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Nor are only the courtly doctors and What magic lies hidden within the di. statesmen mentioned. Gerard gives a lapidated cover of the old brown volume little anecdote of a certain cherry-tree that of Gerard's “ Herbal ”! Another England bore but one cherry, the most pleasant than this of the nineteenth century rises taste whereof was witnessed by Master before us

over the leaves. Bull, “the queene's maiestie's clockThe names of the statesmen who played maker.” In noticiog Saracen's consouod their parts in "the spacious times of great or wound-woort, he cannot refrain from Elizabeth," the allusions to new countries a touch of self-congratulation. “With it lately explored, carry us back three hun. I cured Master Cartwright, a gentleman

We have already noticed of Grayes lone, who was greevously Gerard's mention of Sir Walter Raleigh. wounded into the luogs.” We are told also that fuellen grew “in a How punctilious is the doctor in acfield next unto the house sometime be knowledging obligations! We read with longing to that honourable gentleman, Sir interest of that extraordinary flower, "the Frances Walsingham, at Barneelmes.” amiable and pleasant kind of primrose," Strange Indian fruits are connected with with its stalk of "grayish, or overworne Sir Francis Drake, who brought these greenish colour, which in the summer time curiosities to England, being "those that bringeth foorth a soft russet huske or some of the Indians do paie unto their hose, wherein are contained many small king for tribute.” Here is the introduc- flowers, found in a Yorkshire wood by the tion of the balsam-tree, a native of "the industry of a learned gentleman of Lanvales and low grounds of Peru.” Gerard cashire, Master Thomas Hesketh, a diliand his friends received its seeds from gent searcher of simples.” Again, Gerard the “Right Honourable the Lord of Huns-hears" by the relation of a learned don, Lord High Chamberlaine of England, preacher, Master Robert Abat, an excelwoorthie of triple honour for his care in lent and diligent herbarist," that at Hatgetting, as also for his curious keeping field are found the three kinds of orchis, rare and strange things brought from the or in his words, “the Bee, Flie, and But. farthest parts of the world.” Alas! for terflie Satyrion." A delicate compliment the balsam of Peru; notwithstanding all seems designed by the following: "The the doctor's care, the plants, when a foot Reverende Dr. Penny his Cistus; ” but high, perished at the first approach of what can we make of the English name winter.

for the Venice mallow, " Good-night at Queen Elizabeth had no lack of medical nine io the forenoone”? The number of advisers, or Gerard of friends. No less plants dedicated to saints is very great, than six of these learned gentlemen (two but on this subject Gerard throws do of them certainly royal "chirugions ") light; perhaps we may detect in this fact commended Gerard to the public by prefa. the Protestant proclivities of a retainer of tory addresses, both in prose and in verse, Lord Burghley.

The doctor's pages, Latin as well as English.* We can im- though rich in classical quotations, conagine that Thomas Thorney, who styles tain scarcely any references to Catholic bis friend “sweete Gerard,” bad himself customs. Did our author connect mistlewatched the progress of “ The Historie of toe with Popish enormities? He eolarges Plants.” He speaks of the expenditure on its use in making birdlime, tells us of money, the laborious toil, the indefati- that "it groweth upon okes and divers gable industry, which went to the making other trees almost everywhere; of the great Herbal. We like Thorney's while we often read in his pages of flowers homely words of well-deserved praise :- which served to “deck up houses," or Of simples here we do behold,

were worn in garlands by maidens, there Within our English soyle,

is no word to connect mistletoe with the More store than ere afore we did,

great mid winter festival. We had a Through this thy learned toyle. strong desire to learn more about vervain. And each thing so methodicals,

Gerard calls it “ Verbena sacra, holie ver. So aptly coucht in place,

uaine,” and explains that it was used about As much I muse, how suci a worke Could fram'd be in such space.

their altars both by the Greeks and RoFor in well viewing of the same

mans, and notices the virtue ascribed by We neede not far to rome,

the ancients to a “garlande of veruaine" But may behold dame Nature's store

for the cure of headache; but on the reBy sitting still at home, etc.

ligious purpose for which this plant was * Several other “doctors to royalty" are mentioned employed by the Druids be is silent.

