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Marie. The sequel well illustrates the The period of missionary enterprise courage and address with which the Jeso was drawing to a close; its eod was ac. uits confronted danger. If they escaped celerated by the renewal of hostilities by by sanctioning a superstition which they the Iroquois. In the art of savage war the had before denounced as diabolical, the few scattered colonists were no match for harshest critic cannot condemn their pli- the Indians, who, wrote a Jesuit, “apancy. The ruse is far removed from their proach like foxes, attack like lions, and dis. adoption of the heathen rites of China appear like birds.” The woods swarmed and Malabar. They collected eighteen with these invisible foes. In the daytime canoes, and secretly prepared, in the loft they surprised workers in the fields; at of the mission, two flat boats; with these night they prowled round the houses, they had sufficient means of transport. ready to brain stray inhabitants. • They But a crowd of Onondagas were already haunt us,” cried the despairing father bivouacked between them and the lake, superior, “like persecuting goblios. They lounging round the honse, smoking their kill our new.made Christians in our arms. pipes, and preserving the friendliest de. If they meet us on the river, they kill us.

There seemed no mode of es. If they find us in the huts of our lodians, cape. From this desperate peril they they burn us and them together.” They extricated themselves by a festin à mar. | landed close to Quebec, and carried off

A young Frenchman, the the Christian Hurons as prisoners. Even adopted son of an Iroquois chief, told his in the Fort of St. Louis, the governor was Indian father that he was warned in a startled by their war-whoops. Governor dream of approaching death, unless the after governor vainly petitioned for troops. spirits were appeased by a medicine feast. While the Iroquois were at war the col. At these meals everything set before the ony starved, for the fur trade was de guests must be eaten, or the spirits were stroyed; no money could be obtained to not propitiated. The Jesuits killed their repair the decaying fortifications. Deeds hogs and poultry, and ransacked their of surpassing heroism, like that of Daulac stores for the feast; games occupied the at Long Saut, might save the colony for a afternoon; in the evening the meal began. time, but it plainly must succumb at last. Seated gravely in a ing, their Indian Everything had been staked on the effiguests fell to their work, while the French cacy of the missions, and the missions musicians encouraged their efforts with had failed. drums, trumpets, and singing.

In 1659 the whole population of CanUnder cover of the din, the boats were car- ada, priests, nuns, settlers, and traders, ried from the rear of the mission-house to the did not exceed twenty-five hundred perborders of the lake. It was nearly eleven sons. During the summer the colonists o'clock. The miserable guests were choking hunted, fished, or tilled their scanty clear. with repletion. They prayed the young French- ings; in the winter they hewed timber, man to dispense them from further surfeit. split shingles, and sawed wood for the “Will you suffer me to die?” he asked, in market at Quebec. But the colony was piteous tones. They bent to their task again, not agricultūral, or even self-supporting. but Nature soon reached her utmost limit; It depended on the fur trade with the and they sat helpless as a conventicle of gorged turkey-buzzards, without the power possessed

Indian tribes of the West, supplemented by those upseemly birds to rid themselves of by aid from home. The colonists were the burden. “That will do,” said the young gathered in three principal stations man,“ you have eaten enough; my life is saved. Montreal, Trois Rivières, and Quebec. Now you can sleep till we come in the morning Montreal was peculiarly exposed to the to waken you for prayers.” And one of his attacks of the Indians; it was the Castle companions played soft airs on a violin to lull Dangerous of the colony. It contained them to repose.

Soon all were asleep, or in a lethargy akin to sleep. The few remaining

some forty small, compact houses ranged Frenchmen now silently withdrew, and cau

parallel to the river, chiefly along the line tiously descended to the shore, where their of what is now St. Paul's Street,” pro. comrades, already embarked, lay on their oars tected by a square fort, and a massive anxiously awaiting them. Snow was falling stone windmill pierced with loopholes, fast as they pushed out upon the murky waters. built on the Point aux Trembles by the

When day broke, Lake Onondaga was far Sulpitian fathers. Montreal contained behind, and around them was the leatless, life about fifty families. In this advanced fort less forest. (Old Régime in Canada, pp. 38– was the Sulpitian Mission, an Hôtel Dieu, 39.)

and a school served by devoted puns. The Iroquois mission, like that to the Trois Rivières was a fur-tradiog station Hurons, had proved a disastrous failure. containing twenty-five houses, enclosed

