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I have read an interesting paper by Pro- ishments. I
agree with Mr. Goldwin fessor Goldwin Smith, in the Forum, bear- Smith in the belief that these dangers are ing the interrogative title, “ Will Morality real, and this is precisely the reason why Survive Religion !" Ele appears to think all thinking men who know the value of that intelligent Europe is actually now sound morality to a community ought to passing from sacerdotal to scientific leader- help in the formation of a robust public ship, and suggests that “society may have opinion. With regard to the decay of a bad quarter of an hour during the transi. religious systems and the replacing of them tion, as it has had more than once before. by something else, the past may throw As the twilight of Theism and Christianity some light upon the future, and Mr. Goldstill lingers, nobody expects a sudden win Smith himself refers to it. A faith change. Least of all does anybody expect that becomes extinct is always succeeded a sudden outbreak of immorality among either by another faith, by a philosophy, philosophers whose minds are elevated by or by anarchy. A condition of mind very their pursuit, and in whom the coarser ap- unfavorable to morality, especially in the petites are sure to be weak." What Mr. upper classes, is that of assumed or affected Goldwin Smith looks forward to with ap- faith. This is only anarchy under a false prehension is moral relaxation among cer- name, and the more dangerous that it tain classes, such as young workingmen chills enthusiasm and discourages effort, in great cities, who are very sharp and in- accepting a low moral state as a necessary telligent, but not disciplined by an educa- condition of human nature that only the tion strong enough to enable them to ap-simple-minded hope to alter. The wellpreciate what is constructive in modern meant discouragement of progressive mo. philosophy, while they can see what it de- rality by more sincerely religious people stroys. There may be a danger of the may become almost equally dangerous, as same kind for thoughtless women in the morality, like law, presents new difficulties upper classes, if they are no longer re- in advancing states of society.-- Contemstrained by the dread of supernatural pun- porary Review.
A TROUBLE BEFORE AMERICA,
BY WARNEFORD MOFFATT.
į If there is any part of the world which most inexhaustible resources, and of pracappears more suitable than another for tical security against danger from without. solving successfully the problems of mod- With all this, however, a feeling of ern life, it would seem to be America. doubt is growing among thoughtful AmeriThere, all the elements are united, out of cans concerning the future of the nation. which a new regulation or a new order of It is felt that democracy in its truest printhings ought to arise. Colonized in faith ciple is not fulfilling the expectation of its and hope, free froin the cares of empire early years. Its cosmopolitan characteror the necessity for alliances, and having istic--the good of the people—is losing a population representing nearly every itself in the parochial idea of the good of European nationality, no other country a particular people according to their votbas its way so clear, no other can more ing capacity, and a corresponding selfisheasily set itself the task of endeavoring to ness is permeating the mass of scciety, perfect the happiness of humanity. To which must rob the individual of
generous the true American, as well as to the im- instincts. The enthusiastic socialist, bent migrant, the possibilities are endless that on the propagation of a new gospel, has cluster round the play of unfettered en- so far taken no account of its narrowing ergy, Each sees through the vision of tendency in his dreams for the renovation his fancy the power of infinite enjoyment, of the State ; but under conditions of —that fountain of perpetual youth which moral deterioration, such as presidential the early tradition, believed by the Span- elections have latterly made apparent, it is iards, placed in a land of gems and gold. alone sufficient to wreck all schemes of imEach is buoyed by the knowledge of al- provement whose foundation is laid on a
typical humanity, without any trial being its position it is a community of stagnation, made of their intrinsic value. The greed no matter how great the prosperity of the and covetousness associated with the early surface may seem, and sooner or later will discovery of the continent by the for- reap what it has sown. Already the vigor eigner have therefore to be accounted for, and freshness of youth, at one period so as their impress has been left on its ex- captivating to outsiders, has been lost in pansion side by side with that of the Pil- the premature arrival of a middle-age of grim Fathers ; and the fabled fountain, labor problems. The America of to-day which at one time seemed to have been holds out no helping ideas to solve the found in the development of the demo- higher questions of life. Its democracy cratic spirit, is still to be sought by every appears to be content with its greatest one who desires the happiness of man. achievement—the victory of self-govern
In writing so, it is not, of course, de- ment; and having provided a vote for nied that the progress of the world has every one at the attainment of manhood, been accelerated by the influence of the has retired from the contest with an air United States, which consolidated free- of repose.