“ Pliny saith if the dining-roome be

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sprinckled with water in which the herbe gloomy stories connected with the manhath been steeped the guests will be the drake, concluding: “They fable further, merrier.” England was “merrie England” and affirm that he who woulde take up a in Gerard's time, yet how often he calls plant thereof must tie a dogge thereunto our attention to herbs that cheer! The io pull it up, which will give a great shrike potency of borage was held to be even at the digging up; otherwise if a man greater than we had imagined. “The should do it, he should certainly die in flowers used in sallads do exhilarate and short space after; all which dreames and make the minde glad,” many things being old wiues tales, you shall from hencefoorth also made of them "for the comfort of the cast out of your bookes and memorie.” hart, for the driuing away of sorrowe, and Gerard and his servants had digged up increasing the ioie of the minde.” Much and planted many mandrakes, yet had space is given in the Herbal to that never perceived the human shape in any Dewly introduced plant the “Tabaco, or root. After this enlightened judgment, Henbane of Peru." Gerard describes its we are scarcely prepared for the subject effect in one case of which he had heard. chosen by the doctor for his concluding “We have learned of a friend by observa pages. Having travelled from the tion affirming that a strong countrieman of grasses growing in the fenny waters, the a middle age having a dropsie tooke of it, woods, and inountaines, even vnto Libanus and being wakened out of his sleepe, itselfe, and also the sea, we are arrived to called for meate and drinke, and after that the end of our historie, thinking it not im. he became perfectly whole." And again, pertinent to end with one of the maruels of “ The drie leaves are used to be taken in linis land." Upon this follows, with even a pipe, set on fire, and suckt.” “ The more than his usual ininuteness of detail, priests and inchaunters of the hot coun. the history of "the Barnakle Tree, or tries do take the fume thereof until they Tree bearing Geese,” specimens of which be drunken, that after they haven lien for prodigy Gerard declared he had himself dead three or fower howers, they may tellseeo in different stages of transformation the people what wonders, visions, or illu- from a mussel to a fowl. We smile at sions they have seene, and so give them a such a delusion, though, mindful of the propheticall direction or foretelling (if we follies which three added centuries of ex. may trust the diuell) of the successe of perience and education have not eradi. their businesse."

cated from the minds of all Englishmen, Even sea-weeds and fungi found their we do not smile contemptuously. And place in "The Historie of Plants.” Here yet, as we bid our old friend farewell, with is a curious bit of information. Sea-lung. grateful recognition of the services he red. wort "groweth upon rocks within the sea, dered to his generation, we cannot forbear but especially among oisters, and in the expression of a not unreasonable regreater plentie among those which are gret. What would we give if, amongst called Walfete oisters; it is very well the names of courtiers and learned men knowne even to the poore oisterwomen recorded in his Herbal we could diswhich carry oisters to sell up and down, cover one allusion worth all the rest ? In and are greatly desirous of the said mosse this same year, 1597, when Gerard had for the decking and beautifying of their completed his great book, William Shakeoisters, to make them sell the better; this speare, after twelve laborious years speot mosse they call oister.greene." The fol. in London, returned to Stratford-on-Avon lowing passage is suggestive of the loneli- to buy New Place. Can we doubt that ness and scanty population of our country he, too, had visited the Holborn garden? three centuries ago : "Fusse bals or puck. Perhaps a recollection of the doctor's fists” were used by people “io some places herb borders rose before him when he of England to kill or smoulder their bees, made Perdita in the “Winter's Tale' when they woulde drive the hives, and discourse of “hot lavender, mints, savory, bereave the poore bees of their meate, marjoram,” houses, and lives; these are also used in the marygold that goes to bed with the sun some places where neighbors dwell farre | And with him rises weeping. a sunder to carrie and reserve fire from place to place.” Gerard's attitude to. But our regret is needless, as it is vain. wards the superstitions of his day is a The Historie of Plants" must be forgotcurious study. He narrates at leogth the ten; Perdita is one of the immortals.