66

with a square palisade. In 1665 the Up- French Canadians is a striking feature in per Town of Quebec on the promontory their early history. Like the New En. consisted almost entirely of ecclesiastical gland settlers, they believed that they had buildings, the Church of Notre Dame, the special claims to providential interven. Hôtel Dieu, the Ursulide Convent, where tions and mysterious tokens, because, to Mother Mary of the locarnation ruled her their excited imaginations, the fiends of pupils and her nuns, the buildings and hell were leagued io baffle their enterprise. church of the Jesuits, and Laval's semi- Miracles abounded; the Sulpitians vied nary. The stone-and-timber-built chateau with the Jesuits in their production. In of St. Louis, “the sénéchaussée, or court. 1658 portents and prodigies heralded the house, the tavern of one Jacques Bois impending invasion of Quebec by the Irodon on the square near the church, and quois. A blazing canoe sailed across the a few houses along the line of what is now sky; the air was alive with confused cries St. Louis Street, comprise nearly all the and lamentations; a voice of thunder civil part of the Upper Town." In the sounded from mid-heaven. Awful signs square, markets were held on Tuesdays preceded the great earthquake of 1663, and Fridays. In the midst of the Lower which came as a chastisement to the colTown stood the magazine of the Company, ony for its drunkenness. A globe of flame with its two round towers and two project issued from the moon and disappeared ing wings. It was here that all the beaver- behind the mountain above Montreal with skins of the colony were collected, as a noise as loud as a cannon. Blazing ser. sorted, and shipped for France.” Smoking peots borne on wings of fire lighted up was forbidden in the streets, for the the night; voices sounded through the wooden roofs and fronts of the houses, forest, proclaiming Strange things will and the piles of cordwood and hay by bappen to-day; the earth will quake!” wbich they were surrounded, exposed the four furious demons were seen shaking town to constant risk of fire. Above and the four corners of Quebec, and were only below Quebec were a few outlying cabios restrained from reducing it to ruins by “a built by the more adventurous settlers. person of admirable majesty and ravish

Severance from civilized life and the ing beauty," who appeared in the midst of Old World fostered in the Canadian set them. The Jesuits set forth on their mistlers a sense of their dependence. Like sions to attack the demons in their very their mediæval ancestors, they felt the stronghold; and the same feeling was enweakness of man and the strength of God, couraged in the colonists. The Iroquois realized without an effort that invisible were regarded as the myrmidons of Satan; world which advancing civilization de those who died in battle for Mary and her stroys. Maoy of the ships which left divine son were secure of Paradise. The France for Canada sailed from St. Malo; Catholics were the fold of Christ ; their and not a few of the colonists were Bret- wars were crusades against the powers of ods, whose intense piety was colored by evil. The island of Montreal was the the wild superstitions which are recorded property of the Virgin Mary; its defend. in the “Grand Insulaire et Pilotage ” of ers were enrolled in a military fraternity André Thevet, and which, as M. Souves- as "soldiers of the Holy Family of Jesus, tre has told_us, are yet cherished by Mary, aod Joseph.” The outlying reles dernicrs Bretons. Intensely ignorant, doubts on the skirts of the settlement they were instructed by priests scarcely were called by the names of saints; the less superstitious than themselves. It is largest was the redoubt of the Infant creditable to their spiritual rulers that no Jesus. Tracy's expedition against the witches were discovered in Canada, and Iroquois in 1666 started on the day of that the colony was free from “ New En, the Exaltation of the Cross, for whose gland tragedies.” But in a different direc. glory,” adds the chronicler, “it was untion their imaginations were wrought upon dertaken.” The soldiers were made to by their physical surroundings. Carrying understand that the war was waged for their lives in their hands, ever encounter the glory of God and the salvation of souls. ing fresh wonders of nature, which seemed Five hundred bore scapularies of the Holy to render impossibilities possible, the Virgin. Canadians saw and heard around them Like the faith of the Puritans, their re.

ligious enthusiasm, heightened by the Calling shapes and beck’ning shadows dire, And airy tongues that syllable men's names,

proximity of earthly and unearthly danOn sands and shores and desert wilderness.

gers, grew stern and sombre. The appal.

