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but the product of an hundred lying by laws within themselves, settled the in common. I have here rated the im- properties of those of the same society; proved land very low, in making its for we see, that in that part of the world product but as ten to one, when it is which was first inhabited, and therefore much nearer an hundred to one: for I like to be best peopled, even as low, ask, whether in the wild woods and un- down as Abraham's time, they wancultivated waste of America, left to na dered with their flocks, and their herds, ture, without any iinprovement, tillage which was their substance, freely up and or husbandry, a thousand acres yield down; and this Abraham did, in a counthe needy and wretched inhabitants as try where he was a stranger. Wbence many conveniencies of life, as ten acres it is plain, that at least a great part of of equally fertile land do in Devonshire, the land lay in cornmon; that the inhawhere they are well cultivated., bitants valued it not, nor claimed pro
Before the appropriation of land, he perty in any more than they made use of. who gathered as much of the wild fruit, But when there was not room enough in killed, caught, or tamed, as many of the same place, for their herds to feed the beasts, as he could; he that so em- together, they by consent, as Abraham ployed bis pains about any of the spon- and Lot did, Gen. xiii. 5. separated and taneous products of nature, as any way. enlarged their pasture, where it best to alter them from the state which na- liked them. And for the same reason ture put them in, by placing any of his Esau went from his father, and his brolabour on thein, did thereby acquire a ther, and planted in mount Seir, Gen. propriety in them; bat if they perished, xxxvi. 6. in his possession, without their due use; 39. And thus, without supposing any if the fruits rotted, or the venison putrin private dominion, and property in Adam, fied, before he could spend it, he of- over all the world, exclusive of all other fended against the common law of na- men, which can no way be proved, nor ture, and was liable to be punished; he any one's property be made out from it; invaded his neighbour's share; for he tut supposing the world given, as it was, had no right, farther than his own use to the children of men in common, we called, for any of them, and they might see how labour could make men distinct serve to afford him conveniencies of life. titles to several parcels of it, for their
38. The same measures governed the private uses; wherein there could be no possession of land too : whatsoever be doubt of right, no room for quarrel. tilled and reaped, laid up and made use 40. Nor is it so strange, as perhaps of, before it spoiled, that was his pecu- before consideration it may appear, that liar right; whatsoever he enclosed, and the property of labour should be able to could feed, and make use of, the cattle over-balance the community of land : and product was also his. But if either for it is labour indeed that puts the dife the grass of bis inclosure rotted on the ference of value on every thing; and let ground, or the fruit of his planting pe- any que consider what the difference is rished without gathering, and laying up, between an acie of land planted with this part of the earth, notwithstanding tobacco or sugar, sown with a heat or his inclosure, was still to be looked on as barley, and an acre of the same land lya waste, and might be the possession of ing in common, without any busbandry any other. Thus, at the beginning, Cain upon it, and he will find, that the immight take as much ground as he could provement of labour makes the far till, and make it his own land, and yet greater part of the value. I think it will leave enough to Abel's sheep to feed on; be but a very modest computation to a few acres would serve for both their say, that of the products of the earth possessions. But as families increased, useful to the life of man nine tenths are and industry enlarged their stocks, their the effects of labour: nay, if we will possessions enlarged with the need of rightly estimate things as they come to them; but yet it was commonly without our se, and cast up the several exany fixed property in the ground they pences about them, what in them is made use of, till they incorporated, set- purely owing to nature, and what to latled themselves together, and built cities; bour, we shall find, that in most of them and then, by consent, they came in ninety pine bundredths are wholly to be time, to set out the bounds of their dis put on the account of labour. tinct territories, and agree on limiis be- 41. There cannot be a clearer detween them and their neighbours; and monstration of any thing, than several
nations of the Americans are of this, 43. An acre of land, that bears here who are rich in land, and poor in all the twenty bushels of wheat, and another in comforts of life; whom nature having America, which, with the same husbanfurnished as liberally as any other peo: dry, would do the like, are, without ple, with the materials of plenty, i. e. doubt, of the same natural intrinsic vaa fruitful soil, apt to produce in abun- lue: but yet the benefit mankind redance, what might serve for food, rai- ceives from the one in a year, is worth ment, and delight; yet for want of im- 51. and from the other possibly not worth proving it by labour, have not one hun- a penny, if all the profit an Iudian redredth part of the conveniencies we en- ceived from it were to be valued, and joy; and a king of a large and fruitful sold here; at least, I may truly say, not territory there, feeds, lodges, and is one thousandth. It is labour tbeu which clad worse than a day-labourer in Eng- puts the greatest part of value upon land.. .
