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to deteriorate. The process occurs once a and knows how to spend his wealth for the year; and this period of plucking, preparing, gratification of your senses, a man may break sorting, and packing for the market is the the Christian decalogue-ay, and even the busiest time of the ostrich farmer. The owner eleventh commandment, • Thou shalt not be of ostriches expects to lose fully ten per cent found out,' and command your company and of his birds each year through their own in. approval. The fault is not in the code of corrigible pugnacity and stupidity. Yet, on morality you profess. That is austerely beau. the whole, it is a very profitable branch of tiful enough in all conscience. The fault is farming, and there seems to be no good rea- not even in your own lives. Many of you are son why the business could not be acclima. better in a dual conduct than you profess to tized in the United States—perhaps in south. be. The fact is, that you will not enforce western Texas and Arizona and southern Cali. against the rich and fashionable even the low. fornia. It might be an experiment worth the est of moral codes ; that you fathers will in. trying, if indeed it has not already been tried troduce your sons to men whom you know to in the latter named section. There is much in be dishonest and immoral ; that you mothers Mrs. Martin's book besides that which relates to throw your daughters into the society of womostriches : vivid sketches of South African life en as shameless and mercenary (and with less and scenery ; of the characteristic pleasures excuse) as the wretched outcasts wbo earn a and hardships of the region, and of its various precarious livelihood on the streets of our birds and animals. The aathor is enthusiastic great towns. And yet you wonder at the about the value of the climate as a consump- cynical, pessimistic sentiments wbich fall from tion cure, and does much to awaken a keen in. the lips of your son, who not long since was a terest in a region the conditions of which vary frank, enthusiastic schoolboy; and your so widely from our own.

daughter, who till she came out was as pure.

minded and optimistic as a young girl should A NEW NOVEL.

be." All this is anent the career of a vile,

crawling He w, who had risen by unsavory A MERCIFUL DIVORCE. A Story of Society. practices to great wealth, and was received Town and Country Library. By F. W.

and caressed by people of the “smart set,” Maude. New York : D. Appleton & Co.

because he lavished his ill-won guineas in The Appleton series of novels entitled the catering to their needs and their pleasures. • Town and Country Library” sustains its Why is it, by the way, that the novelist always standard of excellence. The latest issue, “A selects a Jew to represent persons of this type ? Merciful Divorce,'' offers a bright and sharp There are disreputable parvenues who are not picture of English life, with mingled currents descendants of Jacob. This is a question not of noble aspiration and sordid materialism to be discussed now, however, for it sounds running side by side. The burden of the au. the key-note of a very intricate problem, with thor's criticism of society, standing out clearly à Rothschild at one end of it and the filthy from the body of the story, though it is not outcast of Russian tyranny at the other. precisely protruded as a moral, is the growing The novel before us deals with the fates of plutocracy and Philistinism of life ; the hard, Sir Arthur Gerrardine and Lady Edith Car. selfish devotion to money and what money thage. The two had loved each other with brings ; the disposition to measure everything devoted tenderness ; but Edith sacrifices her by a financial test. This necessarily carries love to marry a rich and kind nonentity, that in its train the whole vile crew of sensual pas- she might save her wretched father from the sions and vices, for money can only buy gratis consequences of his own criminal folly ; and fication of these-never one single boon of Arthur in turn weds a frivolous and heartless. pure happiness, except so far as it can relieve woman, who finally betrays him. How the the possessor from those sordid cares and wor. old love springs into powerful flame after ries which are only less degrading than exces. these ill-assorted marriages have made both sive indulgence. The writer, in a strain bit. their victims wretchedly unhappy, and how terly just, says in the opening chapter : You nearly they are betrayed into gratifying this give life service to the beautiful Christian irresistible feeling, at the expense of honor and code of ethics ; you profess yourself scandal. duty, are narrated in the story with a freshness ized that those who do not acquiesce in the and grace of treatment which redeem a very dogmas of your religion should be allowed to threadbare motive. The host of subordinate legislate for you ; and yet if he be rich enough, people in this social drama are sketched with

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a skilful touch, and the pictures of contem- by the Jubilee Celebration Committee, in poraneous English society are excellent. Al.

