Martial. I myself went over all the pa- Prince, or of Russia, probably the latter, pers, and know the dossier by heart, bet- and what would she gain by that ?'' ter than any of the lawyers or members of It was this Note, despatched in the the court. If the men had done nothing I middle of June, against the strong remonshould not have sent them for trial. And strances of most of the foreign diplomatic then the Procureur coolly gets up and agents, and under a temporary impulse of withdraws the charges against half of the anger, which has brought about the vastly prisoners. It is not his business to with- improved relations which now exist with draw charges, forsooth! He has an in- the Ottoman Porte. M. Stamboloff had dictment given to him by the War Minis- always insisted on the expediency of some ter, and he has to support it. He has no such quasi-ultimatum, but he had been authority to withdraw accusations bis held back by the counsels of the Powers, Minister has made. And then the court, who feared the consequences of forcing having before them a crew who openly Turkey's hand. It was only when he deavow that they intended to betray their cided to act upon his own initiative that oath and dethrone their Prince, condemn be proved how rightly be had judged the only one to death, and recommend a com- situation. As all the world knows, the mutation of his sentence. They allow Note was followed by the granting of themselves to be moved to pity by the Berats to the Bulgarian Bishops in Macethought of Panitza's wife and children, donia, and an immense increase, not easily and past services. But I, too, have ser- calculated, of Bulgarian prestige, not only vices, and a wife and children ! Am I in that province but throughout the Bal. for that reason to attempt to assassinate kans. Since that triumph all opposition my superiors, to violate my oath, to risk to M. Stamboloff and his policy has practhrowing my country into a state of civil tically ceased, and with the exception of war, or into the arms of a foreign Power, occasional fretful Notes from Russia the and then, when I am found out just in political affairs of the Principality have time to stop me, to get up in public and progressed with excellent smoothness. say that ' I think I was right, but that if As long as Bulgaria retains her remarkyou want to punish me you must remem- able Premier there is little fear for her ber my family'?"

future, but a larger measure of support And the second was the day after Sir from friendly Powers in the just, and W. White passed through Sofia on leave truly Homeric, combat he sustains would of absence, and it was not deemed ju- render his task lighter, and go far toward dicious for M. Stamboloff to meet him postponing the prophesied Armageddon. and travel in the same train :

Two other well-known figures in Sofia So

your Ambassador is not allowed are those of M. Isanoff and Dr. Strausky, to speak to me. It is only another mark both ex-Ministers of Foreign Affairs. 'I of the pariah brand Europe has set upon have already mentioned the former's visit

But it is about time to finish the to the Russian Legation on the day of the play. I, for one, have had enough, and battle of Slivnitza. He has himself conhave just sent off our last Note to Turkey. firmed to me the story, and added that She can do what she likes, but if she re- the perturbation which reigned that day fuses to fulfil her duties toward us she will was indescribable. There was some innever see a penny of the next instalment terruption in the telegraph service and no of tribute. It is ridiculous that Russia's news had come in since noon. The Minreto should be able to frighten all the ister climbed the tower which stood by Powers out of their senses, and prevent the office, and anxiously watched the canthe recognition of our rights. At any rate non smoke rolling thickly over the plain. I am not afraid—I never have been yet in At last,'' he said, “ I could stand it no my life—to do what I thought I had a longer, and called the chief clerk, telling right to do. I am certain the Porte will him that if he failed to get me news in a never move actively against us. It would quarter of an hour he would be dismissed be very foolish if she did. She might and punished. The fault was really not suppress our first attempt at indepen- his, but he saw I was in no humor to be dence, but she could only do so at the answered. Ten minutes later, however, alternative cost of throwing the country came the message of victory from M. either more under the influence of the Stamboloff, and my clerk got a present




instead of punishment. Talking on an- of their shortcomings, which contrast so other occasion of Prince Alexander's de- unfavorably with the punctiliousness of votion to his army, M. Isanoff remarked, Bucharest, and should these lines lead to “ It was always the Prince's weak point a reformation, they will have rendered a to trust too wholly those whom he be- signal service to His Royal Highness. Jieved to be his friends. Just before the Turning now from Sofia to Belgrade, Servian War I used to hold long conver- I may also begin my recollections with sations with bim through the telegraph, the street in which I lived. It leads from and I was continually warning him of Ser. the Prince Michael street down to the vian preparations. His invariable reply Save, and is designated by position for was that it was all a 'blague' and that one of the principal thoroughfares. It is,