land, without which it would scarcely 42. To make this a little clearer, let be worth any thing: it is to that we owe us but trace some of the ordinary provi- the greatest part of all its useful prosions of life through their several pro- ducts; for all that the straw, bran, bread, gresses, before they come to our use, of that acre of wheat, is more worth and see how much they receive of their than the product of an acre of as good value from human industry. Bread, land, which lies waste, is all the effect wine and cloth, are things of daily lise, of labour; for it is not barely the ploughand great plenty; yet notwithstanding, man's pains, the reaper's and thresher's acorns, water and leaves, or skins, must toil, and the baker's sweat, is to be be our bread, drink and clothing, did counted into the bread we eat; the la. not labour furnish us with these more bour of those who broke the oxen, who useful commodities : for whatever bread digged and wrought the iron and stones, is more worth than acorns, wine than who felled and framed the timber einwater, and cloth or silk, than leaves, ployed about the plough, mill, oven, or skins or moss, that is wholly owing to any other utensils, which are a vast labour and industry; the one of these number, requisite to this corn, from its being the food and raiment which unas- being seed to be sown to its being made sisted nature furnishes us with; the other, bread, must all be charged on the acprovisions which our industry and pains count of labour, and received as an efprepare for us, wbich how much they fect of that: nature and the carth furexceed the other in value, when any nished only the almost worthless mate,oue hath computed, he will then seerials, as in themselves. It would be a how much labour makes the far greatest strange catalogue of things, that induspart of the value of things we enjoy in try provided and made use of, about this world : and the ground which pro- every loaf of bread, before it came to duces the materials, is scarce to be our use, if we could trace them ; iron, reckoned in, as any, or at most, but a wood, leather, bark, timber, stone, bricks, very small part of it'; so little, that even coals, lime, cloth, dying drugs, pitch, amongst us, land left wholly to nature, tay, masts, ropes, and all the materials that hath no improvement of pasturage, made use of in the ship, that brought tillage, or planting, is called, as indeed any of the commodities made use of by it is, waste; and we shall fod the be- any of the workmen, to any part of the nefit of it amount to little more than work; all which it would be almost imnothing.
possible, at least too long, to reckon up. This shew's how much numbers of men 44. From all which it is evident, that are to be preferred to largeness of domi- though the things of nature are given in pions; and that the increase of lands, and common, yet man, by being master of the right employing of them, is the great himself, and proprietor of his own per. art of gorerdinent: and that prince, who son, and the actions or labour of it, had shall be so wise and godlike, as by esta- still in himself the great foundation of blished laws of liberty to secure protec- property; and that, which made up the tion and encouragement to the honest great part of what he applied to the sup. industry of mankind, against the op- port or comfort of his being, when inven. pression of power and narrowness of iion and arts had improved the conveparty, will quickly be too hard for his niencies of life, was perfectly his own, neighbours : but this by the by. To re- and did not belong in common to others: turn to the argument in hand,
45. Thus labour, in the beginning, they were his goods as soon as gathered. gave a right of property, wherever any He was only to look, that he used them one was pleased to employ it upon what before they spoiled, else he took more was common, which remained a long than bis share, and robbed others. And while the far greater part, and is yet indeed it was a foolish thing, as well as more than mankind makes use of. Men dishonest, to hoard up more than he at first, for the most part, contented could make use of. If he gave away a themselves with what unassisted nature part to any body else, so that it perished offered to their necessities : and though not uselessly in his possession, these he afterwards, in some parts of the world, also made use of. And if he also bar(where the increase of people and stock, tered away plums, that would have rotwith the use of money, had made land ted in a week, for nuts that would last scarce, and so of some value) the seve- good for his eating a whole year, he did ral communities settled the bounds of no injury; he wasted not the common their distinct territories, and by laws stock; destroyed no part of the portion within themselves regulated the proper- of goods that belonged to others, so long ties of the private men of their society, as nothing perished uselessly in his hand. and so by compact and agreement, set- Again, if he would give bis nuts for a tled the property which labour and in- piece of metal, pleased with its colour; dustry began; and the leagues that have or exchange his sheep for shells, or wool been made between several states and for a sparkling pebble or a diamond, kingdoms, either expressly or tacitly and keep those by him all his life, he disowning all claim and right to the invaded not the rights of others; he land in the others possession, have, by might neap up as much of these durable common consent, given up their preten- things as he pleased; the exceeding