whose proceedings the late Postmaster.Gen. together it is an English novel of the better eral took so active and kindly an interest. class and a clever though by no means a great Amid much that is merely formal and ephen). book. It fills one of the necessary conditions eral, the volume contains not a little matter of a good modern novel. The characters of permanent interest in connection with the seem to be drawn naturally and truthfully recent history of the Post-Office and its presfrom life ; and the impression is that of a ent organization, and these sources of interest genuine picture, without being hampered with are enhanced by the portraits and sketches the unnecessary details of the so-called real- with which it is illustrated. is tio fiction.

DR. FURNIVALL is spending his holidays at A GOOD BOY'S BOOK. FOUR AND FIVE. A Story of a Lend-a-Hand

Norwich and copying the earliest English Club. By Edward E. Hale, author of "Ten wills, those of the Consistory Court, for å

volume in the Early English Text Society. Times One is Ten,' Mrs. Merriam's Scholars,” “How to Do It," “In His Name,”

He hoped to find many instances of dialect

and local trade and custom, but very few ocand other stories. Boston : Roberts Brolhers.

As against the earliest English will at Mr. Hale's new story is a charming contribu.

Somerset House, 1397, Norwich can show only tion to the pleasures of boys, and is of a piece

a short English proviso, in a Latin will of with those which have already made him so

1427, shifting the testator's estate from one well known to the young people of America. The lessons tanght are of the most bracing nephew to another, in case the first is not and stimulating sort-lessons of courage, help the word, and marie hym self bi the avys of

“ of good gouernaunce and lycly persone to fulness, self-reliance, and self forgetfulness,

the feoffees, the executors the forn seyd." but all set in a narrative of much interest, told

The first complete English will was made in with great raciness. A club of four boys, who

1429, that Sir Andrew Botiller, knight, and Ład spent a summer camping in the Catskills,

after this others came slowly till 1464. The are joined by four others the next summer,

first two registers have no English wills. and they elect a quaint and delightful old Ind.

“ Surflete,” the third register (1427_35), has ian half-breed woman, living in the mountains,

the proviso mentioned above, and five English the ninth member. Gradually, as the lads re

wills ; “Doke,” the fourth register (1436-42), turn year after year to the camp for their sum

thirteen such wills ; " Wylbey,” the fifth regis. mer vacation, they bring others, till at last

ter (1444–48), only one English will ; Aleyn,” the club numbers forty. It is the doings and

the sixth register (1448–55), only four, though sayings of these lads, ranging from those al.

a Latin will of Robert Martham recites word most men to little boys, wbich, treated in Dr.

for word a marriage settlement of 22 Henry Hale's delightful manner, constitute the in.

VI., made by the testator on the wedding of terest of the book. They hunt, fish, build

one of his two daughters. The seventh regis. bridges, reservoirs, and irrigating canals, tell

ter, Brosiard" (1454-64), contains eight stories, and do all sorts of things dear to the English wills, some of Norwich citizens, and hearts of healthy and hearty youngsters. It

among them one of John Goos, no doubt the is thoroughly a boy's book, charmingly writ.

ancestor of A. Goose, the publisher lately reten, and stimulating to all that is best in boy's tired who issued Mr. Walter Rye's “ Book of nature. Such books as these make a refresh

Nonsense.” A pretty

qwethe-word" for ing contrast to the goody-goody artificialities

“ devise or bequest” occurs in 1457 ; “be in. which were the current pabulum of lads a

gate and outogate into ye gardine" in 1458. quarter of a century since. Dr. Hale's genius In 1452 John Bulston bequeathed to the shides not less brightly in books of this kind

Church of Hempstede “j pyxte, to putte owre than in the more pretentious works bearing lord god in ;" and there are several gifts of his name.

altarcloths, vestments, etc. For “ shall” or

should,” “xal" and "xulde” occasionally FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES.

occur ; qwoeb" is sometimes found for The unexpected death of Mr. Raikes lends which,' and wh for qu: 'ye whech xul be a melancholy interest to the account of the seld to a-whylt (acquit, pay) my dettis” (1437). celebration of the jubilee of uniform inland A few words seem special to the Eastern coun. panny postage, which has just been published ties : “ iij cadys of heryng, and xx orgeys'' of fiction will not be disregarded, arrangetralian Authors."