ling severity of Canadian winters seemed This incessant supernaturalism of the to freeze up its founts of gentleness. It was

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alloyed with a bigotry scarcely less harsh | The Jesuits accepted his authority, but than that described in “The Scarlet Leto prepared to supersede it with that of their ter.” The atmosphere of colonial life was own representative. Their influeoce at charged with gloom. The parti dévot de court was great, and Anne of Austria nounced costly apparel, feasts, balls, plays, invited them to nominate a bishop. Forlate dinners, low-necked dresses, and knots bidden by the rules of their order to of ribbons, with a severity less congenial choose a bishop from their own body, their to the mirth-loving Frenchman than to choice in 1659 fell on François Xavier the grim and acrid elders of Salem. The Laval de Montmorency, Abbé de MonJesuits had established an loquisition tigny. Highly reputed for his sanctity, “worse than that of Spain." Not content rich, nobly born, supported by the Jesuits, with the confessional, they associated the and a permanent official, in some degree women and girls of Quebec into a “con independent of the crown, “the modest gregation of the Holy Family,” under a Levite," as his biographers call bim, be. vow to tell every good or evil deed they came the first power in Canada. He knew of every person of their acquaint. belonged to the family of the famous con

La Hontan complains that he could stable, the premier baron chrétien, whose pot go on a pleasure party, nor play a son Henry was the compère of Henry of game of cards, nor visit the ladies, with. Navarre, and whose grandson was exout being publicly attacked from the pul- ecuted by Louis XIII. From his youth pit. He bitterly laments the destruction Laval had renounced the world. He re. of his copy of Petronius, which was ceived the tonsure when he was nine expurgated by a zealous curé. Masquer- years old. Now, at the age of thirty-six, aders were excommunicated; the priests he was living in the Hermitage of Caen, forced themselves into private houses, a society founded to detect and extirpate carried off and whipped women who had Jansenism. At the Hermitage, Laval's been to a ball or worn a mask. At Montreal the Sulpitians built a house in which ordinary occupations were prayer, mortifica. they shut up girls who caused scandal by readings or conferences; his recreations were

tion, instruction of the poor, and spiritual their love of amusement. The Huguenot to labor in the hospitals, wait upon the sick merchants of Rochelle were forbidden to and poor, make their beds, dress their wounds, exercise their religion, and could not win. and aid them in their most repulsive needs. ter in the colony without a license. No Yet, though living at this time in a state sooner did a ship arrive in the river than of habitual religious exaltation, he was by she was boarded by the Jesuits, who con nature no mere dreamer ; and in whatever verted the heretics. So complete was the heights his spirit might wander, his feet were ascendency of the Jesuits that when Louis always planted on the solid earth. His flaming XIV. empowered the governor Denon-zeal had for its servants a hard, practical na ville to imprison heretics or quarter the ture, perfectly fitted for the battle of life, a soldiery upon them, he replied, “ There is and, as his enemies thought, the love of dom

narrow intellect, a stiff and persistent will, not a heretic here."

ination native to his blood. United, the colonists could hardly make

Several portraits of Laval are extant, A head against their common foe. But their drooping nose of portentous size; a wellinternal dissensions were bitter. Mont formed forehead ; a brow strongly arched, a real claimed independence of Quebec; bright, clear eye; scanty hair, halt hidden by a Jesuits' contended with Sulpitians, Ultra- black skull-cap; thin lips, compressed and montanes with Gallicans; Church and rigid, betraying a spirit not easy to move or State were at open feud. The chief root convince; features of that indescribable cast of dissensions lay in the determination of which mark the priestly type ; such is Laval, the Jesuits to exált the Church above the as he looks grimly down on us froin the dingy State. In their quarrel with the Sulpi- pp. 94-95, 104–5.)

