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easily be drawn to have a good opi- great matter, but when they once nion of himself; as, out of modesty, perceived it unactive, and senselessly submitting his own reason to the lying still, the wiser sort of frogs testimony of many witnesses.
began to despise it, and (in fine) Ambition, in itself is no fault: every young frogling presumed 10 but the most natural commendation leap up and down upon it. of the soul, as beauty is of the body. Some few there are, who (lest the It is in men, as beauty is in women. species of our ancient worthy lords : For, as to be naturally exceeding should be lost) do preserve in them. handsome is the greatest commen- selves the will and desire, since they dation of that sex, and that for want the means, to du brave and! which they most desire to be com worthy acts. And therefore I say, mended : so that ambition by which let a man by duing worthy acts demen desire honour the natural way serve honour, and though he do not (which consists in doing honourable aitain it, yet he is much a happier and good acts) is the root of the man than he that gets it without de most perfect commendation that a sert. For such a man is beforehand moral man is capable of.
with reputation; and the world still • Those only offend in their ambi. owes him that honour which his detion, who, out of the earthliness of serts cry for, and it hath not paill: their minds dare not aspire to that Whereas that man thar bath a great true honour which is the estini'siion reputation, without deserving it, is of a man, being as it were the icm- behind hand with the world ; and ple wherein virtue is inshrined; and his honour is but lent, not paid ; therefore settle their minds only up- and when the world comes to take on attaining titles and power; which accompt of its applause, and finds at the first were, or at least should his title of merit (by which he prebe the mark whereby to distinguish tends to it) weak and broken, it will men according to the rate of their recalits approbation, and leave him virtues and sufficiencies; but are by so much the more a notorious now only arguments of a man's good bankrupt in his good name, by how furtune, and effects of the prince's much the estimation of his wealth favour.
that way was the greater. It is true that power is a brave ad.
Of FORTITUDE. dition to a worthy man; but a fool, For a man to be completely happy or a knave that is powerful, hath there is required the perfection of all (according to the degree of his power) moral virtues; and yet this is not just that advantage of a virtuous enough, for virtues do rather buprudent man, that Adam, before he nish misfortunes, and hut shew us fell, had of the angels that stood; joy, than establish felicity, which an ability to do more ill.
is not only an utter alienation from As for titles (which at first were all affliction, but an absolute fulthe marks of power, and the rewards ness of joy. And since the soul of of virtue) they are now (according man is infinitely more excellent than to their name) but like the titles of anything else it can meet witbal in books, which (for the most part) the this world, nothing upon carth can more glorious things they promise, satisfy it, but in the enjoying the let a man narrowly peruse them over, greatest abundance of all delights the less substance be shall find in that the most nimble witted man them. And the wooden Lord is like can frame to himself; for that his the Logg that Jupiter gave the frogs soul will still bave a further desire, to be their kug; it makes a great as unsatisfied with that it enjoys. noise; "it prepares an expectation of Therefore the perfection of happ:
It is true that custom makes some greatest blessings of this world : All apparently false; some through iin- other contents reflect primarily upon pudence, and too much use; and the body; and please the soul only other some for want of discretion, because they please some one or which if they had had, should have more senses. But those therefore been employed in covering it. And only delight the senses, because the there be some in whom (1hough it be soul by discourse was first pleased impossible honesty should be a fault with them. For in itself there is in society) their indiscreet managing Diore music in a railing song, thrust of it, makes it holden for a thing upon a good air, than in the conthai's merely a vice, a wonderful fused applause of the multitude. troublesome companion.
But because the soul, by discourse, . An honest man is as near an ap- finds this claniour to be an argutitude to brcome a friend, as gold is ment of the estimation which those to become coin: He will melt with that so commend it have of it, it gnor offices well done, and will likes itself better, and rejoiceth the casily take the stamp of true friend- more in itself, because it sees other ship; and having once taken it, men value it. For there are two ways though it may be benced and bruised, of proving; the one by reason, and yet still will keep his stamp clean the other by witness; but the more without rust or canker, and is not excellent proof is that of reason : ashamed to be enclosed in it, but is For he that can by reason prove any contented to have all his glory seen thing to me makes his knowledge through it only.