(1437), “ fyve Rasers barly" (1434). Gifts of WE learn from German sources that the a combe of barly, etc., to the “plowlot” publication of a new Latin dictionary, at the (1435) were probably to the plowlight." expense of the Prussian state, is in contem

A farindell of elys" (1435),“ xij last of trufys, plation. The work, which is designed to surij Sahures and a dydale' (1438) are puzzles pass in magnitude and completeness all Latin present. When enough material is got to lexicons hitherto published, is to be carried gether for a volume, it will be edited by Mr. out under the direction of that distinguished Walter Rye and Dr. Furnivall.

classical scholar Professor Martin Hertz, of Miss AMELIA B. EDWARDS has, we are glad Breslau, with the assistance of a host of to learn, so far recovered her health as to be philologists, and will comprise not only clas. enabled to return to England after her length. sical, but also low and late Latin. The Acadened sojourn in Italy. Her new volume, en

emy of Sciences of Berlin is said to have aptitled “Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers," proved of the plan, the execution of which will be published in this country by Messrs. will occupy full eighteen years and cost beOsgood, McIlvaine & Co., and in America by tween 500,000 and 1,000,000 marks. Messrs. Harper Brothers early in November, THE death is announced of M. J. Nerudo, THE Dumfries Standard describes a manu

the Czech journalist and poet, at the age of script volume, purchased at an auction sale,

fifty-three. which contains some unpublished poems by With regard to the investigations contem. Burns. It is said to comprise “a very re- plated by the India Office authorities among markable and most valuable collection.'

The

the archives at Lisbon for documents and effusions are mostly of a satirical character, records throwing light on the period of the some of them being couched in coarse lan. Portuguese ascendancy in India, "A Portuguage.

The then Duke of Queensberry is guese” points out in a letter to The Times somewhat severely handled in some of the

that a very complete and interesting collecpoems.

tion of official documents has been published The expected edition of a “Patrologia for some years at Lisbon, which embraces Syriaca," under the direction of the Abbé R. from the period of the conquest of India by Graffin, of the Catholic Institute, Paris, seems the Portuguese in 1498 until the end of the likely to become a reality. The first and sec. eighteenth century, under the title “ Colond volumes of Aphrates's works will soon lecçao de Tratados e Concertos de pazes que leave the press.

They will contain the o Estado da India Portugueza fez com os Reis homilies, according to the lamented Dr. W. e Senbores com quem teve relações das partes Wright's edition, but collated with all the da Asia e Africa Oriental,'' por J. F. Judice known Mss. wbich furnish good variations, Biker, Lisbon. A Latin translation will be added by Dom J.

MESSRS, HENRY & Co. have in preparation a Parisot, of Solesmes. The size of the Syriac

new series, entitled “ The Victoria Library collection will be the same as that of Migne's for Gentlewomen,” which will be written and Patrology,” and each volume will contain a

illustrated exclusively by gentlewomen. The vocabulary of special words used by the differ.

Queen has ordered two copies of each volume ent authors.

for the royal library, and the Princess of A FESTIVE gathering has been held at Mel.

Wales is also a subscriber. The first volume bourne of the Melbourne Booksellers and

of the series, which will be ready in SeptemStationers' Association, at which the trades ber, will be by Lady Violet Greville on The were largely represented, the chair being oc

Gentlewoman in Society," and she will be cupied by Mr. L. Hutchinson, the president followed by Dr. Kate Mitchell, who will write of the association. Among the toasts given Hygiene for Gentlewomen." The clainis “ Success to Literature and

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ments having been made for new novels by, The museum of postage-stamps which has among others, Mrs. E. Lynn-Linton, Mrs. recently been opened at Vienda comprises Alexander, Miss M. Betham-Edwards, Miss more than 100,000 examples, arranged in Iza Duffus-Hardy, and the author of the “ An. three large rooms, and includes among its glo-Maniacs.' Besides writing the first vol. greatest rarities the stamps made for and used ume, Lady Greville will also edit two volumes in the balloon and pigeon despatches of the

devoted to “ Gentlewomen's Sports," the Franco-German war of 1870–71.