of ces to their natural common right, which the bounds of his just property not lying originally they had to those countries, in the largeness of his possession, but and so have, by positive agreement, set- the perishing of any thing uselessly in it. tled a property amongst themselves, in 47. And thus came in the use of modistinct parts and parcels of the earth; ney, some lasting thing that men might yet there are still great tracts of ground keep without spoiling, and that by muto be found, which (the inabitants there- tual consent men would take in exchange of not having joined with the rest of for the truly useful, but perishable supmankind, in the consent of the use of ports of life. their common money) lay waste, and 48. And as different degrees of inare more than the people who dwell on dustry were apt to give men possessions it do, or can make use of, and so still in different proportions, so this intention lie in common; though this can scarce of money gave them the opportunity to happen amongst that part of mankind continue and enlarge them: for suppothat have consented to the use of money. sing an island, separate from all possible
46. The greatest part of things really commerce with the rest of the world, useful to the life of man, and such as wherein there were but an hundred fathe necessity of subsisting made the first milies, but there were sheep, horses commoners of the world look after, as and cows, with other useful animals, it doth the Americans now, are gene- wholesome fruits, and land enough for rally things of short duration ; such as, corn for a hundred thousand times as if they are not consumed by use, will many, but nothing in the island, either decay and perish of themselves : gold, because of its commonpess, or perishasilver and diamonds, are things that bleness, fit to supply the place of money; fancy or agreement hath put the value what reason could any one have there on, more than real use, and the neces- to enlarge his possessions beyond the sary support of life. Now of those yood use of his family, and a plentiful supply things which nature hath provided in to its consumiption, either in what their common, every one had a right (as hath own industry produced, or they could been said) to as much as he could use, barter for like perishable, useful comand property in all that he could effect modities with others? Where there is with his labour; all that his industry not some thing, both lasting and scarce, could extend to, to alter from the state and so valuable to be hoarded up, there nature had put it in, was his. He that men will be apt to enlarge their possesgathered a hundred busbels of acorns or sions of land, were it never so rich, neapples, had thereby a property in them, ver so free for them to take : for I ask, what would a man value ten thousand, be hoarded up without injury to any or an hundred thousand acres of excel- one; these metals not spoiling or decay. lent lund, ready cultivated, and welling in the hands of the possessor. This stocked too with cattle, in the middle partage of things in an equality of priof the inland parts of America, where vate possessions, men have made prache had no hopes of commerce with other ticable out of the bounds of society, parts of the world, to draw money to and without compact, only by putting him by the sale of the product? It a value on gold and silver, and tacitly would not be worth the inclosing, and agreeing in the use of money : for in we should see him give up again to the governments, the laws regulate the wild common of nature, whatever was right of property, and the possession of more than would supply the convenien- land is determined by positive consticies of life to be had there for him and tutions. his family.
51. And thus, I think, it is very easy 49. Thus in the beginning all the to conceive, without any difficulty, hozo world was America, and more so than labour could at first begin a title to prothat is now; for no such thing as money perty in the common things of nature, was any where known. Find out some and how the spending it upon our uses thing that hath the use and value of mo- bounded it. So that there could then ney amongst his neighbours, you shall be no reason of quarrelling about title, see the same man will begin presently to nor any doubt about the largeness of enlarge his possessions.
possession it gave. Right and conve50. But since gold and silver, being niency went together; for as a man had little useful to the life of men in propor- a right to all he could employ his labour tion to food, raiment, and carriage, has upon, so he had no temptation to la; its value only from the consent of men, bour for more than he could make use whereof labour yet mukes, in great part, of. This left no room for-controversy the measure, it is plain, that inen have about the title, nor for incroachment agreed to a disproportionate and unequal on the right of others; what portion a possession of the earth, they having, by man carved to himself was easily seen ; à tacit and voluntary consent, found and it was useless, as well as dishonest, out a way how a man may fairly possess to carve himself too much, or take more more land than he himself can use the than he needed. product of, by receiving in exchange for
[To be Continued.] the overplus gold and silver, which may
A NARRATIVE OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF A GREAT COUNCIL OF JEWS, ASSEMBLED IN THE PLAIN OP AGEDA, IN HUNGARY, ABOUT THIRTY LEAGUES FROM BUDA, TO EXAMINE THE SCRIPTURES CONCERNING CHRIST, ON THE
TWELFTH OF OCTOBER 1650.