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From Chambers' Journal. night within the pyramid measuring and RECENT PYRAMID-WORK.

observing till eight o'clock in the morning, FEW English explorers for many years Consequently, we now have a survey of bave done better work among the monu- the Great Pyramid which rivals, if it does ments of Egypt than Mr. W. Flinders not surpass all previous work in its accuPetrie, of which he has published an racy; and we have also some most valu. account in his interesting book on the able observations on some of the other “Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.” The pyramids, temples, and toinbs of the nefirst edition of this work having been cropolis of Memphis, and conceroing the rapidly exhausted, a cheap edition has re- tools and methods used by the ancient cently been brought out, which places the Egyptians in their wonderful works. results of his researches within the reach Mr. Petrie is minute in his observations of the ordinary reader, the more abstruse of the injury that the king's chamber, mathematical calculations concerning the the chamber containing the sarcophagus triangulation of the Pyramid and such in the Great Pyramid, bas sustained, aphigh matters being omitted. Enough, parently by an earthquake. The joints of however, remains to make the book one of the stones have been loosened on every special interest to the mathematician, side, and the great beams of the ceiling, architect, and engineer; while those who weighing about fifty-four tops each, have take pleasure in following a close chain of been broken right through on the south reasoning, will admire the mental proc- side, and the chamber actually holds esses which supplement Mr. Petrie's together only by the force of sticking and keen observation of facts.

thrusting; iis eventual downfall is, as Mr. One might ibink that the Great Pyramid Petrie says, a mere question of time and had been visited, inspected, measured, re. earthquakes." As one of these cracks measured, and written about so often that and many of the joints have been daubed it was completely worked out. There are up with mortar, it seems that the injury no fewer than forty-eight different theories must have occurred before the Pyramid about its original intention; and those of was finished. Professor Piazzi Sinyth, the astronomer. The sarcophagus, in which great in. royal of Scotland, in particular, still exer- terest was centred by Professor Piazzi cise an extraordinary fascination over Smyth's theory, as it was supposed to ex. many miods. The professor, moreover, hibit a standard for all the Pyramid dimenhas the credit of having been the first to sions, is found by Mr. Petrie to be rather take measurements of the Great Pyramid a careless piece of work. Marks of the which had any pretensions to scientific saw, which still remain, show that the exactness. But Mr. Petrie brought to masons have more than once cut deeper the work more delicate instruments of than they intended, and have then tried to measurement than had ever been used on polish away their mistakes, but without the pyramid before ; and in order to wholly succeeding. The coffer was raised obtain accurate measurements, he uncov. to see if there were any marks underneath ered parts of the building, which had been it to indicate that it stood in its original covered for ages.

Consequently, his place; but no such marks were found. observations on this well-trodden field Mr. Petrie gives some interesting details have almost the interest of fresh dis- relative to the change that took place in coveries.

the workmanship of the Pyramid in the Mr. Petrie's survey was no holiday task. course of building. The site was levelled He worked at measurements or triangula. with great care, and the base laid out with tion for about eight hours in the blazing wonderful exactitude. The basalt pave. sun every day; then, after cooking his ment on the east side of the Pyramid aod own dinner in the tomb which he had the limestone pavement on the other made his temporary abode, and washing sides are splendid pieces of work, the up the dishes

for he had no trust in blocks of basalt being all sawn and fitted Egyptian cleanliness - he worked on till together with the greatest accuracy. The about midnight in reducing his observa lower part of the casing, of which Mr. tions, and writing out results. During Peirie for the first time uncovered some his investigations of the pyramid, he often blocks in situ, is exquisitely wrought, and worked twenty-four hours at a stretch; so is the entrance passage; “the means for, as measurements inside could not be employed for casing and cementing the carried on until the day's tide of visitors blocks of soft limestone, weighiog a dozen had ebbed away, he worked outside until to twenty tons each, with such hair-like dusk, and then, after dinner, spent the joints are almost inconceivable at preseot,

