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France had for a long time claim But, as there was an inveterate ed a right over Genoa; but after the and implacable hatred between those battle of Pavia, when the French two nations, this treaty did not long were forced intirely to abandon Italy, subsist; and upon Henry's death the that claim had become of no effect. same oppression as formerly became Henry the Second however, having flagrant in Corsica. commenced a new war in Italy, a- 'Sampiero di Ornano, who had gainst the Emperor Charles V, re- been again for some time in France, solved to assert his power in Corsica; returned to Corsica, where his preSampiero di Ornano encouraged this sence inspired the islanders with fora disposition, that he might avail him- titude, and occasioned a very geneself of it, to free the island from a ral revolt. yoke which galled it so much.
He carried on his glorious enterAn expedition was therefore or- prise with considerable effect; and dered to Corsica in the year 1553, the more so, that, as he had now under the command of General Paul no foreign assistance, he was not de Thermes, accompanied by Sam- looked upon as very formidable, and piero di Ornano, Jourdain des Ur- the republic made little preparations sins, and several other able com- against him. But he was stopped in manders. Henry had also the Turks his career by the treachery of the joined with him in this expedition, Genoese, who had him basely assashaving prevailed with their fourth sinated, by a wretch of the name of Emperor, Solyman, stiled the Mag. Vitolli, in 1567. nificent, to send out a large fleet to His son Alphonso di Ornano, who the Tuscan sea.
had been brought up in the court of This expedition was powerfully Henry II. kept alive the patriotic opposed by the Genoese. The great struggle for a short while; but, un. Andrew Doria, though then in his able to make head against the reeighty-seventh year, bid defiance to public, he retired from the island age and infirmities, and, since Cor- and settled in France. sica was an object of importance to The Genoese were thus again put his country, the gallant veteran' em- in possession of Corsica. Enraged barked with all the spirit of his glo- at what they had suffered from a rious youth, having a formidable daring rebellion, as they termed it; armament under his command. and, still dreading a new insurrec
The war was carried on with vi- tion, they thought only of avenging gour on both sides. The Corsicans themselves on the Corsicans; and joined in the common cause, and the plunging that people still lower than greatest part of the island was once ever in ignorance and slavery. fairly delivered from the tyrant. But Their oppression became now, if the Geonese were so well command possible, worse than before. They ed by the intrepid Doria, and had were inflamed with hotter resentbesides such assistance from Charles ment, and their tyranny formed itV. who sent strong reinforcements, self into something of a regular sysboth of Spanish and German troops, tem. They permitted nothing to be that the expedition was not intirely exported from the island, but to effectual.
Genoa, where, of necessity, the CorAt length, a treaty was concluded sicans were obliged to sell their mer between the Corsicans and Genoese, chandise at a very low rate; and, in advantageous and honourable for years of scarcity, the island was the former, having, for guarantee, drained of provisions by a sort of bis most Christian Majesty, legal plunder. For the inhabitants
were forced to bring them to Genoa, ing themselves altogether unable for so that actual famine was often oc- it, while the Corsicans were every casioned in Corsica.
day growing stronger, cutting to Long despised, plundered and op- pieces the poor reinforcements of pressed, the Corsicans again revived Genoese troops, and thereby supin 1729, when the war commenced, plying theniselves with more arms; which, with some intervals, has con- the republic was under the necessity tinued till now.
of seeking foreign assistance. It is wonderful to see how great They applied to the Emperor events are produced by little causes. Charles VI. who sent to Corsica a
The rise of the Corsicans, in 1729, body of auxiliaries under the comwas occasioned by a single paolo, a mand of General Wachtendonck. piece worth about five pence En- These harrassed the island, without glish. A Genoese collector went to being powerful enough to overawe the house of a poor old woman, and it. They had continual rencounters demanded this trifling sum, as the with the Corsicans, who, in one acmoney for which she was assessed. tion, killed 1200 of them. The EmBeing in extreme penury, she had not peror then sent a strong army of wherewithal to satisfy the demand. Germans, with the Prince of WirUpon which, the collector began to temberg at their head. The Corsiabuse her, and to seize some of her cans were not in a condition to resist furniture. She begged him to have such a force. They laid down their patience, and said, she hoped in a arms upon condition, that a treaty few days to be able to pay him. He should be made between them and persisted in his severity, and the the Genoese, having for guarantee poor woman made a great lamenta- the Emperor. tion. Two or three people hearing This treaty, which had been forthe noise entered the house, took mally concluded between the Corsithe part of the woman, and ex- cans and the Genoese, having been claimed against the barbarity of the broken by the latter, there was a collector. He threatened them with very short suspension of hostilities; punishment, for having hindered and in 1734 the Corsicans rose anew. him in the execution of his office, Giafferi, their former general, was This provoked the villagers, and again elected, and got for his col. they drove him away with stones. league Signor Giacinto Paoli, fatherThe Genoese sent troops to support of the present general. their collector, and the Corsicans Giacinto Paoli was a Corsican assembled in large bodies to defend gentleman of a good family. But themselves. The tumult increased. his merit distinguished him more A spark was sufficient to kindle the than liis rank. He was a man of generous fame, in a people who had learning, religion, and bravery; well so often glowed with the enthusiasm qualified to serve his country, either of liberty; and, in a very short time in politics or in war. the whole island was in motion. The Genoese had paid very dear
The Corsicans immediately rushed for their victory in the former strug. upon the capital, which they took gles. It was computed that it had almost without resistance; and they cost them above thirty milions of would have been masters of the cas. livres, besides costly presents to the tle of Corte, had they been a little Prince of Wirtemberg, and to the better regulated.