of repose. It cannot, however, rest satisdom and taught the way to wealth by fied here, as the winning of independence throwing to the winds every vestige of was the realization of a hope long cher"ancient prejudice ;” but the lever that ished in England. The right, too, on accomplished these results was education, which self-government has been basedand the early advantage derived from its the reason and the probity of the individadoption is now no longer exclusively re- ual-must be exercised to the full to make tained. The increase of wealth, neverthe- progress a fact; and this is not accomless, which remains the chief feature of plished by the casting of a vote. the gain, cannot be taken as the gauge of sponsibility not to be forgotten attaches progress, though it is commonly accepted to the voter, requiring at his hands the as evidence ; for although its distribution consideration of the interests of the nais greater than at any other time, thereby tion over and above all political machines. enabling vast numbers to enjoy a large He must subordinate individual good to material happiness, its whole drift, except national gain ; and where this is not a in the British Isles, runs in the direction primary object, an end will be made to of the creation of monopolies : and so healthy advance. The Protective tariff long as this is the case, the interests of that shuts off foreign competition with the many must be sacrificed to those of the cry of America for Americans, forces the few. The fight for freedom in Ameri- the cultivation of the one-sided view. The ca, the rebellion against dictation, after consequences, accordingly, are visible in destroying all obstacles to that improve- a reawakened spirit of sectarianism ; and ment of the race which is now a reality, although the modern tendency of Conhas thus lost its prime significance in the gress is toward assuming the powers of a modern unfolding of events. The selfish- national council like Westminster, this is ness of the nation in upholding a system more the outcome of a wish to speak with of Protection, greatly accentuated by the authority than the natural flow of opinion M'Kinley tariff, is beginning to be re- to find a centre at Washington. flected in the selfishness of the individual If, therefore, American democracy is seeking a special good. Were it not not to belie the songs of the poets of the actually in existence, the political philoso- first years of the century, who welcomed pher would naturally look for its effect on its birth as the downfall of tyranny, it private action, wherever a public policy must restudy the history of its early is based on exclusivism, and expect to see foundation. Its future must be devoted produced internally a disposition of affairs to emancipating the mind of the public parallel to what exists externally. So from the pursuit of dividends, by giving that a democracy, of all forms of govern- a check to those monopolies of trade that ment, which cultivates nationally its own are building up a greater despotism than peculiar interests to the neglect of the the mercantile system, the origin of the welfare of humanity, must run the risk of American rebellion. If it is not to turn its local affairs standing in the same rela- in upon itself like animal intelligence, tion to its general attitude as this stands with the fulfilment of the original object towards the world. In the falseness of of its existence, but is to be creative and
progressive, it will be necessary to destroy with the rise of artificial liberty there are individual selfishness by widening the area signs of national trouble in the ballotof competition,—in opening all ports to box. the business of the nations, and freely ac- That the adoption of Protection has incepting their goods. Even now it is evi- creased the spirit of selfishness, is evident dent, through the unequal diffusion of not alone in the United States. wealth, notwithstanding a broad average it everywhere in the national desire to of gain hitherto unparalleled, that the benefit at some other nation's expense, as rich are growing richer, and the poor if such a thing had never been shown to poorer. Ăn oligarchy of the one rules a be impossible, by the laws of political democracy of the other. At the present economy.
