General McDowell, except those within the fortifications and city of Washington, shall form the Third Army Corps, and be under

his command.

3. The Army of Virginia shall operate in such manner as, while protecting Western Virginia and the national capital from danger or insult, it shall in the speediest manner attack and overcome the rebel forces under Jackson and Ewell, threaten the enemy in the direction of Charlottesville, and render the most effective aid to relieve General McClellan and capture Richmond.

4. When the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Virginia shall be in position to communicate and directly coöperate at or before Richmond, the chief command, while so operating together, shall be governed, as in like cases, by the "Rules and Articles of War."

A good bit of work was cut out for us by this order, and how well we performed the task will be seen farther on.

July 4.

As Fourth of July approached, thoughts of having a celebration found utterance. Some of the boys, appreciating that our nearness to Washington, with daily communication by rail, made it possible for friends at home to come out, wrote to them, and several took advantage thereof by suddenly making appearance in camp. It afforded us a great deal of pleasure to entertain them, and we did our best to make them comfortable while they stayed; but before their departure, they were the most miserable creatures in existence. To them the fare was poor and the beds hard. There were also visitors from the State authorities, who came out to look after the condition of Massachusetts troops, but they were better taken care of. The officers were very courteous in their offers of hospitality to all the visitors, but those of the rank and file said they preferred roughing it with the boys—and they found it was rough. Boxes were received from home, in many instances containing the ingredients for a Fourth-of-July punch, and we all looked forward to a glorious time. We were early at work opening boxes- those which had not already been opened and preparing for a grand celebration, when an order was received to march at 8 o'clock. A howl went up at this news, and groans for McDowell were heard everywhere. To our minds it looked like a piece of spite. There was no way out of it, so we took all the boxes on the parade ground, piled them up in a pyramid, with the empty bottles on top, and then pelted them with rocks until the last


one was smashed. Soon after we bade "good-by" to our visitors and proceeded on our way in a most unpleasant mood. As we marched along the road we noticed three figures hanging in the air, effigies of Stanton, McDowell, and Jeff Davis, labelled respectively, so no mistake should be made as to whom they were intended to represent. We expressed our approbation as we passed by.

After marching eleven miles, we camped for the night about a mile beyond Gainesville, on the road to Warrenton. We found cherries in great abundance, and were privileged by General Hartsuff to gather all we wanted. The day was hot and sultry and reminded us of our march of a year ago when the battalion companies escorted the city government of Boston on its annual parade. We found no such hospitality as greeted us on that occasion.

Our march to-day was in consequence of the following order from General Pope to General McDowell, July 3, '62 :

GENERAL: I think you had best push Ricketts' division as far as Warrenton, and direct it to take post there. . Will you please have these arrangements made without delay? I desire also to hear from the division at Warrenton at least once a day.

It will be seen by this that McDowell was not responsible for our marching to-day, though we gave him credit for it, as we did everything else that was disagreeable.

During the afternoon the question arose as to where we were to halt for the night, it depending on a supply of water. In discussing the subject with the regimental commanders, General Hartsuff suggested that Colonel Leonard turn the Thirteenth into the nearest field, and he felt sure the men would find water if there was any about. There was reason for this suggestion, inasmuch as it was the habit of a good many of the boys, when the final halt for the day was made, to start with towels in hand for the nearest brook for a bath, without suggestion as to where water could be found.

There were boys in each company who had an unerring instinct as to the location of water. We had one man in particular, whom we called "Simplot," to whom Nature had unfolded many of her secrets. He knew the name of every bird, of every tree and flower, and

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seemed to know equally well where to find water, for whenever there was any doubt, he would give the direction in which to seek it, as if he knew every foot of the country; but his information about whiskey was not as correct. Once acquire the habit of cleanliness, and you are ever after the slave of soap and water. It is as difficult to overcome as drinking or the use of opium. In Colonel Fox's "Statistical Book of the War" occurs the following paragraph:

The Thirteenth Massachusetts has a meritorious record in its small number of deaths from disease, its percentage of deaths from that cause being the smallest of any three-years regiment in the entire army. There were regiments with a smaller number of deaths from disease, but they were two-years regiments, or carried a less number of names on their rolls. The extraordinary exemption from disease in the Thirteenth Infantry would indicate that the regiment was composed of superior material.