other general officers. The Genoese at first endeavoured The Marquis d'Argens very pleato overcome the Corsicans by the santly applies to the Genoese the sole force of the republic; but find. French fable of a gardener, who com
a me harrused the island, without
They applied to the Emperor
las conthe republic was under the pressity
day growing stronget, (utt.c.2 10
France had for a long time claim. But, as there was as ed a right over Genoa; but after the and implacable hatred battle of Pavia, when the French two nations, this trgo were forced intirely to abandon Italy, subsist; and upor that claim had become of no effect. same oppressior Henry the Second however, having flagrant in Cez commenced a new war in Italy, a- 'Sampiero gainst the Emperor Charles V, re- been agair solved to assert his power in Corsica; returned Sampiero di Ornano encouraged this sence in disposition, that he might avail him- titud? self of it, to free the island from a rala yoke which galled it so much.
An expedition was therefore or. dered to Corsica in the year 1553, se under the command of General Paul de Thermes, accompanied by Sar), . piero di Ornano, Jourdain des 1 sins, and several other able manders. Henry had also the 223 joined with him in this exr5
aild having prevailed with the Emperor, Solyman, stile 773
viga assistance. nificent, to send out a
V 8 the Tuscan sea.
wore assumed every mark of
-yal dignity. He had his guards, This expedition
and his officers of state. He conopposed by the Gen
aze- ferred titles of honour, and he struck Andrew Doria, th
- was the money, both of silver and copper. eigbty-seventh yo e. whose sin- He immediately blocked up the Geage and infirmi
me so much noise. noese fortified towns; and he used sica was an c on New hoff, in the to be sometimes at one siege, somehis country: Marc in Westphalia, times at another, standing with a barked wit' have
opage who aspired to the telescope in his hand, as if he spied rious you of Corsica. He had his the assistance which he said he exarmame in the French service. He pected. He used also the artifice of The jou 11
Is went to Spain, where he making large packets be continually goursome marks of regard from brought to him from the continent
ke of Riperda and Cardinal which he gave out to be from the oni. But, being of a strange different Sovereigns of Europe, ac itled projecting disposition, he knowledging his authority, and pro. mund Spain, and went and travelled mising to befriend him.
Italy, England, and Holland, The Genoese were not a little con er in search of some new adventure. founded with this unexpected advene at last fixed his attention on Cor- turer. They published a violent ma. ica, and formed a scheme of making nifesto against Theodore, treating himself a King.
him with great contempt, but, at He was a man of abilities and ad- the same time shewing, that they dress : and, after having fully in. were alarmed at his appearance. formed himselfof every thing relating Theodore replied, in a manifesto, to the island, he went to Tunis, with all the calmness and dignity of where he fell upon means to procure a monarch; expressed his indiffer.
· History of the Revolutrons of Corsica.
ing foreign assistance.
plied to the Emperor
lo sent to Corsica a
republic was under the mcesity
plying theniselves with more arms;
under the cum
iboendonck. Fring them to Genoa, ing themselves altogether unable for day growing stronger, cutting to
to the injurious treatment of having delivered the island from
The Corsicans now talk differently minister at London, of King Theodore. Some of them, rest against the Cor who had most faith in his fine speeches, he, 24th of July, still extol him to the skies, to supe he Queep-regent port their own judgment; others,
ied out her who looked upon him as an impos. 'ibiting anytor, and never joined heartily in his from fur- measures, represent him as a kind nce to of Wat Tyler, a King of a rabble;
but the most knowing and judicious, ght and the general himself, consider
him in the moderate light in which he has now been represented ; and wn, that he was of great service in iving the spirit of the nation, h, after a good many years of
it war, was beginning to
p, but which 'Theodore restored, while he rekindled the sacred fire of . His liberty. -4, in the The Genoese, eager to repress the
rise in 1734, hired some Swiss and olland, and there Grisons, who, from being accusa ssful enough to get cre- tomed to such a country at home great extent from several might scour the mountain of Cormerchants, particularly Jews, sica. But these soldiers found it no who trusted him with cannon, and easy matter to scour mountains, other warlike stores, to a great value, where the natives were continually under the charge of a supercargo. firing upon them, and had number. With these, he returned to Corsica, less ways of escaping. They soon in 1739; and, on his arrival, he put saw that they had made a bad barto death the supercargo, that he might gain, and that they gave the Genot have any trouble frum demands noese too much blood for their money. being made upon him.