contributors to which will comprise, among

were

66 Aus

Heat ;

others, the Marchioness of Bredalbane, Lady Sonnet in a note-book of S. T. Coleridge Colin Campbell, and Miss Leale, Other vol- kindly lent to me by its present possessor, uines include “ The Home,” by Mrs. Talbot his grandson, Mr. Ernest Hartley Coleridge. Coke, “Culture for Gentlewomen," by Miss The verses are in the poet's handwriting, and Emily Faithfull, also works on painting, the composition is certainly his, for the Ms. music, gardening, etc.

has many corrections ; indeed, I have had no The monument to Christopher Marlowe,

little difficulty in piecing out the text as the first of the great dramatic line of English finally settled. The style, however, is so unpoets in priority of time, and only second in

like that of any original composition known genius to Shakespeare, which was executed

to be Coleridge's that I am much disposed to

believe this sonnet to be a translation, probby Mr. E. Onslow Ford, A.R.A., was unveiled at Canterbury, on September 16th, by Mr. ably from the Italian or Spanish. If you will Henry Irving.

be good enough to print it, some reader of

the Alhenæum may recognize the original.” By arrangement with the American pub

J. D. C. lishers, Messrs. Macmillan & Co. will issue in the course of the autumn an edition of Mr. Lady, to Death we're doom'd, our crime the

same! Lowell's poems complete in one volume, uni. Thou, that in me thou kindled'st such fierce form with their one volume editions of Tennyson, Wordsworth and Shelley. Mr. Thomas I, that my Heart did of a Sun so sweet

The Rays concentre to so hot a flame. Hughes will contribute an introduction to the

I, fascinated by an Adder's Eyevolume, which should be welcome to many Deaf as an Adder thou to all my Pain ; admirers of the poet who have not cared to Thou obstinate in Scorn, in passton Iprovide themselves with the recently com

I lov'd too much, too much didst thou dis

dain. pleted library edition of his works.

Hear then our doom in Hell as just as stern, One of our English contemporaries, remark. Our sentence equal as our crimes conspireing upon the growing difficulty in finding Who living bask'd at Beauty's earthly Fire,

In living flames eternal there must burnnew subjects of interest for the exhibitions

Hell for us both fit places too suppliesthat are becoming an annual institution among In my Heart Thou wilt burn, I roast before us~now that fishermen, inventors, health conservators and restorers, Colonials, Ameri. cans, Spaniards, French, Italians, Danos, and Germans, together with our own army and

MISCELLANY. navy, have all had their innings-urges the MODERN WAR.-If, in their general char. claims of literature to have an exhibition in its acter, the nature of battles and the circumturn. It is pointed out, no doubt with con. stances under which battles have to be fought siderable truth, that the vast stores of the change very materially, that is itself involves British Museum are practically closed to the

a further change in the combinations which casual sight seer, “Nor," it is naïvely added,

are open for manauvres in the field of which “would our national storehouses stand any

the ultimate object is to lead up to battle. chance of rivalry with a vastly inferior show The size of the armies which will enter into that was accompanied by the more sensuous the next great campaign in Europe will be so delights of the exhibition à la mode.Of vastly different from those wbich fought out course such a scheme would include graphic the great wars of the past, that their maneuillustrations of the entire process of book and vring in campaigns must necessarily be very newspaper production, the details of typog different from anything that Napoleon underrophy, the entire processes of printing and took. Now, even during the later wars of binding, the manufacture of paper, with other Napoleon, Jomini was obliged to admit that kindred and subsidiary industries.

many of the experiences of the past must be writer of the article will, no doubt, have the materially modified as armies increased in publisher and printer on his side ; if he can

size. One of the most familiar forms in which show any benefit likely to result to the au.