Whatever may have been the cause by which we excelled all others in healthfulness, we hesitate to admit that it was due to habits of cleanliness, inasmuch as later on, when the exigencies of the service prevented a liberal use of water, most of us continued to remain free from sickness of any kind. In spite of this encomium we did have, here and there, a man so insensible to personal cleanliness, so fond of the tickling sensations of that little parasite called the "grayback," as to neglect the ordinary proprieties of life which are dependent on the use of water. In the first year of our service there was no excuse for any man not keeping reasonably clean, and any dereliction in this respect sure to excite complaint from one's associates. Uncleanliness was one of the things the regiment would not patiently endure. There were instances, though very few, where the offender was taken to a brook, stripped of his clothing, and his body holystoned until he looked like a boiled lobster. One such case we have in mind, of a man whose uselessness as a soldier suggested a likeness to that worthless old arm known as the "smooth-bore musket," which was carried by a few regiments in the first months of the war, and so they called him "Smooth-bore." Water and lead were two things his melancholy nature could not stand, and so he relieved the regi


ment of his presence by deserting. It was a happy thought on his part, and put us under obligations we can To our mind, nothing he did, while in service, so became him like the leaving it. Exit "Smooth-bore."

never repay.

Started at 7.30 A.M. for Warrenton, eight miles. As the weather was very hot we were allowed to take it pretty easy. The cherries were in great abundance along the road, and as they were not included in the list of articles to be protected for the use of Stonewall Jackson, we were allowed to help ourselves. Just before our arrival in camp, news was received that McClellan had taken Richmond, whereupon we all cheered ourselves hoarse. Camp gossip set the day for our departure for home during the following week. A good many of the boys expressed sorrow that they were to go home without seeing any fighting that amounted to anything.

We went into camp in a delightful spot, a mile or so from the town of Warrenton. The whole country about was beautiful, and the land possessed of great fertility. Near our camp was a clear sparkling brook of pure water, besides a spring highly impregnated with sulphur. A short distance away were blackberry fields, one of which was many acres in extent, filled with berries of the most luscious kind, reminding us of the words in Izaak Walton as applied to the strawberry: "Doubtless God might have made a better berry, but doubtless He never did." If, perchance, this record of ours is read by other persons than ourselves, who have not seen the like, they may think we exaggerate; that the contrast with our frugal fare added a fictitious sweetness to the berries we found about Warrenton. And such quantities! For nearly two weeks the whole division luxuriated in those fields. This is the only camp of the regiment where the doctor was able to report: "No sick in the hospital."

During our stay at this place we received a visit from General Banks, and in a speech he made encouraged us to think we were to be transferred to his command, though the question of our return to him had been settled some days before. It seemed to stir up our enthusiasm, however, and we cheered him lustily. As this was on the 16th of July, the anniversary of our muster-in, we felt like cele

July 5.


brating, though little opportunity was afforded the rank and file to be fooling with anniversaries.

We remained in this camp, in this land flowing with milk and honey, until the 22d of the month. While we were at Warrenton the following order was issued to the Army of Virginia :

WASHINGTON, D.C., July 14, 1862.

To the Officers and Soldiers of the Army of Virginia :

By special assignment of the President of the United States, I have assumed command of this army. I have spent two weeks in learning your whereabouts, your condition, and your wants, in preparing you for active operations, and in placing you in positions where you can act promptly and to the purpose. These labors are nearly completed, and I am about to join you in the field.

Let us understand each other. I have come to you from the West, where we have always seen the backs of our enemies; from an army whose business it has been to seek the adversary, and to beat him when he was found; whose policy has been attack, and not defence. In but one instance has the enemy been able to place our Western armies in defensive attitudes. I presume I have been called here to pursue the same system, and to lead you against the enemy. It is my purpose to do so, and that speedily. I am sure you long for an opportunity to win the distinction you are capable of achieving. That opportunity I shall endeavor to give you. Meantime I desire you to dismiss from your minds certain phrases which I am sorry to find so much in vogue amongst you. I hear constantly of "taking strong positions and holding them," of "lines of retreat," and of "bases of supplies." Let us discard such ideas. The strongest position a soldier should desire to occupy is one from which he can most easily advance against the enemy. Let us study the probable lines of retreat of our opponents, and leave our own to take care of themselves. Let us look before us, and not behind. Success and glory are in advance, disaster and shame lurk in the rear. Let us act on this understanding, and it is safe to predict that your banners shall be inscribed with many a glorious deed, and that your names will be dear to your countrymen forever.


Major-General Commanding.

Some of the boys facetiously called it the " Pope's Bull." "Seest there a man wise in his own conceit? There is more hope of a fool than of him," says the Holy Bible. Up to this date the army was well disposed toward General Pope, but this bombastic and offensive circular unfortunately lessened its respect for him.

It will be noticed, on reading the circular, that "my headquarters are in the saddle," does not appear. It is difficult, now, to recall

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