mine, because by the saine reason ! It is of itself a competent estate am able to prove it to another; but of virtue, able to supply all neces- if twenty men should swear to me sary parts of it to a man's own par- they saw such a thing, which before
ticular; and and a man that is born I did not believe; it is true, I should - to it, may raise himself to an emin alter mine opinion, not because there
nency of all virtues; though of itself appeared any greater likelihood of it will not furnish a man with the the ibing; but because it was un. abilities of doing any glorious thing. likely thai so many men should lie: It is a pity that honesty should be And if I should go about to make oabstracted from the lustre of all o- tbers of the same opinion, I should ther virtues. But if there be such not do it, by telling them I kne ait, an honesty, the fittest seat for it is or I saw it; but all I could say the country, where there will be lit were, I did believe it, because such tle need of any greater ability, and and such men told me they saw it. it will be the least subject to cor- So in the comfort á man takes of ruption. And therefore, since it is himself (which grows out of the conthe foundation upon which a man. sideration of how much itself demay build that part of his life which serves to be beloved) a virtuous and respects conversation, he that builds wise fellow will take enough comfort upon it (let his actions be never so and joy in himself (though by mismean) shall be sure of a good, fortune he is troubled to carry about though not of a great reputation; him the worlds ill opinion) by dis.. whereas letting it perish, let the rest coursing that he is free from those of the building of his life be never so slanders that are laid upon him, and eminent, it will serve but to make that he hath those sufficiencies and the ruin of his good name more no- virtues, which others deny. And on torious..
the contrary side, he without deOf AMBITION.
serving it (having the good fortune Love, lionour, and praise are the to be esteemed and honoured) will
losti do pros: *rve in them.
and is r*, since they
of our ancient worthy lords
*r du brise and
sont of modesty, perceived it unuclire, and sellessly
began to despise 11, and (in hin)
ignity, wealth, and power, out merit, Men were then made
upon a supposed divine kings for reasons as little relative to
over thers has been always carefully main,
descended, and kingdoms have been
of the latter Roman empire, ..storians, by the way, which I will we nog advise others to mispend their
e not only time in reading, that Sapores, the -yed during their famous King of Persia, against whom worshipped after their Julian made the expedition wherein
they became principal Gods, he lost his life, was crowned in nis a majoruin gentium. The founders mother's womb. His father left hee of commonwealths, the law-givers, with child, the magi declared that and the heroes of particular states, the child would be a male; where. became Gods of a second class, Diz upon the royal ensigns were brought minorum gentium. All pre-eminence forth, they were placed on her Ma. was given in heaven, as well as on jesty's helly, and the princes and the earth, in proportion to the benefits satrapes prostrate recognised the em. that men received. Majesty was the brio-monarch. But to take a more first, and divinity the second reward, known example out of multitudes Both were earned by services done that present themselves, Domitian to mankind, whom it was easy to the worst, and Trajan the best of lead in tbose days of simplicity and princes, were promoted to the em. superstition, from admiration and pire by the same title. Domitian gratitude, to adoration and expec. was the son of Flavius, and the tation.
brother, though possibly the prisoner When advantage had been taken too, of Titus Vespasian: Trajan was hy some particular men of these dis- the adopted son of Nerva. Heredia positions in the generality, and re- tary right served the purpose of one, ligion and government had become as well as of the other : and if Tratwo trades or mysteries, new means jan was translated to a place among of attaining to this pre-eminence the gods, this was no greater a diswere soon devised, and new and even tinction than some of the worst of contrary motives worked the same his predecessors and his successors effect. Merit had given rank; but obtained, for reasons generally as rank was 'soop kept, and, which is good as that which Seneca puts into more preposterous, obtained too, with the inouth of Diespiter in the Apo
ness consists in the love of God; I mean what this institution ought which is only able to fill up all the to have been, whenever it began, acconcerns of the soul with most per- cording to the rule of reason, foundfect joy; and consequently to fix alled in the common rights and inteits desires upon those celestial joys rests of mankind. On this head it is that shall never be taken from it. quite necessary to make some reflecBut this, as it cannot be obtained tions, that will, like angular stones by discourse, but by unfeigned pray- laid on a rock, support the little faer, and the assistance and illumina- bric, the model however of a great tion of God's grace; so it is not my building, that I propose to raise. purpose to prick at it. And for that So plain a maiter could never have part of felicity which is attained to been rendered intricate and volumihy moral virtue, I find that every nous, had it not been for lawless amvirtue gives a man perfection in some bition, extravagant vanity, and the kind, and a degree of felicity too: viz. detestable spirit of tyranny; abetted
Honesty, gives a man a good report; by the private interests of artful men, Justice, estimation and authority;
by adulation and superstition, two Prudence, respect and confidence;
vices to which that staring, timid Courtesy, and Liberality, affection,
creature, man, is excessively prone; and a kind of dominion over other men. Temperance, health;
if authority had vot imposed on such Fortitude, a quiet mind, not to be mo- as did not pretend to reason; and if ved by any adversary, and a confidence such as did attempt to reason had not to be circumvented by any danger. not been caught in the commun
So that all other virtues give a snares of sophism, and bewildered in man but an outward happiness, as the labyrinths of disputation. In receiving their reward from others; this case, therefore, as in all those only temperance doth pretend 10 of great concernment, the shortest make the body a stranger to pain, and the surest method of arriving at both in taking from it the occasion real knowledge, is to unlearn the of diseases, and making the outward lessons we have been taught; to re. inconveniencies of want, as hunger mount to first principles, and take and cold, if not delightful, at least no body's word about them ; for it is sufferable.