son cher ami' Milan could never be however, so abominably paved and so thinking of attacking him.” M. Isanoff feebly lighted that few who are not forced lives a quiet retired life, as in fact do all to take that route ever enter upon its the ex-Ministers in Bulgaria, in this re- perils. As an instance of what its inhabitspect differing considerably from their ants were exposed to, I may relate the fellows of other countries, who as soon as following anecdote. I had been passing they are out of office generally devote the evening with some friends, among their energies to attempting to regain it. others being the Belgian Attaché. About Dr. Strausky, who resigned last year, was midnight we were returning when we for some time Agent at Belgrade, and for heard shots fired in the distance, but three years all but a day or two held the thought little of the fact. Ten minutes Foreign Affairs portfolio, thus being, at after I had entered, M. B. rushed into the time of his retirement, the Minister my room crying that murder was being who had longest kept his seat in this committed outside, and related that as he country of changes and revolutions. He had turned the corner he had heard a hue is a man of taciturn disposition, but a and cry, and had commenced to run in close acquaintance with him always dis- the darkness. A bullet soon whistled past pelled the unfavorable impression he was him, but he managed to gain our door, wont to create at first, and I believe every- which luckily happened to be open.

We body was sorry when he exchanged the both went into the front room overlooking cares of State for his favorite pursuit of the street, and saw a small knot of men horticulture, and his ministerial chair for standing round the opposite doorway. the corner in the Café Panachoff where he One of the doors was open inward. After is to be regularly seen at noon. One of a short consultation, they knocked at the his bon-mots will long be remembered at window, and an old woman handed them Sofia. It was when a Foreign Agent com- out a candle. One of the men then held plained to him of the want of politeness the candle behind the door wbile a second of the Bulgarian Palace_officials who had coolly thrust the muzzle of his rifle in and not returned his visit. Dr. Strausky pon- fired. The shot was followed by a groan. dered for an instant, stroking his long and then a body was dragged out, heels whiskers before replying, Que voulez- first, and deposited with ribald jests in vous, monsieur ! ce sont des Français !the road. It proved to be that of an AusIn this connection I may remark, en pas- trian subject, a harınless, inoffensive indi. sant, that the progress of years has brought vidual who was drunk, and had lain down no improvement, and that the household to sleep in the first shelter he had found. of Prince Ferdinand, who presumably ex- There is very little doubt that had M. B. ist for no other purpose than to be court- found our door shut and hidden himself eous and to teach the refinements of civil- as he first intended behind the opposite ized society to the new Court, and through door, he would have met the same fate. it to the people, are the most flagrant No satisfaction was ever given, and in transgressors against the elementary usages spite of our combined testimony and that of society. I refer principally to their of other eye-witnesses, the local papers apalmost invariable rule of neglecting to re- peared with an account of the capture of turn visits, which is a small thing in itself, a desperate brigand who had been killed but which has gone very far to raise ill- while defending himself against the pofeeling and damage the reputation of the lice, whose courage and vigilance were Palace. Probably the Prince is unaware highly extolled. Such were the delights

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of residence in the Balkanska Ulitza, a interested third parties. They have little predestined lair for cut-throats and excuse dignity or sense of responsibility, and alfor murder. The principal personages in low themselves to be swayed by the mob Servia, apart from the royal family, are of in a way which was neatly put to me once necessity the Regents and Ministers. The by a diplomatist who knows them well. I first Regent, M. Lovan Ristitch, has a was searching for an article in the Constigreat reputation for statesmanship and is tution when he came up and laughingly commonly known as the Little Bismarck. cried,

cried, “ My dear fellow, do not trouble At least he possesses what most of his col- your head about it : it is very simple. leagues and subordinates lack, namely, a There are only three articles. Article I. certain amount of experience. He had The Regents do what the Ministers already directed the destinies of Servia please ; Article II. The Ministers do what for thirteen years as Regent during King the Skupshtina pleases ; and Article III. Milan's minority, and as his Prime Minis- The Skupshtina does what it pleases. ter, before being again called to the Re- There you have the whole Law and the gency. On the whole he directed them Prophets."