In America, however, this rate of procedure, and under the same spirit is beginning to make itself felt to fiscal system, it cannot be very long be- such an extent, that the people are before a line of demarcation will appear be- coming vaguely conscious, by the load of tween the two, and a return set in toward taxation they are compelled to bear, of the social state of ancient Rome. No the necessity for tariff reform. Unforother cause than the forcing of commerce tunately for themselves, it fell to the lot into unnatural channels, seems adequate of the republican party to endeavor to to explain the growing congestion ; for effect this end by promising a happy time only an eighth of the arable land is esti- to every one, and, per contra, a bad time, mated to be under cultivation, no want of to the rest of mankind through the notoenterprise is shown by the people, nor rious M’Kinley bill. No measure could are there any internal checks on mercan- more clearly demonstrate the blindness tile transactions ; while in Great Britain which has fallen on political Americans, the late Trade Commission made clear owing to the cultivation of selfishness, that remuneration was almost even be than the passing of this Act into law ; tween capital and work. Cobden discov- and it is undoubtedly a satisfactory thing ered long ago it was the interest of every that the recent elections have proved the country to arrange its finances on the nation at large to be more or less aware freest basis, so that imported articles of the fact. Still, the consequences arismight enter into consumption at the cheap- ing internally out of national self-aggranest price. The Americans, however, hold dizement are seen at the bottom of nearly an opposite opinion, and have heavily every great question. Witness the action bandicapped in foreign markets not only of President Cleveland, in rejecting the their farmers, but their manufacturers, by treaty negotiated by Mr. Chamberlain and the duties they levy on the introduction Sir Č. Tupper, which was reported to the of raw materials. They broke the shackles Senate as fair and equitable ; and the of social despotism, but permitted the protracted negotiations over the right of politicians to reforge thom under the guise fishing in Behring Sea, which has led Mr. of domestic welfare, and while glorying Blaine to trifle with the peculiarly Ameriin the delusion of an expression called can idea of arbitration. Both of these re“ republican freedom," cling to class sults can be traced very clearly, as is genlegislation of the worst description. The erally believed, to the wish of securing a ancient boast of what democracy' would party triumph, and yet in both the weldo for the United States and for the world fare of the country was overlooked ; for it has consequently become at the moment cannot be to the universal good that a little vain. The political liberation of strained relations should exist between the the individual, the great increase of mate- two great branches of the Anglo-Saxon rial comfort, has not been followed up by race. a period of natural freedom, which would Not so very long ago there was pubhave carried the new conditions on into a lished at New York a small book called new era of progress, but with enormous “Our Country," which, although written possibilities lying at the hand of every from a theological standpoint, enjoyed, one, has been succeeded by years of arrest and still enjoys, a wide circulation. It -so far as the continuous amelioration of drew the attention of Americans to the the lot of the wage-earner is concerned internal dangers menacing the Republic, that has created a false. position, and en- and struck a true note on the coming slaved the population as a whole, until supremacy of the West. It is granted by
every one that the builders of America American parentage may be nearly twowere men of deep conviction, and that thirds of the whole ; for the American the foundations of democracy were firmly franchise has been so easily obtained, laid. As their task proceeded, a unity sufficient time has not elapsed to allow of of purpose grew up which embraced the the absorption by the Anglo-Saxon Ameriimmigrants flying from European tyranny, can of the beterogeneous Europeans who, and who, according to Bancroft, “re- until that occurs, cannot be termed Amerinounced their nationality to claim the cans in the sense the original owners of rights of Englislımen.” With the achieve the country understand. The significance ment of independence, however, and the of all this has been so thoroughly grasped, cessation of all dread of outside interfer- that a new party is said to have been ence, local interests rose in prominence formed some
o to uphold till the civil war became necessary to re- American ideas of law, order, and educaassert harmony of action. Since then the tion," but into which no foreigner is admaterial progress of the country has been mitted. What, then, is in the future for so abnormal, so stimulated by the Pro- the American people, as viewed through tective spirit, that internal matters have the light of the present tendency? been overlooked, and, as a natural result, The authors of the tariff are the capitalare once more coming to the front. They ists of the East, who, having had so far have taken their coloring from the policy the voting power in their hands, have been of the States, which, as we have said, has able to maintain exorbitant duties for pursued a course of selfishness toward the their own benefit. The West was opened commerce of the world, but in particular up at a ridiculous expense, the rate on to that of the United Kingdom, and are pig-iron, an article which most directly now so far developed as to render it al- affects the farmer, as it is the basis from most certain a real source of danger is at which all his tools are made, has been at hand. The “ typical immigrant," as the about $7, or 30s. a ton. A high cost of author of “Our Country” remarks,” is production had therefore to be and still a European peasant whose horizon has is supported, which, as already declared, been narrow,
.. and whose ideas of places the Western wheat grower in diffilife are low."