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and the accuracy of the levelling is mar-|(2) The serdab, a walled-up chamber in vellous.” But the same excellence is not which was the statue of the deceased, shown in the upper parts of the building: which was supposed in some mysterious the upper part of the great gallery is manner to represent him, and to receive much askew; in the antechamber, bad the odor of the offerings through a hole stone has been employed, and its defects in the wall of the mastaba. (3) The tomb rudely plastered over; and in the king's proper, where the mummy was laid, often chamber, though it is composed entirely in a pit dug through the floor. In the of magnificent granite blocks of admirable case of kings, the mastaba was often sepworkmanship, there is an error in the lev- arated entirely from the serdab and the elling, causing a difference of two and a tomb proper, and made into a temple, quarter inches between the courses on the where the worship of sovereigns, who had north-east and the south-west, an error ascended into the ranks of the gods, was which, if pot due to natural causes, is sur. regularly carried on. Thus the Rames. prising in such a piece of work as the seum and the other splendid temples Great Pyramid. In many places the stone whose ruins still adorn the western shore has been left in the rough, to be dressed of Thebes are only the chapels belonging down when it was put in position, but to the tombs of the great kings of the which has been left undressed. Mr. nineteenth and twentieth dynasties, whose Petrie suggests that the architect of the bodies were buried in splendidly painted first period of the building died in the halls cut in the limestone bills far behind. midst of his work, and was succeeded by The Pyramids of Gizeh in like manner one who exercised less careful supervis. had their temples at a little distance from ion, and that thus the building was some their eastern fronts, where the worship of what hastily, finished. As the roofing: the kings interred in them was carried on. beams for the king's chamber are all The granite temple belonging to the Sec. numbered, and marked for the north or ond Pyramid, which Mr. Petrie considers south sides, Mr. Petrie thinks it probable to have been built after that Pyramid, and that they were all hewn in the lifetime of not before, as has sometimes been as. the first architect, and fitted into position serted, is still one of the wonders of the outside the Pyramid, but were built into Pyramid field. There are also remains of their place by the second and less careful the temple belonging to the Third Pyra. architect.

mid. But the existence of a similar temIt is well known that the only important ple belonging to the Great Pyramid has chambers in the Great Pyramid are three been finally set at rest by Mr. Petrie, who in number: (1) The king's chamber, so examined the wonderful basalt pavement called because it still contains the coffer on its eastern side which we have already of red granite in which King Khufu or spoken of, and found the large hewn Cheops is supposed to have been buried blocks of granite and basalt which lie ex

the room being lined throughout with posed to the east of it. These are suffisplendid blocks of granite. (2) Another cient in number to warrant the conclusion chamber at a lower level, built of lime that they formed part of some large buildstone, and commonly called the queen's ing, now totally destroyed, which was chamber; the most remarkable feature of connected with the Pyramid by the splen. which chamber is a niche in the eastern did basalt pavement on which such care. wall, about fifteen feet high. This name, ful workmanship was bestowed. however, is purely fanciful, as it was not Supposing, then, that this was the masusual for Egyptian queens to be buried taba of the Pyramid of Khufu, where was near their husbands. (3) A subterranean the serdab? The niche in the queen's chamber, which is not really in the Pyra. chamber furnishes Mr. Petrie with a reply. mid at all, but in the rock beneath, very In that niche probably once stood the roughly excavated, and evidently unfin- statue of Khufu. In 1638 a tradition was ished. We will now point out what light still current that it was "the place for an Mr. Petrie's researches have thrown on idol; ” and there is proof that the chamthe destination of these chambers and on ber was completely closed up, like other the history of the Pyramid generally. serdabs, even before the great gallery

The tomb of important Egyptian person. was closed. But further; in carefully ages consisted generally of three parts : searching among the rubbish which lies (1) The mastaba, a chamber which was opposite the north face of the Pyramid, always accessible to the family of the the side where the door is, Mr. Petrie deceased, who came there once a year at found several pieces of worked diorite, least to present offerings and prayers. and innumerable chips of the same hard