Prophets.” And since the abdication of well, and the lesson he seems to have King Milan the above represents the fashlearned best is that of keeping himself as ion in which Servia is governed accurately much as possible in the background, ex- enough. cept on great emergencies. Being in re- In common with the Bulgars, the Serbs ceipt of what for Servia is an enormous have a rooted mistrust, generally amountsalary, and endowed with a thrifty not to ing to dislike, of foreigners. But while say avaricious temperament, he is scarcely in the case of the former it arises rather likely to endanger a comfortable position from a shyness of displaying inferiority, by any too vigorous initiative.

with the latter it springs from a defiant General Belimarkovitch has held minis- spirit of at least equality. I bave heard a terial portfolios before with varying de- learned and cultured Bulgar modestly say, grees of credit and otherwise, having once “We are not so intelligent and quickbeen impeached before the Skupshtina for witted as the Serbs, but we reflect more, malversation as Minister of War. He is and we are always ready to listen and a bon vivant, and fond of such inferior learn.” I have never heard even the public amusements as Belgrade affords, so most ignorant Serb confess his inferiority that anybody who can face the stifling at- to any man living. It will naturally be mospbere of a café where a strolling com- understood that I am speaking of the pany may happen to be performing, is tol- masses of middle class society. In the erably sure of finding the Regent, with a higher classes, both at Sofia and Belgrade, pot of beer before him, enjoying the play foreigners are made. welcome, and will and ogling the players. His amorous pro- often find their hosts better informed than pensities have occasionally given rise to themselves. It is in the houses of these public scandals, but the populace of Bel- leaders of progress that a stranger will exgrade are indulgent to vice in high places, perience the freest and pleasantest hospiand such incidents create only fleeting tality, a mixture of the desert welcome of impressions which are quickly forgotten. the Bedouin with the comfort and refine

The third Regent, General Protitch, is ment of Europe. The pity is that there best known through his wife, to whose are so few of them. The majority of the fascinations, and his own easy and accom- population of Belgrade appear to pass modating temper, rumor ascribes his rapid their lives in the innumerable cafés which advancement in rank and his present po- line the streets, going from one to the sition. Of the Ministers I might write other at stated times, and with such regumuch, having been in frequent contact larity that it is much surer to seek an inwith most of the Cabinet, but refrain from dividual at his favorite haunt than at his saying inore than that they are on the office or his home. As a logical consewhole well-meaning and honest, but with quenco it may be imagined that the vice a general want of experience and tact of drunkenness is very rife. In Bulgaria which reacts unfavorably on their rela- no one is allowed to intoxicate himself till tions with the outside world, and which entering upon old age, and any young leaves them too open to move on sudden man who should transgress this tradition inpulses, either self-born or implanted by would be seriously disgraced. As a matter of fact it is only once a week, after otism of the Serbs would be tolerably sure market, that one may find a few old peas to find vent in insulting epithets, if not in ants incapable on the high roads, whereas inore active aggression. the streets of Belgrade resound with Time, however, and a little more fricshouts and brawling every evening up till tion with the rest of the world will smooth midnight ; and as long as the offenders down many of the angularities of these are Serbs, and not foreigners, the police young nations which are apt to strike a are extremely indulgent. For the latter, visitor with unpleasant and, perbaps, unhowever, no pity is shown if he is in the due force. On the whole, if the reader wrong, and scant sympathy if he has cause never carries away more disagreeable recof complaint. Indeed, it is scarcely ad- ollections from the places of his sojourn visable for him to go abroad alone at than does the writer from the Balkans, he night, or to resort to any place of public may be congratulated on his good fortune. amusement except in company of friends. -Fortnightly Review. Should he attempt it, the exuberant patri



Now there arose a new king over is no longer one between the Tsar and his Egypt which knew not Joseph ; and he Semitic subjects only. said to his people, Behold the people of The Jewish question is emphatically the children of Israel are too many and not a religious question. Except in Spain too mighty for us : come let us deal and, to a slighter extent, in Italy, it never wisely with them, lest they multiply, and has been a religious question. The Init come to pass that, when there falleth quisition persecuted the Jew, as it perseout any war they also join themselves unto cuted the Mussulman and the Protestant our enemies.

And the Egyptians -as the “ Ingoldsby Legend” has it :made the children of Israel to serve them

Turks, heretics, infidels, jumpers and Jews. with rigor.” So said Pharaoh in the first chapter of Exodus, and so quotes an anti- No one else ever did in the narrow sense Semitic writer as one of the reasons for of the word. The Romans tolerated him ; the improvement of the Jews off the face Charlemagno and his successors placed of Russia ; a second reason being that him under a spiritual ban and left him though a large number of Slavs try their severely alone, and we find no traces of utmost to avoid fulfilling their soldiering persecution in the early centuries of the duties, twenty-three out of twenty-eight Christian era. per cent. of those who shirk the conscrip- And why? The reason is not very rection are Jews.