By SAMUEL BRETT, THERE PRESENT.
ALSO A RELATION OF SOME OTHER OBSERVATIONS IN HIS
TRAVELS BEYOND THE SEA.
[First printed in 1655.]
TO THE READER.
ing Chirurgeon of an English ship in the There was notbing I more desired straits, where, for a cure that I did for than to travel beyond the seas, and to Orlando de Spina of Gollipulo, an emiknow the various manners of the nations ment nian in those parts, I was by him of the world : for which, through God's preferred to be a captain of a ship of Providence, I had an opportunity of- Malta, which was set out by the said tered me, to my great satisfaction, ben Orlando, and committed to my command against the Turks in the Arches, nue the innovations that were prace in assistance to the Venetian service: tised by many of our clergy, as in which service I spent about nine bowing at the name of Jesus towards months, till the tempestuous season of the year enforced ine to return into har
the altar, &c. which I know giveth bour again. And in this time of em
offence to the good French protesployment, I made five fights at sea, and tants, who to me did often condemn two at land ; being chosen by lot to in those innovations for Romish supervade the Turks country, with a certain stitions. Doubtless they would do company of soldiers collected out of our our church and our religion more fleet, to do some execution upon the credit there, if they did use less ceborders of the enemy, and to get some provision for our relief: in all which
remony. As for the French papists, fights (although very perilous) God gave truly they are more civil to them me the victory. .
than was expected : for the opinion The whole time I spent beyond the of the world, where I have been, is seas, before and after this employment, but mean of that nation. And I bewas almost four years, not staying long lieve the Italian may be their cousin in any one place. But first I travelled
German, for both of them are false
Cor to all the sea towns of note for merchaydizing, to know the trade of the places,
and faithless enough. And this conand the conveniency of their harbours,
sideration (God having taken away that I might be able to do some profita- Orlando my noble friend, who did ble service in merchants affairs. Also always much countenance me) did. I travelled into several countries, and lessen my affection to continue in the most eminent cities and towns there that service: for my soldiers were in; viz. Egypt, Macedonia, Dalmatia, Calabria,
atra, all Italians, (escepi a few Greeks) Apuleia, Sicilia, Assyria, Sclavonia, some parts of Spain and Por and I never saw much cause to be tugal; to the islands of Cuprus, Candia. confident in their fidelity ; but it Patmos, Delphos ; to Carthage, Corinth, was chiefly for fear of him, that they Troy, Constantinople; besides many were so tractable to me. other towns and places : but my longest As for religion, in most parts abode was in Italy, and therein at Ve- where I have been, it is generally nice, Naples, Leghorn, Florence, Milan,
ce, Milan, the same with the church of Rome; Rome, Bolognia, Muntua, Genoa, 8ic. And at last looking homeward, I came
i but for the Grecians (for amongst into France; taking a brief view of ma- them I was) they are neither pure ny eminent places in that kingdom. And protestants nor pure papists; I mean, ai Paris I found many of my country- neither only protestants nor only men (of which, though some be persons papists, but their religion is a mixof great quality, yet) God knoweth they iure of both : for though they hold are in a low condition. And now I shall give a brief account of some of my ob
some fundamentals with us, yet servations, during the time of my abode
they follow many of the Romish beyond the seas.
superstitions ; and (according to my
observation) they follow more the A NARRATIVE &c.
religion of Rome, than the protesAt Paris our countrymen live tant church; and they are much peaceably, and enjoy our religion poisoned with heresies. without disturbance. There is a But of all nations, according to place allowed them, with necessary my observation, none are more zeaaccommodations for the exercise of lous for the religion of Rome than religion. Dr. Steward did often the Spaniards, who, I think, far preach to them; and for their form this are more Romanists than the of worship, it is the same that was Romans themselves ; for with them formerly in England, with the book there is an inquisition, and in Rome of Common Prayer, and the rites I never heard of the same dangerous therein used ; and also they conti- snare: there I had as much freedom