But France, who has ever had an By this time, as shall be after- eye to this island, now began to be wards shewn, the French had become apprehensive, that the Corsicans so powerful in the island, that, al. might intirely throw off the yoke of though Theodore threw in his supply Genoa; in which case they would of warlıke stores, he did not incline either become a free state, which the to venture his person, the Genoese powers of Europe would, from a having set a high price upon his head. mutual jealously, protect ; or, per
He therefore chose to relinquish haps, would put themselves under his throne, and give up his views of the sovereignty of some great naambition for safety, furnishing a re- tion. She resolved then to force them markable example, how far a daring back under the dominion of Genoa, and desperate spirit may go; for, had which she has since, from time to Theodore had a little more prudence, time, endeavoured to do; for, by and some better fortune, he and his constant negociations with that re. posterity might have worn the crown public, France has such an ascen. of Corsica, upon the generous title dancy, that she may command, when plained to a gentleman in the neigh- some money and arms; and then bourhood, that a hare came every came to Leghorn, from whence he day into his garden, and eat his wrote a letter to the Corsican chiefs, cabbages; and begged the gentleman Giafferi and Paoli, offering consider. would be so good as to drive her out able assistance to the nation, if they for him. The gentleman comes with would elect him as their Sovereign. a pack of hounds, and half a dozen He received for answer, that, if he huntsmen, and does more mischief brought the assistance he promised in five minutes, than the hare could to the Corsicans, they would very have done in seven years. After a willingly make bim King. prodigious chace, the hare made Upon this be, without loss of time, her escape through a hole in the set sail, and landed at Tavagna in wall. Upon which the 'gentleman spring, 1736. He was a man of a congratulated the gardener on get- very stately appearance; and the ting rid of his enemy, and advised Turkish dress which he wore added him to stop up the hole. So the to the dignity of his mien. He bad Genoese, after having expended a a few attendants with him. His great deal more upon foreign auxili- manners were so engaging, and his aries, than any advantage they can offers so plauisble, that he was proever derive from Corsica, upon the claimed King of Corsica. He brought departure of these auxiliaries, have with him about a thousand zechins the mortification to find themselves of Tunis, besides some arms and just as they were.
ammunition, and made magnificent Genoa again tried her force against promises of foreign assistance. Corsica ; but she only shewed her Theodore assumed every mark of weakness and bad politics. In the royal dignity. He had his guards, mean time, a most extraordinary cir- and his officers of state. He con
cumstance occurred, to the amaze- ferred titles of honour, and he struck ·ment of every body. This was the money, both of silver and copper. appearance of Theodore, whose sin- He immediately blocked up the Ge. gular story has made so much noise. noese fortified towns; and he used
Theodore Baron Newhoff, in the to be sometimes at one siege, somecounty of La Marc in Westphalia, times at another, standing with a was the personage who aspired to the telescope in his hand, as if he spied sovereignty of Corsica. He had his the assistance which he said he exeducation in the French service. He pected. He used also the artifice of afterwards went to Spain, where he making large packets be continually received some marks of regard from brought to him from the continent the Duke of Riperda and Cardinal which he gave out to be from the Alberoni. But, being of a strange different Sovereigns of Europe, acunsettled projecting disposition, he knowledging his authority, and proquitted Spain, and went and travelled mising to befriend him. into Italy, England, and Holland, The Genoese were not a little con ever in search of some new adventure. founded with this unexpected advenHe at last fixed his attention on Cor- turer. They published a violent masica, and formed a scheme of making nifesto against Theodore, treating himself a King.
him with great contempt, but, at He was a man of abilities and ad- the same time shewing, that they dress: and, after having fully in. were alarmed at his appearance. formed himselfof every thing relating Theodore replied, in a manifesto, to the island, he went to Tunis, with all the calmness and dignity of where he fell upon means to procure a monarch; expressed his indiffer