canvas of two centuries ago. (Old Régime, tians, they had right on their side. For thirty years they had themselves consti Laval came out to New France as the tuted the Canadian Church; they had en- creature of the papacy. The concordat of dured privations and martyrdoms; the Bologna was evaded on the plea that“ Canvery existence of the colony was due to ada, a country of infidel savages, was under their efforts. But the seminary of St. papal jurisdiction.”. He was appointed Sulpice, now in charge of Montreal, as the pope's vicar-apostolic for Canada, pired to give Canada a bishop from their with the title of Bishop of Petræa in brotherhood. They induced the Arch. Arabia. It was not till 1674 that he was bishop of Rouen to appoint Queylus, one made Bishop of Quebec. His aim through. of their body, his vicar-general in Canada. out was to assert the authority of the Church, which was lodged in himself. As possessions of their order. No longer a Catholic, a priest, and a man, he was paramount in the settled portions of the irresistibly drawn to the side of centraliza- colony, they turned to the unexplored tion and absolutism. Different views may west, where they strove to reproduce the be held of his policy, but to him, as the Utopias of Paraguay, from which other founder of the greater and lesser semina. white men were excluded. Under these ries, designed for the instruction of a circumstances, the decline of ecclesiasti.

nadian priesthood, and of the far cal authority was accelerated by the comschool of St. Joachim, supplying technical pleteness of its previous triumph. Though education, Canada unquestionably owes a a pious Catholic, Louis XIV. was not the deep debt of gratitude. He acquired sovereign to endure a spiritual despotism; large tracts of land, and among them the successes of Laval proved Pyrrhic Beaupré, with which he endowed his edu- victories. Temporal interests and civil cational establishments. From the reve. power gained the ascendency; forts took pues of this endowment, the greater and the place of missions. By the side of and lesser seminaries are still supported; and above the bishop stood the governor and from the same source was founded the the intendant, the three representing the Laval University, which commemorates threefold monopoly of religion, governhis name. On the existing ecclesiastical ment, and trade. Every outlying station system he has also left his mark. His had its commandant, its storekeeper, and despotic temper insisted that the Cana. its priest. dian curé should, unlike his French Under Colbert's vigorous administra. brother, be removable at the will of the tion, the home government awoke to the bishop not a fixture in his parish, but a potential value of Canada. D'Avaugour, missionary, coming and going at the bid. whose dismissal Laval had procured, was ding of his superior. Louis XIV. yielded a shrewd, energetic soldier. After bis the point with reluctance, but the system recall, he addressed to Colbert a memothus established still characterizes the rial upon the colony, which produced a Canadian priesthood.

strong impression at court: lotolerant of divided authority, Laval

“The St. Lawrence,” he says, “is the enat once asserted his ecclesiastical suprem-trance to what may be made the greatest state acy by shipping Queylus off to France. in the world ;” and in his purely military way A conflict with the governor, D'Argenson, he recounts the means of realizing this great and the civil power speedily followed. possibility. Three thousand soldiers should The points in dispute appeared trivial; in be sent to the colony, to be discharged and reality they involved the subordination of turned into settlers after three years of service. tbe State io the Church. So intolerable During these three years they may make Que. grew the friction that D'Argenson, partly bec an impregnable fortress, subdue the iro. through Laval's influence, was recalled. quois, build a strong fort on the river where His successor, D'Avaugour, met with the Fort Orange (Albany), and finally open a way

the Dutch have a miserable redoubt, called same fate at the instance of the bishop.by that river to the sea. Thus the heretics The next governor, Saffray de Mézy, was will be driven out, and the King will be master selected by Laval; but, before the lapse of America, at a total cost of about four hun. of a year, bis patron had procured his dred thousand francs yearly for ten years. (Old peremptory dismissal. Within six years Régime, p. 129.) Laval had made one governor, and over. thrown three. He had exemplified the bert's Schemes for the expansion of

D'Avaugour's advice coincided with Col. truth of a saying, imputed to him. by France. By an edict of May, 1664, Louis D'Argenson, “ A bishop may do what he XIV. created the Company of the West likes.'

Indies, modelled upon the great trading But before the fall of Mézy the third

corporations of Holland. To the Com. period of Canadian history had commenced. By the failure of the Jesuit mis. pany of the West were transferred sions the dream of a theocratic empire Western Africa from Cape Verd to the Cape was dispelled. Religion could not subdue of Good Hope, South America between the the Iroquois; military force was impera- tilles, and all New France, from Hudson's Bay

Amazon and the Orinoco, Cayenne, the Antively needed to save the colony fron de. struction. The Jesuits recognized the to Virginia and Florida, to be held of the

Crown on the simple condition of faith and changed situation. They labored with homage. As, according to the edict, the glory the same devotion, though for a different of God was the chief object in view, the Coin. object. They no longer sought to found pany was required to supply its possessions a Christian kingdom, but to extend the I with a sufficient number of priests, and dili. gently to exclude all teachers of false doctrine. sailed for France, leaving to Courcelle and (old Régime, p. 174.)