Napoleon exercised his strategic skill lay in thor, he may perhaps secure Mr. Walter Be defeating with his own entire army a fraction sant, and other literary champions, for his

of the forces opposed to him, before it could scheme.

be reinforced by the remainder of the enemy. The Athenæum prints the following com- Thus the element of time essentially entered munication : “I have found the following into the question. Even during the great

thine eyes.

The

campaign of 1813, when Napoleon, holding a frequently embody their whole conception of central position on the Elbe, endeavored to strategy in a phrase which to a reader, taking strike from thence against the masses of allies it in its simple form, is apt to seem like a formed in a great circle around him at Berlin, mere truism—that the great principle of in Silesia, and in Bohemia, experience showed strategy is to concentrate the largest possible that it was by no means easy to crush with force at the right moment at the decisive sufficient rapidity armies of 120,000 men so point. So stated, strategy may seem to have as to prevent them from being supported in nothing exceptional in its nature, and to in. time by others. As the allies gradually closed volve no study of the nature of the great orin on him, and the distances between their ganizations of men with which it is concerned. ditferent forces diminished, this became con- But, in fact, this study and this knowledge tinually more and more apparent. In fact, it are presupposed by those who thus explain became clear, if it had been doubtful before- their art. It is because armies are not mere hand, that the question was altogether a mat- gatherings of armed men, but have a vitality ter of proportion between time, distance, and of their own, that some very heavy blows may the resisting-power of the several armies con- be struck against them without affecting a cerned. On the other hand, in 1814, when vital point, while a more skilfully directed the nature of the country invaded caused a stroke may destroy their whole future power reduction in the size of the armies moving of action. An army then, as it stands in the forward separately, Napoleon was able as of field, is of this character, that while the tightold to strike his blows right and left with tell. ing force directly opposed to the enemy is an ing effect. Now, if it were possible for an organism which depends for its vitality upon army of our day, supplied with all the imple- the trained spirit of order, discipline, and ments with which modern science has pro- enthusiasm or devotion which holds it to. vided it, to meet any army of equal numbers gether, and on the trained capacity for mutual equipped as Napoleon's armies were equipped, and effective fighting co-operation which the difference in power of the modern army makes it act like one man, it has also, reachwould be such that it would almost be able to ing far behind it, a long and weak tail, on the deal with its enemy as civilized armies pro- safety of which its very existenoe depends.vided with fire-arms were at first able to deal

War,'' by Colonel Maurice. with savages possessed only of bows and ar

The artillery of the days of Napoleon TOBACCO FERMENTATION.—A very essential would not be able to act at all, for our modern process is brought about by firmly packing infantry can fire with effect at a distance ripe tobacco in large quantities. It had been greater than could Napoleon's big guns. Our generally supposed that the fermentation is artillery would be able to destroy Napoleon's of purely chemical nature, but Herr Suchs. army before either his artillery or infantry land, of the German Botanical Society, finds could act against us. Thus an army of 50,000 that a fungus is concerned in it. In all the men of our own time must be reckoned as tobaccos he examined, he found large quantipossessing, at least, the resisting power of ties of fungi, though of only two or three 100,000 of the days of Napoleon. It is obvi. species. Bacteriacea were predominant, but ous, therefore, that the relationship between Coccacere also occurred. When they were time, distance, and the resisting power of taken and increased by pure caltivation, and armies has been greatly affected by the change added to other kinds of tobacco, they proin the character of weapons, and that calcu. duced changes of taste and smell which relations as to what a superior army can do in called those of their original nutritive base. a given time to break up the force of an army In cultivation of tobacco in Germany it has opposing it, and to be free to deal with an. been songbt to get a good quality, chiefly by other army, are greatly modified.

ground cultivation, and introduction of the In modern war the effort of the general is best kinds of tobacco. But it is pointed out directed to maintaining in its full efficiency that failure of the best success may be due to “the vast and complicated machine'' which the fact that the more active fermenting fungi he handles, and to breaking up and destroy of the original country are not brought with ing the efficiency of that to which he is op- the seeds, and the ferments here cannot give posed. This is the central fact to be kept in such good results. Experiments made with a mind. Generals and soldiers, long accus- view to improvement on the lines suggested tomed to look at war from this point of view, have apparently proved successful.- Nature.

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