much cleardetermination of Mr. Selden, says our ness have said, that Adam was hereby author, is consonant to the history of the proprietor of the whole world. But he Bible, and natural reason, Observations, begs your pardon in that point : clear 210. And in his Preface to bis Observa- distinct speaking not serving every where tions on Aristotle, he says thus, The to his purpose, you must not expect it first government in the world wus mo- in him, as in Mr. Selden, or other such narchical in the father of all flesh, Adum writers. being commanded to people and multiply 24. In opposition therefore to our au. the earth, and to subdue it, and having thor's doctrine, that Adam was monarch dominion given him over all creatures, of the whole world, founded on this place, was thereby the monarch of the whole I shall shew, world: none of his posterity had any 1. That by this grant, Gen. 1. .28. right to possess any thing, but by his God gave no immediate power to Adam grant or permission, or by succession from over men, over his children, over those. him: The earth, sailh the Psalmist, hath of his own species; and so be was not he given to the children of men; which made ruler, or moparch, by this charter. shew the title comes from fatherhood. 2. That by this grant God gave him
22. Before I examine this argument, not private dominion over the inferior and the text on which it is founded, it creatures, but right in common with all is necessary to desire the reader to ob- mankind; so neither was he monarch, serve, that our author, according to his upon the account of the property here usual method, begins in one sense, and given him. concludes in anotber; he begins here 25. That this donation, Gen. i. 28, with Adain's propriety, or prioute don gave Adam no power over men, will minion, by donation ; and his conclusion appear if we consider the words of it : is, which shew the title comes from fa- for since all positive grants convey no therhood.
more than the express words they are 23. But let us see the argument. The made in will carry, let us see which of words of the text are these; and God tbem here will comprehend mankind. blessed them, and God said unto them, or Adam's posterity; and those, I mar be fruiiful and multiply, and replenish gine, if any, must be these, every living the earth and subdue it, and have do thing that moveth : the words in Heminion over the fish of the sea, and over brew are nwon niyrt i. e. Bestiam Repthe foul of the air, and over every living tantein, of which words the scripture thing that moveth on the earth, Gen. i. itself is the best interpreter : God hav. 28. from whence our author concludes, ing created the fishes and fowls the fifth that Adam, having here dominion given day, the beginning of the sixth he crehim over all creatures, was thereby the ates the irrational inhabitants of the dry monarch of the whole world : whereby land, which, 0. 24. are described in must be meant, that either this grant these words, let the earth bring forth of God gave Adam property, or as our the living creature after his kind; catauthor calls it private dominion over the tle and creeping things, and beasts of earth, and all inferior or irrational crea- the earth, after his kind. v. 2. And tures, and so consequently that he was God made the beasts of the earth afler thereby monarch ; or 2dly, that it gave his kind, and catile after their kind, him rule and dominion over all earthly and every thing that creepeth on the creatures whatsoever, and thereby over earth after his kind : here, in the creahis children ; and so he was monarch; tion of the brute inhabitants of the for, as Mr. Selden has properly worded earth, he first speaks of them all under it, Adam was made general lord of all one general name, of living creatures, things, one may very clearly understand and then afterwards divides them into him, that he means nothing to he gran- three ranks, 1. Catlle, or such created to Adam here but property, and tures as were or might be tame, and so therefore he says not one word of Aduri's be the private possession of particular monarchy. But our author says, dum men; 2. in which, ver. 24 and 25, was hereby monarch of the world, which, in our bible, is translated beasts, and properly speaking, signifies sovereign by the Septuagint ongia, wild beasts, and ruler of all the men in the world; and so is the same word, that here in our Adań, by this grant, must be constitu- text, ver, 28. where we have this great