He has 'migrated to such culties that have risen out of the competian extent, that there is now a large popu- tion of other nations, until it is almost a lation of foreign extraction ; but instead matter of existence to be able to produce of its being the means of concentrating cheaper. He is forced, howerer, by the experience, it furnishes the greatest per- tariff to supply his wants through the centage of crime. Whole colonies of Eastern manufacturer, who cannot allow these immigrants annually go West, duties to be effectively reduced without where, in defiance of the example of their being satisfied to work in the light of wiser predecessors, they retain their na- competition at the minimum of profit, a tionalities and free themselves from Ameri- thing he has not even brought himself to can influences. Already at Chicago, we think about. The M'Kinley bill shows, are told, the great majority of the people too, he will not allow them to be reduced. are foreign by birth or parentage ; and There is therefore to be seen, in the differeven in the city of New York, if all for- ence between the interests of the East and eigners qualified themselves for the fran- the West, all the elements of political dischise, they could easily outvote the real cord and disruption, so that when ConAmericans ; while numbers scattered over gress is controlled by the West, a reversal the country “ are apparently under the of the policy of the East may be expected. impression that the ten commandments It is true a portion of the West has lately are not binding west of the Missouri.”' favored the tariff, but it was only a part In the course of a few years, almost at of the political game, which will disappear present within view, as the centre of popu- as the centre of power is transferred, and lation advances, the West must dominate the inhabitants understand that developthe East, must “ elect the executive and ment has been made at their expense, control legislation ;" for under manhood most notably in the matter of railway exsuffrage. every man has an equal voting tension through the former monstrous value. It is of little moment that the price of steel rails. When this reversal population of American-born persons of takes place it can only lead to furious dis
sension, and the world will see enacted fostered, of dwelling on local consideraover again the spectacle of an assault on tions. Here, then, is the heart of the vested interests. The peril of the position matter. Ignorance and selfishness—the will then attain its beight, and all will de- characteristics as we are told of a great pend on the temper of the people ; but part of the immigrant population, who we the drift of things to-day does not augur must not forget are mainly responsible well.
for the increase of crime-will add to the The folly of endeavoring to reconcile confusion of the moment, and these for. by Protection the wants of the New World eign Americans, still cherishing the tradiis thus painfully apparent, and the false tions and the language of their native stimulation of industry for a selfish end is homes, will snatch at the opportunity to working on to its natural conclusion, till obtain some advantage for their compresidential messages to Congress call for munities. The stupidity of having persuch changes as will prevent “financial mitted European nationalities to retain disturbance,"
the formation of their separate existences will be acknowl"schemes of public plunder.” It is a edged when too late to be easily reinedied curious commentary, however, upon the -the recent Italian troubles at New Orhistory of manhood suffrage, to observe leans being a painful example ; while the how basely it has been used to subserve other interests, social and religious, will private interests to the detriment of the also strive for the mastery by endeavoring nation's, and what a capable instrument to guide the reins of government through of miscbief it may become when worked the power of possessing the casting vote by a selfish democracy ; while having in Congress. In the general disorder that once gone persistently wrong on a funda- must cverywhere follow, in the struggles mental question, it cannot recover itself for local ascendancy, the ultimate danger without giving rise to a period of even will be that of a federal nature, till, with unpremeditated retaliation. As it enables the exasperation of strife, party spirit will the East to maintain a tariff for its sole break loose and temporarily pass beyond benefit, it will bereafter be necessary for control, so that it would not be surprising the West, by the same power, to destroy if history should repeat itself and attempts that tariff and kill off the high-priced raw were made to form sınall independent material wbich is injurious to its develop- centres. Thus in a free state, selfishness, ment. Monopolies, cultivated by a free symbolized by Protection, turns on the democracy, will meet with their reward, heads of its worshippers. Without doubt but the democracy that encourages them the Anglo-Saxon may be trusted to secure is more imbued with the spirit of the his own salvation, as his instincts are those early Spaniard than with that of the Pil- of a conqueror; but at the commencement grim Father. In the end, the sufferer he must be the chief loser from the liberty through it all will be the Eastern working that owes its origin 10 him, which he man, who upholds the present system in alone knows how to use with moderation, the belief it is his interest to do so ; for and that for the want of its natural exwhen capital has retired from the condi- pansion has reacted on himself to his tion it now occupies, as it certainly will great disadvantage. When, however, he do with the first breath of adversity, the finally reasserts his principles and levels artisan will be thrown on his resources. up democracy again to the point of progHe does not sce he is the tool of the capi- ress, the result, it is to be feared, will talist unless the question is one of wages, oply have been arrived at over misery and and that the farmer will sacrifice him re- bloodshed, though with his victory would morselessly for the profits he has taken come that of Free Trade, and at the same out of the West. His notion of success time a true idea of unity. is centred in himself, the advancement of In the present day we hear a great deal his town or state, while the country at of the perfection of humanity, but little large is a geographical expression. The of that spirit of unselfishness which is the situation, however, having been created key-note of the Christian republic. The through the ballot-box, unity must suffer world, while full of experience, bas hardly in the first instance, as Protection is the got beyond, in many respects, its primifather of provincialisms, and these will tive condition ; for though the stronger be called into play from the habit, long has ceased to make war upon the weaker,