ondite or far to seek. It is useless to try and discuss any propo

If Front de Bæuf had been placed in the sition with such a logician ; but the two Palace of Truth instead of the Castle of points above mentioned are half-a-dozen Torquilstone, would he have suggested pages apart, and the casual reader may heretical doctrines as the reason for makeasily miss their curious connection, and ing Isaac of York acquainted with the be carried away by the plausible argu- gridiron in his dungeon ? ments in between to imagine that the es- Did King John draw the teeth of his sayist has proved his case against the race Semitic subjects because they had not he sweepingly condemns. But the ques- submitted to the rites of baptism? tion of the Russian Jew, not as connected It took some time after the lawless period with Lord Mayor's meetings, past or pres- that followed the disintegration of the ent, but as concerning the pauper immi- Roman Empire for wealth once more to gration into the East End of London, has accumulate in the hands of individuals ; become one of such burning interest to and the knights and soldiers .of fortune millions of human begins that it is well acquired it quicker than the slow-working worth careful sifting and elucidation, and and much-harassed trader.

But unpleas



ant consequences might have followed had prefers to mate with the Roman Catholic John's and Front de Bæuf's victims been and the Protestant with the Protestant. christened Norman or Saxon. He whom Therefore, the Jewish community remains the Church bad placed outside the pale of dogmatically the Jewish community all justice and charity had alone no defend the world over, though its numbers in

But in Russia only is it also linIt was power trading on the superstition guistically a Jewish community. The of its neighbors. Have motives so very Russian Jew is a legacy from the partition much altered since those days ? Human of Poland, and, like the rest of the counnature is unfortunately the same all the try, knew not Russian when he was forciworld over, whether Saxon or Gael, Teu- bly annexed. The wealthy Jew can of ton or Celt, Slavor Semite.

When a

course easily learn the language ; but how crowd of ill-fed, ill-housed, uneducated is the poor one to do so when the native and moneyless folk see a minority in their holds aloof from him save for the necessimidst possessed of luxuries they yearn for ties of business ; and the law steps in to yet cannot obtain, it takes little eloquence forbid the attendance of more than a certo persuade them that, as that minority is tain percentage of Jewish children in the outside the pale of spiritual welfare, it national schools, a percentage calculated, ought also to be placed outside that of not on the number of Jewish, but of temporal welfare and its goods given over Christian children. to those whom Providence and the execu- When equal facilities of education are tive Government consider more deserv- given to both in Russia, the Jew and the ing. “ Heaven helps those that help moujik will talk the same tongue, and themselves” is a proverb liable to more “ Yiddish” (the Polish dialect of Hethan one interpretation.

brew*) will disappear from that country The Gordon riots were not accepted in as it is disappearing from Whitechapel or England as a reason for turning all the Ro- the Ghettos of Frankfort and Rome. man Catholics out of Great Britain ; yet 3. Why are the Jews not agriculturists? it is now seriously argued that the anti- The Russians say because they are physSemitic risings justify the removal of the ically and intellectually incapable of the Jews from Russia.

pursuit. If so, whose fault is that? As far as I can make out, the Russians They were not created so. In the Old object to the Jews :

Testament there is much description of i. Because they increase rapidly and certain kingdoms of Judah and Israel their infant mortality is a tenth smaller whose exports consisted almost exclusively than that of the Christian Russians. of corn and wine, and whose towns were

2. Because they do not amalgamate few and far between. But the conqueror with and become lost in the Slav races. overwhelmed and dispersed them to the

3. Because they are not agriculturists four corners of the earth : and the Jews and show no desire to till the soil.

perforce turned to other means of liveli4. Because they are principally middle- hood. men, and belong to no guild.

It would indeed have been marvellous 5. Because they shirk soldiering. had the agricultural instinct remained in

6. Because they evade the laws made the Jew during the seventeen and a half against them.

centuries in which, whatever privileges Reason Number 1 way surely be left to were given to or withheld from him, all take care of itself ; or perchance many nations alike were agreed as to this--that

of the Anglican Church with small the Jew, as a Jew, could not and should salaries and large families may explain. not hold land. It is curious that most of

Number 2 is essentially a religious, or the Judophobes in this country should rather sectarian, complaint up to a certain belong to the party that asserts that an point ; and b yond that point only proves Irish tenant, notwithstanding fixity of the condition artificially produced by one tenure and compensation for disturbance, of those laws which the Russians declare cannot possibly succeed in the struggle are simply paintained for self-defence. That is to say, a Jewish parent naturally

* " Yiddish" is merely the phonetic spellprefers to see his children marry into Jew- ing of the German word“ Jüdisch," as proish families, just as the Roman Catholic nounced by the German Polish Jew.

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