Talon the task of ruling and organizing The king exercised the right of nominat- the colony. ing the rulers of his American dominions. At the moment of their triumph it is In November, 1663, the Marquis de Tracy curious to mark the shadow of coming was appointed lieutenant governor of conflict thrown across the path of the North and South America, and in March, French. Nicholls, governor of New York, 1665, Daniel de Rémy, Sieur de Cour. tried hard to persuade the New England celle, and Jean-Baptiste Talon were sent colonists to combine and attack the out as governor and intendant of New French on their homeward march. If, France. On June 30, 1665, Tracy landed he urged, Tracy's forces were destroyed, at Quebec, attended by a gorgeous retinue. the conquest of Canada would be easy. His magnificence contrasted strangely New Amsterdam passed into the hands with the dilapidated appearance of colo- of England two years before Tracy's ex. nial surroundings. Laval, who awaiced pedition. Mrs. Lamb's voluminous hishim at Notre Dame in full pontificals, tory of New York contains a very careful attended by priests and Jesuits, alone account of the transaction, and of the vied with him in the externals of power. events by which it was preceded. Henry Throughout the season of 1665, soldiers, Hudson was employed in 1609 by the settlers, young women for wives, in all Dutch East India Company to discover a about two thousand persons, and horses, short passage to Asia. He reached Mansheep, and cattle in abundance were land. battan Island, and sailed up the river, ed at the royal charges. “At length,” which was called after him, as far as Al writes Mother Jucherau, “our joy was bany. Boundary disputes at once arose completed by the arrival of two vessels, between England and Holland. with Monsieur de Courcelle, our govern, The Dutch statesmen claimed that they had or, Monsieur Talon, our inteodant, and discovered the Hudson River in 1609; that the last companies of the regiment of some of their people had returned there in Carignan."

1610; that a specific trading charter had been The object of Tracy's visit was to crush granted in 1614; that a fort and garrison had the Iroquois. For this purpose he had been maintained there until the formation, in at his disposal a body of regular troops, 1623, of the West India Company, which had the first which had been sent to Canada, since occupied the country; and great stress veterans of the Fronde and Turkish wars, was laid on the purchase of the land from its under the command of Colonel de Sa: claims upon the discovery of America by

aboriginal owners. The English based their lières. The season was too far advanced Cabot, and upon the patents granted by James for military operations. It was not till 1. They declared that the Indians were not the following year that Tracy set out on bonâ fide possessors of the soil, and that, even his expedition, crossed Lake Champlain, if they were, they could not give a legal title threaded the Narrows, and landed where unless all of them jointly contracted with the Fort William Henry was afterwards built. purchaser. They kindly offered to allow the Between the French and the nearest Mo. Dutch to remain in New Netherland if they hawk town lay one hundred miles of rough would submit themselves to the English Gove marching. Six hundred regulars, six hun ernment; otherwise they would not be per. dred Canadians, and one hundred friendly importance as New England.” (History of

initted “to encroach upon a colony of such Indians as scouts, composed the force. the City of New York, pp. 64-5.) All were full of enthusiasm. “It seems to them,” wrote Mother Mary, “that they In 1664, Charles and his ministers de. are going to lay siege to Paradise, and termined to seize New Netherland. Clar. win it, and enter in, because they are endon affixed the seal to a patent by which fighting for religion and the faith.” With the king granted to the Duke of York the out opposition they captured the five Mo- whole of the Dutch colony. James fitted hawk towns, burnt the houses, destroyed out an expedition "under the command of the stores of corn and food; Te Deums Colonel Robert Nicholls, the groom of his were sung, masses said; the cross, and bedchamber, who was also commissioned by its side the royal arms, were planted; as governor of the yet uopossessed terri. the troops shouted “Vive le roi !” and tory.” The Dutch were wholly unprecominenced their return. The expedition pared when the English fleet arrived. struck a heavy blow at the power of the Stuyvesant, the governor, was compelled Iroquois; for iwenty years peace endured to surrender; and on September 6, 1664, without an open rupture. Tracy's work signed the articles of capitulation. “The was done. With his glittering train he Dutch citizens were guaranteed security

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