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and valuable stone, which is seldom used thousand men - as Herodotus tells us except for statues. In a similar manner, were employed at that time; while during countless fragments of diorite, which bear the rest of the year a staff of skilled still plainer marks that they are fragments masons were busied in hewing the stone. of statues, are found in the neighborhood Mr. Petrie has discovered behind the of the Second Pyramid ; and at ihe bottom Second Pyramid remains of the barracks of a well belonging to the temple of that which were used by the workmen while it Pyramid, seven or eight statues of Khafra, was building; they would easily hold the builder of that Pyramid, were found, thousand men. In this manner the Great all more or less mutilated. Finally, at the Pyramid might have been built, as Herod. ruined Pyramid of Abu Roash, which, otus says, in twenty years. Very much though lying five miles to the north of the of the work was planned, course by course, Gizeh Pyramids, was probably built for a on the ground; and after it was thus preking of the same dynasty (the fourth), Mr. pared, the unskilled laborers were prob. Petrie found pieces of a granite coffin, ably employed, in the time of the ioundaand fragments of a diorite statue, which tion, in raising it to its place. This was had evidently been smashed with all the done by the simple method of rocking, carefulness which a malignant hatred namely, "resting the stones on two piles could invent; "the wrought granite bas of wooden slabs, and rocking them up been mainly burnt and powdered; the alternately to one side and to the other surfaces of the statue were bruised to by means of a spar under the block, pieces before it was broken up; a block thus heightening the piles alteroately, with a piece of the cartouche [the oval and so raising the stone. This would containing the king's name) on it had also agree with the mysterious descripbeen used as a bammer, having a groove tion of a machine made of short pieces cut round it to hold a cord by which it of wood.” The tools employed in workwas swung."

ing the granite which is used in the inDo not these evidences of a fixed pur. terior were bronze saws over eight feet pose of destruction recall to our minds in long, set with jewels, tubular drills simi. a remarkable manner the words of Herod-larly set with jewels, and circular saws.” otus, who says that the Egyptians would The jewel.points were either of diamond not even pronounce the names of the or corundum, most probably the latter. kings who built the Great Pyramids, be. Mr. Petrie has found cores evidently cause they had aroused such a feeling of broken from a tubular drill-hole, which hatred that the very remembrance of could only be explained by the use of a them was detested? As Mr. Petrie re. fixed jewel-point. Masses of masons' marks, the details show that these acts of chips may still be seen to the north aod violence were committed long before the south of the Pyramid, and are probably times of the Shepherd Kings or of the equal in bulk to more than half the build. Persians. The intense spite that is shown ing itself. is more than that of a mere invader, and points to some revolution imbittered by religious or political feeling, such as may have taken place in the dark period be. tween the seventh and the eleventh

From Temple Bar.

MODERN PRETTINESS V. ART. dynasties, of which so little is known, but which appears to have been a time of THAT the last thirty-four years, dating civil war and rival dynasties.

from the ever memorable Exhibition of We will briefly sum up Mr. Petrie's 1851, have seen a great advance in the theory of the building of the Great art of beautifying life and stimulating in. Pyramid and the history of its closing, dustry in ornamental manufacture, by cre. referring the reader to his book for the ating new wants, is such a truism that to arguments and observations by which it is doubt the benefit of this advance in its supported. He believes that the whole entirety will be deemed by many ao abmass of limestone hich the Pyramid surdity as great as that of the man wbo is built was brought from the quarries of wrote to the Times a few years ago to Turra and Masara, on the other side of assert that the earth was fat and not the Nile. The unskilled labor of trans. round, in spite of all that had been said. porting the stone and bringing it up to the I shall venture nevertheless to ask if Pyramid field was performed by corvées this all-pervading prettiness is an all-round during the three months of the inundation, gain, and to suggest that it has led many when the peasantry are idle. One hundred of us on to wrong lines.

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