about them tbat almost all the juge FRANCIS WALSINGHAM. gling and legerdemain, employed by
men whose trade it is to deceive, are
set to work. THE IDEA OF A PATRIOT KING.
Now he who does so in this case, BY LORD BOLINGBROKE. will discover soon, that the notions [First published, 1758.]
concerning the divine institution and
right of kings, as well as the absolute My intention is not to intro- power belonging to their office, have duce what I have to say concerning no foundation in fact or reason, but the duties of kings, by any nice in, have risen from an old alliance bequiry into the original of their insti. tween ecclesiastical and civil policy. tution. What is to be known of it The characters of king and priest will appear plainly, enough, to such bave been sometimes blended toge, as are able and can spare time to ther; and when they have been ditrace it, in the broken traditions vided, as kings have found the great which are come down to us of a few effects wrought in government by the nations. But those who are not empire which priests obtain over the able to trace it there, may trace consciences of mankind, so priests something better and more worthy have been taught by experience, that to be knowo, in their own thoughts: the best method to preserve their own
rank, dignity, wealth, and power, out merit, Men were then made all raised upon a supposed divine kings for reasons as little relative to right, is to communicate the same good government, as the neighing of pretension to kings, and by a fallacy the horse of the son of Hystaspes. common to both, impose their usur. But the most prevalent, and the pations on a silly world. This they general motive was proximity of blood have done: and in the state as in the to the last, not to the best king, church, these pretensions to a divine Nobility in China mount upwards, and right have been generally carried he who has it conferred upon him, highest by those who have had the enobles his ancestors, not his posteleast pretension to the divine favour. rity. A wise institution! and espe,
It is worth while to observe, un cially among a people in whose minds what principle some men were ads a great veneration for their forefa, vanced to a great pre-eminence over thers has been always carefully main, others, in the early ages of those tained. But in China, as well as in nations that are a little known to most other countries, royalty has us: I speak not of such as raised descended, and kingdoms have been themselves by conquest, hut of such reckoned the patrimonies of particuas were raised by common consent. Iar families. Now you will find in all these pro- I have read in one of the histoceedings an entire uniformity of prin- rians of the latter Roman empire, ciple. The authors of such inven. historians, by the way, which I will tions as were of general use to the not advise others to mispend their well-being of mankind, were not only time in reading, that Sapores, the reverenced and obeyed during their famous King of Persia, against whom lives, but worshipped after their Julian made the expedition wherein deaths: they became principal Gods, he lost his life, was crowned in his Dii majoruin gentium. The founders mother's womb. His father left her of commonwealths, the law-givers, with child, the magi declared that and the beroes of particular states, the child would be a male; wherebecame Gods of a second class, Dir upon the royal ensigns were brought minorum gentium. All pre-eminence forth, they were placed on her Mawas given in heaven, as well as on jesty's helly, and the princes and the earth, in proportion to the benefits satrapes prostrate recognised the emthat men received. Majesty was the briq-monarch. But to take a more first, and divinity the second reward, known example out of multitudes Both were earned by services done that present themselves, Domitian to mankind, whom it was easy to the worst, and Trajan the best of lead in those days of simplicity and princes, were promoted to the ein. superstition, from admiration and pire by the same title. Domitian gratitude, to adoration and expec. was the son of Flavius, and the tation.
brother, though possibly the prisoner When advantage had been taken too, of Titus Vespasian: Trajan was by some particular men of these dis- the adopted son of Nerva Heredia positions in the generality, and re- tary right served the purpose of one, ligion and government had become as well as of the other : and if Tratwo trades or mysteries, new means jan was translated to a place among of attaining to this pre-eminence the gods, this was no greater a disa were soon devised, and new and even tinction than some of the worst of contrary motives worked the same his predecessors and his successors effect. Merit had given rank; but obtained, for reasons generally as rank was 'soon kept, and, which is good as that wbich Seneca puts into inore preposterous, obtained too, with the mouth of Diespiter in the Apo